History of india


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Introduction from ancient history to modern history of India

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History of india

  1. 1. India <ul><li>India never invaded any country in her last 10,000 years of history. </li></ul>It is the only society in the world which has never known slavery. India was the richest country on Earth until the time of the British in the early 17th Century Robert Clive’s personal wealth amassed from the blunder of Bengal during 1750’s was estimated at around £401,102 It has been estimated that the total amount of treasure that the British looted from India had already reached £1,000,000,000 (£1Billion) by 1901. Taking into consideration interest rates and inflation this would be worth close to $1,000,000,000,000 ($1Trillion) in real-terms today.
  2. 2. <ul><li>Vedic Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Indus & Saraswati Civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Jainism and Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Mauryan Period </li></ul><ul><li>Golden Age of Indian Arts & Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim Invasions </li></ul><ul><li>The Mughal Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese Invasion </li></ul><ul><li>The British East-India Company </li></ul><ul><li>The British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>India's Freedom Struggle </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Modern India 2020 Vision </li></ul>A Brief History of Time
  3. 3. India <ul><li>India invented the Number System. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta . The place value system, the decimal system was developed in India in 100 BC. </li></ul><ul><li>Aryabhatta was the first to explain spherical shape, size ,diameter, rotation and correct speed of Earth in 499 AD. </li></ul><ul><li>The World's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. Students from all over the World studied more than 60 subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education. </li></ul><ul><li>Sanskrit is considered the mother of all higher languages. Sanskrit is the most precise, and therefore suitable language for computer software - a report in Forbes magazine , July 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans. Charaka, the father of medicine consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Today Ayurveda is fast regaining its rightful place in civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher Columbus was attracted India's wealth and was looking for route to India when he discovered the American continent by mistake. </li></ul><ul><li>The art of Navigation was born in the river Sindh 6000 years ago. The word ‘Navigation’ is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH. The word navy is also derived from Sanskrit 'Nou'. </li></ul><ul><li>In Siddhanta Siromani (Bhuvanakosam 6) Bhaskaracharya II described about gravity of earth about 400 years before Sir Isaac Newton. He also had some clear notions on differential calculus, and the Theory of Continued Fraction. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Languages of India </li></ul>Hindi Sanskrit Tamil Gujarati Urdu Punjabi Malayalam Bengali Marathi Konkani Kannada Assamese Telegu Oriya Rajasthani
  5. 5. Vedic Philosophy The Vedas are the oldest written text on our planet today. They date back to the beginning of Indian civilization and are the earliest literary records of the human mind. They have been passed through oral tradition for over 10,000 years, and first appeared in written form between 2500 - 5,000 years ago. Veda means “Knowledge” in Sanskrit.
  6. 6. The Ancient Vedic Hymns Rig Veda - Knowledge of Hymns, 10,859 verses “ There is only one truth, only men describe it in different ways.“ Yajur Veda - Knowledge of Liturgy, 3,988 verses Sama Veda - Knowledge of Classical Music, 1,549 verses Ayur Veda - Knowledge of Medicine, over 100,000 verses Upanishads Jyotisha – Astrology and Astronomy. Kalpa – Rituals and Legal matters. Siksha – Phonetics. Aitareya – Creation of the Universe, Man and Evolution. Chandogya – Reincarnation, Soul. Kaushitaki – Karma. Kena – Austerity, Work, and Restraint. Dharnur Veda – Science of Archery and War. Mundaka – Discipline, Faith and warning of Ignorance. Sulba Sutra – Knowledge of Mathematics Yoga Sutra - Knowledge of Meditation Kama Sutra - Knowledge of Love and Sex
