Emergency response


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Emergency response

  1. 1. EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND FIRE Describe the basic onboard activities associated with the fire drill - identify crew members responsibilities on the muster list Every ship must have displayed muster lists on accommodation bulkheads. The muster list must be legible at all times & indicate the muster station & special duty & responsibility of all personnel on board the ship at the time. - activate the appropriate emergency signal The emergency alarm will have many points scattered around the ship. The main points will be on the bridge, the engine control room & in the cargo control room, but other points are equally effective. They are found on every level of the accommodation (usually 2 on each deck for a cargo ship) & in the main working spaces such as storeroom areas, pump rooms & forecastle space. The problem with alarm activation from a point other than one where a watchkeeper is present is that the emergency cannot be defined. It must be followed up, in any case, by communication with the bridge from where all emergencies are managed. An effective way to raise the alarm without activating it personally is to telephone or radio one of the control centres where the alarm can be activated & accompanied by a tannoy or public address announcement. In general, ships use a continuous sounding of the alarm bells to indicate a general emergency or fire, seven or more short blasts on the alarm & whistle followed by one long to indicate boat or abandon ship stations. For man overboard the whistle is used to sound three long blasts (O in Morse = overboard) which also serves the purpose of re-assuring the man in the water that the bridge knows he has gone over. - Exercise equipment as necessary e,g, pressurising the fire main, deploying fire hoses, foam test, demonstrating self contained breathing apparatus, simulation of a fire at a specific location In order that the crew become familiar with the equipment & in working together as an emergency team the ship will conduct exercises & drills which make use of the equipment in simulated situations. It is possible to select an appropriate space & use smoke generators to simulate fire conditions; allowing those duties to lead hose parties wearing breathing apparatus to become familiar with its limitations. It is possible to run out hoses, pressurise & use the fire main, & if sufficient spares are available, practice with foam compound & branch pipes. Only the imagination & willingness of the crew to become involved in an effective programme of emergency response training exercises limit the diversity of simulations. Communicate with shore personnel as necessary In a real emergency it is important that the appropriate personnel ashore are informed. These will be listed in the emergency response plan or safety manual & should be well known to senior officers. They usually include key people in the owner / operator / charterers office & the coast guard & authorities for the location of the ship. When conducting a drill or exercise where smoke will be simulated & alarms sounded any persons who will be affected or may confuse the drill for the real thing must be informed. The ISM Code requires the identification of a person ashore as the “Designated Person”. This person is directly responsible for all matters relating to the safety & pollution prevention & must have direct access to senior management. He/she will be the key contact point ashore. - Record drills in the log book Emergency drills are recorded in the deck & engine log books, by the OOW, & in the ships official log by the Master. Most progressive organisations will also have some form of onboard safety training records which comply with the safety training policy of the company as specified in the safety training manual. Some form of record of such matters is a requirement of the ISM Code.
