Math based product design in cad using biomechanics for comfort in car seats

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The presentation shows the current process of interior auto design followed by all manufacturers. A change with the addition of human body models for seat and interior design is needed. The auto industry has locked into an old expensive process that is unreliable. The addition of math CAD design tools described in this presentation will bring this process into the 21st Century.

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Math based product design in cad using biomechanics for comfort in car seats

  1. 1. Math-based Product Design in CAD using Biomechanics for Comfort in Car Seats ERL LLC October 25, 2011
  2. 2. Can you imagine a car designed without wheels for the road?2 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  3. 3. Then, how are cars designed without people sitting in the seats?3 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  4. 4. A feeling of seated comfort for all drivers begins with • good vision of the road; • easy reach to controls; • sitting in their preferred back posture.4 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  5. 5. A Typical Result from the Current Process Real female driver after driving a car says: “Cushion- a little long, pressing against my knees; Head rest- a little hard to move, orientation bad; Too close to steering wheel; Back rest lateral too low and are pushing my arms”5 ERL LLC US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,138 10/25/2011
  6. 6. Root causes of these problems come from anold design process that relies upon: 1.Core focus on package design without seat; 2.Subjective feedback near end of development; 3.One back posture in design process; 4.One design for driving USA interstates.6 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  7. 7. First The current design process begins with Oscar in Design Position; seat travel, eye position and reach are statistical models relative to Oscar in Design Position.7 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  8. 8. Then Safety establishes design criteria for head restraint (FMVSS 202a) and child seat anchor latch (FMVSS 225) with Oscar in Design Position.8 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  9. 9. And Safety Styling develops seat appearance from experience and Oscar in Design Position.9 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  10. 10. Safety And Styling Ergonomics evaluates reach and vision with math models based on Oscar in Design Position.10 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  11. 11. Safety And Styling Ergonomics Seat Engineering manages seat design with Oscar in Design Position11 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  12. 12. Next Safety Supplier builds Styling prototype seat for Oscar’s Design Ergonomics Position and driving Seat Eng. tests for driver comfort.12 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  13. 13. Last Safety Drivers Styling test seat near Ergonomics end of vehicle development. Seat Eng.13 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  14. 14. Solution to this design process problem: Add virtual people to decades old “Oscar” system with objective, optimizedmath-based design in CAD at start of vehicle design.14 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  15. 15. Virtual people at the beginning of vehicle development will design the seats and evaluate effects of safety, styling, ergonomics and seat engineering on everyone’s comfort!15 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  16. 16. Virtual people define comfort objectively. US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,13816 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  17. 17. Safety, Styling, Ergonomics,Math model and Seat Engineering share the math-based virtual tools for work on optimal design of the car interior.17 ERL LLC US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,138 10/25/2011
  18. 18. Virtual drivers’ seat design model defines seating specifications for suppliers!18 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  19. 19. Safety, Styling, Supplier buildsMath model Ergonomics and seat for population and Seat Engineering objective comfort tests. US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,13819 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  20. 20. US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,138 Safety, Styling, Ergonomics and Supplier Real driversMath model Seat Engineering builds seat confirm comfort!20 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  21. 21. The current design process without drivers in the seat began in the 1960s when 3D math for CAD, computers, biomechanics, and ergonomics were in their infancy.21 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  22. 22. The auto culture has locked into “Oscar,” use of statistics, and Departmentof Transportation Regulations with 1960s process. “Oscar” (1965) US Patent #3,147,617 DOT (1967) (1964) NHTSA (1970)22 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  23. 23. Today, best-in-class engineering processes rely on robust math systems.23 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  24. 24. Math tools available since 1980s but only ERLdesigns & evaluates the seat, package and comfort. Package Seat Seat Comfort Design Tools Design Design Evaluation Score SAE (1960s-present) YES No No No JACK (1980s) YES No No (YES)¹ SAFEWORK (1980s) YES No No (YES)¹ RAMSIS (1990s) YES No No (YES)¹ MADYMO (1990s) No No (YES)² No PAM Comfort (2000s) No No (YES)² (YES)² ERL (2000s) YES YES YES YES ¹Joint angle comfort only. ²Pressure distribution evaluation only.24 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  25. 