  7. 7. Sanskrit ( संस्कृत ) Sanskrit was the classical language of India, older than Hebrew and Latin. It is the oldest, most scientific, systematic language in the world. It became the language of all cultured people in India and in the countries that were influenced by India. Sanskrit literally means “refined” or “perfected” Sanskrit word English meaning Sanskrit meaning matar pitar bhratar svasar gyaamti trikonamiti dvaar ma naman smi eka mother papa / father brother sister geometry trigonometry door me name smile equal 'measuring the earth’ 'measuring triangular forms‘ ‘ first person pronoun’ ‘ the same’
  8. 8. India <ul><li>Theory of Continued Fraction was discovered by Bhaskaracharya II. </li></ul><ul><li>Indians discovered Arithmetic and Geometric progression . Arithmetic progression is explained in Yajurveda. </li></ul><ul><li>Govindaswamin discovered Newton Gauss Interpolation formula about 1800 years before Newton. </li></ul><ul><li>Vateswaracharya discovered Newton Gauss Backward Interpolation formula about 1000 years before Newton. </li></ul><ul><li>Parameswaracharya discovered Lhuiler’s formula about 400 years before Lhuiler. </li></ul><ul><li>Nilakanta discovered Newton’s Infinite Geometric Progression convergent series. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive and Negative numbers and their calculations were explained first by Brahmagupta in his book Brahmasputa Siddhanta. </li></ul><ul><li>Aryabhatta also propounded the Heliocentric theory of gravitation , thus predating Copernicus by almost one thousand years. </li></ul><ul><li>Madhavacharya discovered Taylor series of Sine and Cosine function about 250 years before Taylor. </li></ul><ul><li>Madhavacharya discovered Newton Power series. </li></ul><ul><li>Madhavacharya discovered Gregory Leibnitz series for the Inverse Tangent about 280 years before Gregory. </li></ul><ul><li>Madhavacharya discovered Leibnitz power series for pi about 300 years before Leibnitz. </li></ul><ul><li>Bhaskaracharya calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. Time taken by earth to orbit the sun: (5th century) 365.258756484 days </li></ul><ul><li>Infinity was well known for ancient Indians. Bhaskaracharya II in Beejaganitha(stanza-20) has given clear explanation with examples for infinity </li></ul>
  9. 9. Similarities to Greek mythology Hercules (Herakles) fighting the Lernaean Hydra Krishna (Harekrsna) fighting the Kaliya Serpent
  10. 10. Similarities to Greek mythology Dionysus (Dionysos) holding a Trident Shiva , holding the Trident, resting on a leopard skin with a Cobra perched beside him, his abode is Mount Kailas, Himalayas Dionysus (Dionysos) encircled with a snake, with leopard by his side, with the moon in the background, his abode is Mount Olympus
  11. 11. Similarities to Biblical mythology The ancient Vedic Aryan Hindus (Indus Saraswati) spoke about a series of Ten Pitris who ruled before the global Flood. Ancient Babylonian legend speaks of a pre-Flood series of ten kings. The ancient Egyptians described Ten Shining Ones who ruled consecutively before the Deluge. The last of these kings in the aforementioned lists was the hero who led seven others aboard a vessel in which they survived the global Flood. In ancient India, the hero was Manu who survived the global-Flood &quot;pralaya&quot; with the Seven Rishis. In ancient Babylon, the hero's name was Zisudra who spear-headed the survival on the Ark of seven other humans, the Seven Apkallu. In ancient Egypt, the Flood hero was Toth who survived the Deluge along with the Seven Sages.
  12. 12. Did the Vedic Aryans travel as far as Easter Island? The Easter Islands located in the Pacific Ocean, were situated far away from any civilization. The craftsmanship of these islands corresponds to the one of the ancient Incas. The sign script of the Easter Islands almost equals the ancient scripts of Indus Valley. Easter Island symbols Indus Saraswati symbols Were the Ancient Vedic civilisation of Indus Saraswati valley Trans-Oceanic seafarers?