  2. 2. EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND FIRE Describe the possible action steps involving fire / explosion - Describe possible action steps involving fire / explosion Fire is the major cause of serious casualties to ships & lives lost at sea. The majority of recorded incidents of fire at sea may not have resulted in serious consequences, had proper precautions been taken. It is the responsibility of every person on board to exercise due care & vigilance to comply with relevant regulations. If there is the least doubt whether the ship’s damage control team may control the fire, the Master will inform coastguards or shore radio stations immediately. Rapid response for containment is critical & should be followed up as quickly as possible with appropriate measures to extinguish. During the emergency, the following are the key priorities that must be addressed: Sound appropriate alarm & muster personnel at designated stations Should a fire or explosion occur on board, the immediate action would be to sound the fire alarm & muster everyone on board. Crewmembers are usually assigned to damage control teams under the leadership of the Chief Officer. The first priority is to determine the extent of damage in order to initiate the necessary steps to bring the situation under control. Such steps include: Rescue those in direct danger - Safety of all on board - Limitation of damage to ship & cargo - - - Prevention of damage to the environment Should a fire / explosion occur when the ship is in port, the following actions need to be undertaken: - Give immediate notification to the local authority & fire brigade. - Determine where the fire/explosion has taken place (experience has shown that a fire is not necessarily at the location where smoke in visible) - Find out the extent of damage & if anyone has been injured or killed Ensuring the fire message contains the following information: - Deploy members of the ship’s damage control team to the positions deemed best for fighting the fire. Consideration must be given to possible threat to the team in the deployment - Name & nationality of ship - Name & number of pier, berth or other positive identification of the ship’s location - A description of the situation - Whether injuries have been sustained - Control fire using appropriate equipment & personnel Use should be made of all available means to fight the fire. The position & nature of the fire will determine which methods & media are used. Available on board ship are: On board activities: CO2 (extinguishers or fixed installation) - Contain & prevent the spread of fire - Consider boundary cooling or flooding Close all accessible openings & hatches to prevent fire spreading Determine threat to vessel as a direct result of fire / explosion. If there is danger of emission of poisonous gas or further explosion, consider part or total abandonment Dry powder (extinguishers both portable & larger trolley type) - Consider the possibility for search & rescue in the fire area Foam (portable & fixed high expansion) - - - - Determine if anyone is missing - Water jet / spray / fog (extinguisher or fire main, hose & nozzle) Continue crew deployment to fight fire - -
  3. 3. EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND FIRE - Ensure damage control team maintains optimum position to fight fire, with due regard for personal risks this case, a distress message & request for assistance should be sent & an attempt made to search the area. On arrival of the fire brigade, the senior brigade officer will need to know: If anyone is seriously injured, request assistance from nearest rescue centre via distress message. - If anyone is trapped or missing & possible location If the accident has caused pollution, or there is a danger of pollution, implement on-board counter measures & notify the nearest authorities. - What is burning - Where the fire is - Any conditions that may constitute a hazard during the fire fighting The fire brigade must be afforded maximum assistance in bringing the fire under control. Information includes the ship drawings, cargo plans & ships stability data should be provided. If the harbour authorities decide to move the ship, assistance must be provided in the execution of the move & any further information about the ship that may be of importance, such as stability, trim, provided. Fire / explosion in open sea poses a potential hazard to personnel & the ship, greater than an equivalent incident in port. To mitigate the consequence of the incident, it is important to address the following: - - based on the initial status report, consider possible development of the fire & the likelihood of getting it under control Manoeuvre ship to have the wind take flame & vapours away from ship If possible, turn the ship on a course that will bring the location of the fire to leeward to limit fire ventilation & facilitate fire fighting from the windward side. In all cases “URGENCY” messages should be sent with information about the situation & intended actions. If a distress or urgency message has been sent & the situation has been brought under control, the messages must be cancelled on the same frequency as they were transmitted. If the fire can be controlled until the ship can reach the nearest harbour, the harbour authorities should be made aware of the type & extent of fire, the cargo details, any potential hazards which might exist & how the fire is being controlled. - In fighting the fire, it may be necessary to transfer liquids. It must be appreciated that such an operation will have an impact on the ship’s overall stress & stability. Under extreme situations, internal transfer may have an adverse affect on the ship’s survivability. - If the fire may cause danger of explosion, consider if the route of retreat is threatened. If there is an imminent danger of explosion, consider immediate abandonment & if the ship is to be abandoned, secure for possibility of re-embarkation, should the situation develop favourably. If a personnel check shows that personnel are missing, consider if they may have jumped, fallen or been thrown overboard during the explosion/fire. In Assess structural extinguished damage, when fire When a fire has been extinguished, it is important to carry out a thorough inspection of the fire location & the immediate vicinity to assess for structural damage. Severe damage could impair seaworthiness & pose a hazard to personnel &/or the ship. The Master should ensure checks are carried out & full reports made. The Master should carry out an evaluation of reports to determine whether further actions are necessary to counter any potential threat to seaworthiness. - If there are substances within the vicinity or in the vicinity of the fire location that may emit toxic fumes, direct the damage control party to a safe place & organise fire fighting with full partition from a safe area. Transfer liquids, as necessary, giving consideration to stability & stress limits Proceed to the nearest port or port of refuge or request assistance from other ships in the area depending on the circumstances (damage or seaworthiness) Fire/explosion damage may render the ship in possible danger from the elements or potential structural failure. In this case, he Master should proceed to the nearest harbour or port of refuge. Dependant upon the level of damage, the Master may request assistance in implementing temporary or permanent repairs to the ship.