25. Elements of a math-based model for use at start of vehicle development.  Virtual human body models  Biomechanical seat design model  Optimization Software and CAD display  Comfort score of interior25 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  26. 26. Virtual human body models: Nine Small to Large “drivers” in different back postures Small Female (>5th %) Medium Male (±50th %) Large Male (>95th %) Erect NeutralSlumped US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,13826 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  27. 27. Globally, body sizes range from a small woman to a large man.27 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  28. 28. Drivers use back postures to get vision, reach and position comfort!28 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  29. 29. Globally, drivers sit more alert when driving conditions are challenging! Erect Posture Culture & Weather US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,13829 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  30. 30. Globally, drivers relax when the driving conditions are easy! Slumped Posture Interstate/Autobahn US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,13830 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  31. 31. As a result, seat and package design must fit a variety of normal back postures. Lumbar Chest ERECT US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,138 J. S. Milne & I. J. Lauder, Annals of Human Biology, 1974 1(3):327-337. Slumped31 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  32. 32. Small drivers sit upright to raise their eye heightfor good vision but often sit too close to the airbag! Erect Neutral Slumped US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,13832 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  33. 33. Medium sized drivers sit for comfortablereach to controls and prefer a neutral back posture! Erect Neutral Slumped US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,13833 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  34. 34. Large drivers often sit slumped to keep theirhead from hitting the roof but want more leg room! Erect Neutral Slumped US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,13834 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  35. 35. Oscar is the 10th “driver” and he is used in Federal Regulations to represent the “driver” for safety. Head Restraint Measurement Device (HRMD) added for FMVSS 202a35 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  36. 36. Virtual Drivers are used to design for ergonomics, comfort, safety & Regulations! Small Female (>5th %) Medium Male (±50th %) Large Male (>95th %) Erect Vision & SRS Safety Posture & Neutral Controls Federal Headroom & Reach Regulations Seat TravelSlumped36 ERL LLC US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,138 10/25/2011
  37. 37. With the change from large to small energy efficient cars, space in the vehicle must be designed for the population!37 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  38. 38. As cars grow smaller, body size becomes critical. Small Driver & Large Passenger Large Driver & Small Passenger38 ERL LLC US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,138 10/25/2011
  39. 39. Biomechanical model is used to design sitting surfaces for all driving postures and passenger positions.39 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  40. 40. Biomechanical seat design model Everyone wants same Contact & Support in seat. C Head C Shoulder S Chest C S S Lumbar S C Buttocks Thigh Pelvis40 ERL LLC US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,138 10/25/2011
  41. 41. Everyone, worldwide, has same skeletal anatomy for biomechanical sitting model. Chest Vertebrae Lumbar Vertebrae Pelvis Reynolds, H. M., Brodeur, R. R., and Aljundi, S. SAE 2001-01- 0393: DOI 10 4271/2001-01-0393, In: Human Factors in Automotive Design (SP-1591). SAE, Warrendale, PA, 2001.41 ERL LLC US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, # 7,797,138 10/25/2011
  42. 42. All ERL virtual models have seated tissue shapes to design seat for contact & support. Seated Tissue Shapes Brodeur, R. R. and Reynolds, H. M. SAE 2001-01- 2106;DOI 100 4271/2001-01-2106, Digital Human Modeling Conference, Washington, D.C., 200142 US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, # 7,797,138 10/25/2011
  43. 43. Experience in engineering committees manages thousands of dimensions for driver and passenger comfort.43 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  44. 44. ERL Optimization Software supports Experience Optimize thousands of dimensions for driver & passenger!Controls Package Seat Driver & PassengersDesign Position & Track Material Properties (Stiffness) Population (Small to Large)SeatTravel Windows Seat Centerline, Insert & Wings Joint Angles (Comfort)IP, Mirror & Headliner Head Restraint, Lumbar & Cushion Length Seat (Biomechanics model)Accelerator Meat-to-Metal & Manufacturability Controls: Contact with hand or footSteering Wheel Frame: Size, Adjusters & Recliners Vision: Downward & Upward Sight Lines4,744 Dimensions 860 Dimensions 2,518 Dimensions44 ERL LLC US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, # 7,797,138 10/25/2011