  13. 13. The Surya Siddhanta, A textbook on astronomy of ancient India, last compiled in 1000 BC, believed to be handed down from 3000 BC by aid of complex mnemonic recital methods still known today. Showed the Earth's diameter to be 7,840 miles, compared to modern measurements of 7,926.7 miles. Showed the distance between the Earth and the Moon as 253,000 miles, Compared to modern measurements of 252,710 miles.
  14. 14. India <ul><li>The value of &quot; pi &quot; was first calculated by Boudhayana , and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century long before the European mathematicians. This was ‘validated’ by British scholars in 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from India. Quadratic equations were propounded by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. </li></ul><ul><li>The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10 53 with specific names as early as 5000 BC during the Vedic period. Even today, the largest used number is Tera: 10 12 . </li></ul><ul><li>Maharshi Sushruta is the father of surgery. 2600 years ago he and health scientists of his time conducted complicated surgeries like caesareans, cataract, artificial limbs, fractures, urinary stones and even plastic surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient India. Over 125 surgical equipments were used. </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed knowledge of anatomy, physiology, aetiology, embryology, digestion, metabolism, genetics and immunity is also found in many texts. </li></ul><ul><li>When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in the Sindhu Valley Civilization. </li></ul>
  15. 15. India Brahmagupta , 630 A.D., said, the following about Gravity , “ Bodies fall towards the earth as it is in the nature of the earth to attract bodies, just as it is in the nature of water to flow&quot;.
  16. 16. <ul><li>The world famous and priceless “ Kohinoor” diamond , which is set in the Crown of the British monarch (Queen Victoria, and Elizabeth II), was acquired from India. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the Gemological Institute of America, up until 1896, India was the only source for diamonds to the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Chess (Shataranja or AshtaPada) was reportedly invented in India. </li></ul><ul><li>The game of snakes & ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called  'Mokshapat.' The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices. </li></ul>India <ul><li>RigVedas (1.50), a hymn addressed to the Sun, refers quite clearly that the Sun traverses 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesha. This is in fact refers to the speed of light. </li></ul><ul><li>The World's First Granite Temple is the Brihadeswara temple at Tanjavur in Tamil Nadu. The shikhara is made from a single '80-tonne' piece of granite. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Kalarippayat - Origin of Martial arts – 200 BC Kerala, South India, guardians of the origins of modern martial-arts, influenced by Yoga and connected to the ancient Indian sciences of war (dhanur-veda) and medicine (ayur-veda). The origin of kung-fu begins with the legend of a monk named Bodhidharma (also known as Ta Mo) who travelled from India to China around 500 A.D.
  18. 18. Manipuri Bharata Natyam Odissi Mohini Attam Kuchipudi Kathakali Kathak 7 Classical Dance forms
  19. 19. India's ancient achievements in Medical Science Knowledge Ancient Reference Modern Reference Artificial Limb RigVed (1-116-15) 20 th Century Number of Chromosomes (23) Mahabharat (5500 BCE) 1890 A.D. Combination of Male and Female Shrimad Bhagwat 20 th Century Analysis of Ears RigVed Labyrinth Beginning of the Foetal Heart Eitereya Upanishad -(6000 BCE) Robinson, 1972 Parthenogenesis Mahabharat 20 th Century Test Tube Babies ( from the ovum only) Test Tube Babies ( from the sperm only) Mahabharat Not possible yet Not possible yet Elongation of Life in confirmed Space Travel Shrimad Bhagwat Not yet Cell Division (in 3 layers) Shrimad Bhagwat 20 th Century Embryology Eitereya Upanishad (6000 BCE) 19 th Century Micro-organisms Mahabharat 18 th Century A material producing a disease can prevent or cure the disease in minute quantity S-Bhagwat (1-5-33) Haneman, 18 th Century Developing Embyro in Vitro Mahabharat 20 th Century Life in trees and plants Mahabharat Bose, 19 th Century 16 Functions of the Brain Eitereya Upanishad 19 th – 20 th Century Definition of Sleep Prashna-Upanishad Yogsootra Cunavidhi 20 th Century Chromosomes (Mahabharat)(5500 BCE) 1860 – 1910 A.D.