  4. 4. EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND FIRE Types of Fire The Chemistry of Fire Fires are classified into 4 types: The Fire Triangle 1) The modern fire triangle includes a fourth element - Class A- Fires involving solid carboniferous materials such as wood, paper, plastics etc Chemical Reaction, Fuel, Heat and Oxygen. 2) Class B- Fires involving liquids or solids Fuel, Heat and Oxygen have all got to be present for which are easily liquefied such as petrol, oil, a fire to exist and removing any one of the elements paint, grease, fats would extinguish the fire. 3) Class C- Fires involving gases Chemical reaction has been added because modern 4) Class D- Fires involving burning metals such fire fighting media such as Novec 1230 and dry as aluminium, magnesium etc 5) powder (halon redundant since 2004)work by Electrical interfering with the chemical reactions of the combustion process, and by inhibiting the chemical Modern extinguishers are marked with symbols reaction, the fire can be extinguished. showing what type of fire they can be used on. Fuel can be solid, liquid or gas which gives off Water – Class A (RED handle) flammable vapours when heated. Examples of fuel Foam – Class A, B (Yellow/ cream handle) (Best for would be: class B fires) Solid – Paper, wood, plastics, fabric Powder - Class A, B, C and Live electrical Liquid - Oil, paint, petrol fires(Blue handle) Gas - propane, acetylene CO2 – Class B, C and live electrical fires (Black handle) Heat Sufficient heat must be applied for the fuel to give off Fire Prevention the flammable vapours and for ignition to occur. The The principle of fire prevention is to keep the 3 main heat required to ignite a solid is usually more than is elements of the fire triangle from combining to form a required to ignite a liquid or gas. fire. Example of heat sources would be: Good housekeeping and good shipboard practise are Electrical equipment, smoking materials, engine exhaust pipes essential to control the supply of fuel to potential fire. Good Housekeeping 1. Keep wastebaskets empty Oxygen 2. Clean up oil spills Oxygen is normally available in the air in sufficient 3. Store garbage in metal containers quantities to sustain a fire. Oxygen may also be 4. Keep paint and solvents in dedicated paint available from other sources such as medical and locker welding gasses and in chemicals such as oxidising 5. Keep tank tops free from oil agents and explosives. 6. Keep clothes away from heaters An oxygen enriched atmosphere may cause some fuels such as oils and grease to spontaneously ignite. Good Shipboard Practise 1. Close valves on fuel tanks and fuel pumps when not in use
  5. 5. EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND FIRE 2. Keep fuel tank sounding pipe self closing 5. Actions being taken at the scene cocks working freely and closed when not in use. Do not wedge open the spring loaded valves contain the fire by shutting doors, vent flaps etc. on fuel tank sight glasses 3. The person discovering the fire should also try to After the alarm has been raised successfully, the fire may be tackled using first aid tools such as portable Control of Heat 1. Use Hot Work Permit System when welding fire extinguishers, fire blankets etc, provided it is considered safe to do so. or grinding 2. Use safety matches Fixed Fire Fighting Systems 3. Check electrical equipment for signs of Fire Main overheating. The fire main provides seawater to all parts of the Only smoke in dedicated areas and use vessel. It is fed from electric or engine driven pumps safety ash trays. in the engine room, or from the emergency fire 5. Do not smoke in bed pump situated outside the engine room. 6. Ensure ventillation openings on electrical Relief Valve equipment are not covered. If the fire main can be pressurised from more than Ensure lagging on engine exhaust pipes and one pump, it may be fitted with a relief valve to control other hot surfaces is in good condition the maximum water pressure in the fire main. 4. 