Canopy management mature orchard management methods utilised in south africa - alwyn du preez


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Canopy management mature orchard management methods utilised in south africa - alwyn du preez

  1. 1. Canopy Management Alwyn du Preez Technical / Horticultural Advisor Golden Macadamias
  2. 2. Canopy Management• Why?• Which factors to take into account?• How?• When? 6th International Macadamia Symposium
  3. 3. Why?• Consistent production – Maintaining bearing capacity – Light interception• Pest Control – Stinkbug damage – Nutborer / False Codling Moth 6th International Macadamia Symposium
  4. 4. Challenges• Tree spacing – before the 90’s wide spacing 9-10m X 5-6m – 90’s and 2000’s high density planting. 2.5-5 X 4.5-8m. The Big Challenge: Management of the different tree spacing!• Different regions – Coast more windy• Reproductive / vegetative balance• Timing - Pruning program - post harvest• Cash flow / Return 6th International Macadamia Symposium
  5. 5. Older plantings Spacing: 9-10m X 5-6mMostly No central leaderNot over grown - simple pruning• Selective cuts – 1 to 3 big cuts Greatest amount of wood with the fewest cuts• Shoulder and ToppingOvergrown orchards – Bigger cuts• Have to get regrowth at the base• Leave branches to bear fruit• Re-activation of unproductive inside• Experimentation 6th International Macadamia Symposium
  6. 6. Older plantings Spacing: 6 -8m X 3-5mOvergrown but no height problem• Cut rows open• Cutting shoulders / toppingTopping – 2 to 3 year project• Stimulate regrowth lower downOvergrown plus height problem• Top trees - first• Cut rows open• Work to “Christmas tree” shape 6th International Macadamia Symposium
  7. 7. Medium density Spacing: 6 -8m X 3-5mWell maintained orchards• 1.8 - 2 m tractor row width• Height reachable with spray equipment• “Christmas tree” shape• Simple recipe for labourers• Remove every 2nd tree in the row6m x 3m very intense - pruning annuallyTree row removal in some casesOdd spacing 12m x 3m ? 6th International Macadamia Symposium
  8. 8. High Density Spacing: 2.5-5m X 4.5-5m• Top working to better cultivars• Transplanting• Tree removal 6th International Macadamia Symposium
  9. 9. Controlling Re-growth• A big part of the purpose of Pruning is lost if there is no effective follow up• Break out the new growth by hand• Timing – Dec and Jan• Flush must not be too thick and hard to remove• Topping - cleaning out everything at cut• Lower side branches- do selective removals – Remove water shoots – Small “spur branches “ bear nuts 6th International Macadamia Symposium
  10. 10. EquipmentPole pruners Hand sawsChainsaws Pneumatic pruner 6th International Macadamia Symposium
  11. 11. Central leader• Pruning when trees are young - easier and cheaper 6th International Macadamia Symposium
  12. 12. Thank you