  20. 20. India's ancient achievements in Physical Science Knowledge Ancient Reference Modern Reference Velocity of Light RigVed - Sayan Bhashya (1400 A.D) 19 th Century Trans-Saturnean Planets Mahabharat (5500 BC) 17-19 th Century Space Travel to another solar system Shrimad Bhagwat (4000 BC) Under trials Gravitational Force (Prashnopanishad) (6000 B.C) Shankaracharya (500 B.C) 17 th Century Ultraviolet Band Sudhumravarna - (Mundakopanishad - M.U) ---- Infra-Red Band Sulohita (M.U) ---- Tachyons faster than light Manojava (Mundakopanishad) Sudarshan, 1968 Nuclear Energy Spullingini (Mundakopanishad) 20 th Century Black Holes Vishvaruchi(Mundakopanishad) 20 th Century Embryology Eitereya Upanishad (6000 BCE) 19 th Century Monsoon at Summer Solstice RigVed (23720 B.C) ---- Entry in South America by Aeroplanes Valmiki Ramayan (7300 B.C) ---- Phosphorescent Trident at the Bay of Pisco, Peru, S.America Valmiki Ramayan (7300 B.C) 1960 A.D. Aeroplanes RigVed,Ramayana,Samarangan Sutradhara (1050 A.D.) ---- Robot Samarangan Sutradhara (1050 A.D.) ---- Atom (Divisible) & (Indivisible) Shrimad Bhagwat (4000 B.C.) 1800 A.D.
  21. 21. SLAVE DYNASTY <ul><li>Period range 1206-1290 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Founded by Qutub-ud-din Aibak </li></ul><ul><li>The only Women Muslim ruler of India, Razia Sultana </li></ul>
  22. 22. Khilji Dynasty <ul><li>Founded by jalal-ud-din khilji. </li></ul><ul><li>Period range 1290-1320. </li></ul><ul><li>Alaud-din-khilji the most prominent ruler. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Tughlak Dynasty <ul><li>Founded by Ghiasuddin Tughlak </li></ul><ul><li>Period Range 1320-1414 </li></ul><ul><li>Important African traveller visited India in 1333 “Ibn Batuta </li></ul>
  24. 24. Lodhi Dynasty <ul><li>Founded by Bahlol lodhi. </li></ul><ul><li>Period Range 1451-1526 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Sikander & Ibrahim Lodhi were two prominent rulers </li></ul>
  25. 25. Mughal Dynasty <ul><li>Under The Mughals, India Was The Heart Of A Great Islamic Empire And A Prolific Center Of Islamic Culture And Learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynasty Was The Greatest, Richest And Longest Lasting Muslim Dynasty To Rule India. </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol Descendents </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Mughal Emperors Were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Babur (1526-1530) The First Of The Mughals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humayun (1530-1556) The Luckless Leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Akbar (1556-1605) The Great </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jehangir (1605-1627) The Paragon Of Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shah Jehan (1627-1658) The Master Builder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aurangzeb (1658-1707) The Intolerant </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Babur 1526 - 1530 The First of the Mughals <ul><li>Babur was a direct descendant of the Turkish Ghengis Khan and Timur from Tamerlane. </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated the Delhi Sultanate & established the Mughal Empire. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gunpowder , a skilled commander, trained soldiers on horses contributed to the victory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gained control of the whole northern India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made Agra capital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He reigned for 4 short years and died at age 47 in 1530. </li></ul><ul><li>Did not enact new laws or organization in the empire due to early his death </li></ul>
  27. 27. Humayun 1530 - 1556 The Luckless Leader <ul><li>After Babur died, he was succeeded by his son Humayun in 1530. Humayun was 23 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>He was not a soldier and unlike his father, neither skilled nor a wise leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Inherited a disunited and disorganized empire. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1540, Sher Shah of Bengal defeated Humayun and took over the Mughal Empire. The Empire was lost from 1540-1545. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was exiled but later regained power in 1555. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humayun died in 1556 after falling down the steps of his library; he is known as “the luckless one”. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Akbar 1556 - 1605 The Great <ul><li>Akbar become the new Mughal ruler at the age of 14. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regent and his mother ruled in his name for 4 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Akbar was an ambitious and noble commander </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built the largest army ever in the empire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped to conquer nearly all of modern-day northern India and Pakistan. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great administrator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developed a centralized government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It delegated 15 provinces each under a governor and each province into districts and each district was further sub-divided into smaller sections. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Best known for tolerance of his subjects (especially Hindus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removed poll taxes on Hindus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invited religious scholars to debate him in his private chambers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed his own faith call Din Ilahi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Din Ilahi was a mixture of the other religions Akbar had studied from those debates. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion never caught on </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Jehangir 1605 - 1627 The Paragon of Stability <ul><li>Jehangir succeeded his father Akbar in 1605. </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite of his father </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor monarch and warrior but good at maintaining the status quo. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He continued many of Akbar’s policies . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of worship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair treatment of Hindus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued friendship and alliance with Rajputs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed foreigners like the Portuguese and English into India for trade. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jehangir married Noor Jahan. She became the real ruler of the empire until the death of her husband. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Shah Jehan 1627 - 1658 The Master Builder <ul><li>Shah Jehan succeeded his father in 1627. </li></ul><ul><li>Better ruler than Jehangir. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restored the efficiency of government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovered territories . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintained peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign traders were allowed into India and trade increased considerably. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The empire was expanded. </li></ul><ul><li>Shah Jehan was a patron of the arts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built many great architecture buildings such as Jama Masjid , Red Fort & Taj Mahal . </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Aurangzeb 1658 - 1707 The Intolerant <ul><li>Aurangzeb ascended the throne after disposing his father and beating out his two brothers. </li></ul><ul><li>Despot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>severely persecuted Hindus of Northern India. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empire declines under his reign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He removed the tax-free status for Hindus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed their temples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crushed semi-autonomous Hindu states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The death of Aurangzeb and the short reign of his son led to the end of the Mughal empire and the beginning of British Rule. </li></ul><ul><li>The attack of Persians, Nadir Shah who took the famous kohinoor diamond to Afghanistan & Marathas who became powerful under leadership of Shivaji declined the Mughal Empire </li></ul>