  45. 45. Real drivers comment in market surveys but virtual drivers explain discomfort!45 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  46. 46. CAD Display ERL Comfort Viewer and Report Real Female Driver says: “Cushion- a little long, pressing against my knees; Head rest- a little hard to move; orientation bad; Too close to steering wheel; Back rest lateral too low and are pushing my arms” Virtual Female Driver outputs: Cushion too long; Head restraint too close; SW too close; Seatback wings wide; Cushion wide; Pedal too far46 ERL LLC US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,138 10/25/2011
  47. 47. With virtual drivers in design at vehicle conception, manufacturer knows comfort years before J D Powers releases survey results.47 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  48. 48. Comfort Scores ERL and drivers’ comfort scores have high correlation (r=0.8) Small Full Mid Mid Compact Entry Prem. Vehicle Segment Sport Size Utility Sedan X over Utility Sedan Sedan UtilityERLVirtual Score 4.3 4.5 4.2 3.9 4.4 4.5 4.3 Small Female 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.6 Medium Male 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.0 4.6 4.8 4.5 Large Male 3.6 4.4 4.1 3.6 3.9 4.4 4.2 Drivers’ Score² 4.0 4.1 4.1 3.6 3.9 4.5 3.9J D Power APEAL¹ 4.5 4.3 --- 4.3 4.1 4.5 4.4 ¹Survey of drivers who purchased vehicle and returned survey (5 pt scale) ²Drivers’ subjective rating average comfort score after 2 hr. drive (5 pt scale).48 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  49. 49. Comfort Score Formula Comfort (Seat + Package) – Joint Angle Penalties  Seat: Cushion and Seatback  Length and Height  Stiffness  Support  Wing Support  Lumbar Support  Head Restraint  Packaging  Line of sight vision  Track angle  Seat travel  Head room  Joint Angles Penalties  Head/Neck angles (Head Restraint)  Hip angle (Seat Centerline Shape)  Elbow & Knee angles (Controls Reach)49 ERL LLC US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,138 10/25/2011
  50. 50. Advantages of using virtual people in seat at start of vehicle development: 1) Reduces time and cost of engineering design and development; 2) Seat design fits market for global car interior; 3) Improves customer satisfaction with vehicle.50 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  51. 51. Safety Advantage for seat and driver. Comfortable Head Restraint meets FMVSS 202a! Airbag (SRS) is not too close to small driver! Passengers do not sit on child seat latch anchor US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,138 (FMVSS 225)!51 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  52. 52. Styling Advantage for Design Mannequin “If Design Center wishes for Dress to be responsible for Dress for surface development of Woman seat systems on future programs, designers and sculptors will need a tool to gather reliable comfort information and to insure consistent, transferable learnings.” (Quote from anMath provides size & Automotive Industrial Designer) shape of seat for Stylist ERL LLC US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,138 10/25/201152
  53. 53. Ergonomics Advantage for Driver Virtual Score: 3.4/5.0 Virtual Score: 4.0/5.0 Cushion 2.7 Cushion 4.0 Seatback 3.2 Seatback 3.7 Package 3.7 Package 4.3 US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,138 Current Production Vehicle  Virtual Design for Driver53 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  54. 54. Seat Engineering Advantage for OEM Maximize shared use of parts in all vehicles US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, #7,797,138 300.00 Chest Patch Stiffness Objective 250.00 200.00 specifications for seat Force (N) 150.00 Benchmark Stiffness Lower Bound contract with suppliers 100.00 50.00 Upper Bound ERLRUN Stiffness 0.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Displacement (mm)54 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  55. 55. Financial Advantages in Expenses & Sales Greater global acceptance of interior design. Reduce engineering design and development time. Increase shared use of parts, Reduce seat supplier expense (fewer iterations), Faster time to market, Corporate memory in personnel and math,55 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  56. 56. Only ERL includes seat, package and comfort. Package Seat Seat Comfort Design Tools Design Design Evaluation Score SAE YES No No No RAMSIS YES No No (YES)¹ SAFEWORK (CATIA) YES No No (YES)¹ JACK (UG) YES No No (YES)¹ PAM Comfort No No (YES)² (YES)² MADYMO No No (YES)² No ERL YES YES YES YES ¹Joint angle comfort only. ²Pressure distribution evaluation only.56 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  57. 57. Virtual drivers in the design at thestart of vehicle development brings success. ERL LLC US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, # 7,797,13857 10/25/2011
  58. 58. “We all sit comfortably in the car!” ERL LLC US Patents: #6,840,125, #7,047,831, #7,347,114, # 7,797,13858 10/25/2011
  59. 59. ERL Business Model  Deliverables  Interior Package Design  Interior Package Evaluation  Benchmark Interior Package Evaluation  Price as negotiated for Deliverables  Design & evaluation service supplied by ERL LLC  License Software & Hardware from ERL LLC  Optimizer (optimization algorithm for interior package design)  Viewer (integrated with CAD package)  Stiffness measurement tools for benchmarking  Training in Optimizer (Design and Evaluation) and Viewer59 ERL LLC 10/25/2011
  60. 60. Thanks for your time and interest! For additional information: Go to www.erlllc.com or Contact ERL LLC at reynolds@erlllc.com60 ERL LLC 10/25/2011

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