  32. 32. Summary: The Dynasty of the Great Mughals in India <ul><li>1526-1530 Babur’s victory at Panipat in 1526 established the Mughal Empire and ended the reign of the Dehli Sultanate. The rise of the great Mughal Dynasty in India began with Babur. </li></ul><ul><li>1530-1556 Humayun succeeded his father Babur and became emperor. He was defeated and dislodged by insurrections of nobles from the old Lodi regime. In 1540, the Mughal domain came under control of Farid Khan Sur (Shir Shah Sur). Humayun died at the age of 48 when he fell down the steps of his library. </li></ul><ul><li>1556-1605 Akbar, the most sophisticated Mughal commander and leader, was only 14 years of age when he succeeded his father Humayun. Under Akbar's reign, Muslims and Hindu’s received the same respect. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Summary: The Dynasty of the Great Mughals in India <ul><li>1605-1628 Jehangir succeeded his father, Akbar. </li></ul><ul><li>1628-1658 Prince Khurram was 35 years old when he ascended the throne as Shah Jehan, King of the World. </li></ul><ul><li>1659-1707 In the summer of 1659, Aurangzeb held a coronation in the Red Fort where he assumed the title of Alamgir (World Conqueror). After a bitter struggle with his two brothers, Aurangzeb was the victor who took the throne. </li></ul><ul><li>1857 Bahadur Shah II, the last Mughal emperor, was in 1858. India was brought under the direct rule of british Crown. This brought the end of the Mughal Empire. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Rise of British Crown <ul><li>1498 , A Portuguese sailor Vasco da gama discovered the sea route to India. </li></ul><ul><li>East India Company Of Britain came to India with the excuse of Trading & soon started developing political dominion in India & finally established their rule over India. </li></ul><ul><li>British East India Company: 1757-1858 </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Plassey: 6/23/1757, Palashi, West Bengal, 90 miles north of Kolkata. British, under Robert Clive, vs. Siraj-Ud-Daulah, Nawab of Bengal. Vastly outnumbered, British bribed deposed army chief Mir Jafar who betrayed the Nawab by not allowing his troops to fight. </li></ul><ul><li>British Government: 1858-1947 </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Victoria, Empress of India, 1876-1901 </li></ul><ul><li>A succession of Viceroys or Governor-Generals. </li></ul>
  35. 35. British rules Events Name Events Associated with Lord Dalhousie (1846-1856) Mainly known for Doctrine of Lapse, responsible for annexing no. of states on the basis of this philosophy.1 st train from Bombay to Thane started during his reign in 1853. Lord Cornwallis (1786-1793) Credited with a new revenue system under the permanent settlement of bengal. Introduction of Civil Services. Lord Canning The revolt of 1857. The 1 st Viceroy of India Lord Wellesley (1798-1805) The subsidiary alliance system Lord Curzon (1899-1905) Partition of Bengal William Bentinck (1828-35) Abolition of Sati & reducing the female infanticide Thomas B.Macaulay His advice was instrumental in introducing English ,under the Leadership of Willaim Bentinck
  36. 36. Lord Hastings (1813-23) Associated with Ryotwari Settlement Robert Clive He was the 1 st British Governor of Bengal Warren Hastings (1773-85) The 1 st govenor-general of India, Regulating Act 1773 & pitt’s India Act of 1784 were passed during his tenure Lord Mountbatten The 1 st governor-general of Free India C.Rajagopalachari First Indian and last Governor-General of Independent India
  37. 37. India Struggle for Freedom <ul><li>Mangal Pandey in 1857 Sepoy Mutiny </li></ul><ul><li>Lakshmi Bai, Rani of Jhansi in 1858. </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of Indian National Congress, 1885 </li></ul><ul><li>Outrage at Viceroy Curzon’s order to partition Bengal, 1905 </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of Muslim League, 1906: Jinnah left INC & joined ML after disagreements with Gandhi; called for division of India, 1940. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor George V’s visit to India, 1911, announcing reversal of the Bengal partition and transferring the capital from Kolkata to New Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>World War I, 1914-1918: India helped England’s war efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: work in S. Africa, work in India 1915-1948, Satyagraha (devotion to truth)(non-violent civil disobedience for freedom). </li></ul><ul><li>1916 Lucknow session of Congress,where the famous Lucknow pact was signed between congress and muslim league. Formation of home rule league by Annie Besant. </li></ul>
  38. 38. India Struggle For Freedom <ul><li>1917 Champaran Satyagraph ( champaran is a place in Bihar) by Mahatma Gandhi. His 1 st Satyagraph in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Rowlatt Act: Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 4/13/1919, soldiers fired on thousands of unarmed men, women and children, killing and wounding many. </li></ul><ul><li>1920 Khilafat Movement against british by Shaukat & Muhammad Ali. Launching of non cooperation movement by Mahatama Gandhi. </li></ul><ul><li>1922 Chauri Chaura , incident in UP and withdraw of NCM by Gandhi, formation of Swaraj Party by Motilal Nehru, C.R. Das & N.C. Kelkar. </li></ul><ul><li>1927 Coming of Simon Commission to India, which was boycotted by Lala Lajpat Rai . He died during a lathi charge during the protest. </li></ul><ul><li>1929 Passing of Purna Swaraj resolution at Lahore session of Congress under the president ship of Jawaharlal Nehru. </li></ul><ul><li>1930 Dandi March ( Salt Satyagraph) by Mahatma Gandhi from Sabarmaati ashram. First round table conference in London. </li></ul>
  39. 39. India Struggle for Freedom <ul><li>Quit India call in 1932, numerous prison terms and protest fasts. </li></ul><ul><li>1935 Government of India Act. </li></ul><ul><li>1937 Formation of Congress Ministries in Provinces. </li></ul><ul><li>World War II: 1939-1945, India’s entry by Britain despite protests </li></ul><ul><li>Azad HindMovement, house arrest, escape 1/7/1941, help from abroad, Indian National Army, death under controversial circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>1942 Quit India Movement, Wavell plan & Shimla conference, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad attended the conference representing congress. </li></ul><ul><li>1945 Cabinet Mission Plan which envisaged forming of the interim govt. & to determine means of transferring power. </li></ul><ul><li>1946 Formation of Constituent Assembly under Rajendre Prasad (Mulsim League didn’t participate) </li></ul><ul><li>1947 Mountbatten Plan (june 3 plan) and partition of India. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Transfer of Power 8/15/1947
  41. 41. Partition Problem after independence 8/14/1947 Partition of Pakistan
  42. 42. Jawaharlal Nehru <ul><li>Ally of Gandhi. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Prime Minister of India, 1947-1964. </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated Industrialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted “Green Revolution”. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonaligned Movement </li></ul>
  43. 43. Death of Mahatma Gandhi 2 nd oct.1948
  44. 44. Indian Border Issues with Pakistan & China <ul><li>War with China on Sikkim issue on 27 th June 1963 “Sino-Indian war”. </li></ul><ul><li>War with Pakistan on Kashmir Issue “Indo-Pak war” in 1965 . </li></ul>
  45. 45. India’s mixed economy <ul><li>The “mix” refers to private and public ownership. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign aid and foreign investment are crucial. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban areas have high-tech companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Three quarters of the population are farmers living in small villages. </li></ul><ul><li>India's &quot;Green Revolution“ allowed farmers to triple their crop by using modern science and technology </li></ul>
  46. 46. India’s Green Revolution <ul><li>Introducing higher- yielding varieties of seeds in 1965. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use of fertilizers & irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>GOAL  make India self-sufficient in food grains. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. MS Swaminathan “ Father of G.R.” </li></ul>
  47. 47. Indira Gandhi <ul><li>Nehru’s daughter. </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister of India, 1966-1984. </li></ul><ul><li>Continues Nehru’s policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Faced corruption charges & internal rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated in 1984. </li></ul>
  48. 48. India’s persecution of the Sikhs
  49. 49. India-Pak Border Disputes
  50. 50. India-Pak War in 1971
  51. 51. Rajiv Gandhi <ul><li>Indira’s son. </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister of India, 1984-1989. </li></ul><ul><li>Some reform of economy and government. </li></ul><ul><li>Also faced rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated in 1991 while campaigning. </li></ul>
  52. 52. India’s Prithvi Missiles First Tested in 1988
  53. 53. Rajiv Gandhi sent military to Srilanka (llTE) – Tamil Tigers 1989
  54. 54. Former Indian Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, displays a sword given to him by Sikh youths in New Delhi to honor him for making India a nuclear power - 1998
  55. 55. India’s Open Economy <ul><li>Indian economic reforms took place from 24 th July 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>Liberalization </li></ul><ul><li>Privatization </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>End of License Raj </li></ul><ul><li>  Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission came to an end. </li></ul>
  56. 56. A Pakistani Ranger at the Indian-Pakistani Joint Border Check Post in Wagha, India - 2001
  57. 57. India Displays Nuclear Missiles During “Republic Day,” - 2002
  58. 58. India Successfully Tested Agni Missiles - 2002
  59. 59. Musharraf and Vajpayee at a meeting on nuclear issues in Nepal in 2002