7. Isolating Valve Control of Oxygen 1. At the point where the fire main leaves the engine Close doors to stores and cabins when not in room, there will be an isolating valve. If there is a fire use which detroys the fire main pipe work in the engine 2. Keep fire doors closed at all times room, the isolating valve can be closed to allow the 3. Ensure fire flaps work freely and are clearly remaining parts of the fire main to be pressurised identified using the emergency fire pump. Ensure remote fan stops are working and CO2 Systems clearly identified CO2 stored in cylinders which are connected to a 4. The Fire Alarm manifold. The manifold is connected to distribution The person raising the alarm should use the most pipework in the protected space. The cylinders have appropriate method valves on top which are either operated by pull wire, 1. Voice – Shout “Fire, Fire, Fire” or by pilot gas pressure applied to the valves from a 2. Use Break Glass Units pilot cylinder. 3. Telephone Bridge or other manned control station. Halon Systems in situ only .. no new system .due to the ban on halon production which is damaging to the When informing the bridge about a fire, give the atmosphere. following information: 1. The location of the fire 2. Size of the fire Fire Fighting 3. Type of fire Water 4. Number and type of casualties, if any
  6. 6. EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND FIRE Keep yourself between the exit and the fire. Approach If the fire is inside enclosed equipment, direct the the fire keeping low and ditect the jet into the base of CO2 through the ventilation grills. the fire. Sweep the jet horizontally across the fire Remember that CO2 will not be very effective if there trying to wet all the surfaces of the burning material. is a wind or strong draught that will dissipate the CO2. When the fire appears to be out try to break up the material and continue to wet the material to prevent Dry Powder re- ignition. Keep yourself between the fire and the exit. Approach Foam the fire keeping low and direct the dry powder into the Keep yourself between your exit and the fire. base of the fire at the nearest point and drive the Approach the fire keeping low to avoid the heat and flames back to the furthest point. Rapidly sweep the the smoke. dry powder back and forward horizontally across the If it is a liquid fire the foam must cover the surface of fire trying to drive the flames off the surface of the the liquid to form a blanket that excludes the air from burning material. the fire, and cools the surface of the liquid. This can If it is a liquid fire, do not direct the powder at the be achieved in 2 ways: surface of the liquid as it will cause it to spread. 1) Remember that although dry powder has a rapid the fire so that the foam slides down the knock down effect on the flames, it has no cooling vertical surface and flows across the surface effect and will not be very effective if the fire is deep- of the liquid. OR: 2) Direct the foam at a vertical surface behind seated with a high reserve of heat. Be prepared for Direct the foam jet up into the air above the re- ignition. fire so that it falls gently onto the fire and forms a foam blanket over the surface. Fire Blanket Suitable for contained fat fires, contained liquid fires In both cases, do not direct the jet onto the surface of and other small fires. the burning liquid, because it will break up the foam Turn off the source of heat. If the fire blanket does not blanket and it will splash the burning liquid around have protected hand holds or pockets, fold back the making the fire spread. top edge over the hands to protect them. Allow the If it is a solid fire, then use the foam extinguisher as blanket to afford protection by letting it hang down in described above for water. front of you. This is achieved by holding your hands up and apart. Hold the blanket so as to keep the heat CO2 and flame off your face and body but not to obscure Keep yourself between the fire and the exit. Approach your vision. the fire keeping low and direct the CO2 into the base Advance and lay the blanket over the fire. If it is a of the fire at nearest point and drive the flames back liquid fire make sure that the blanket is stretched so to the furthest point. Rapidly sweep the CO2 that it does not dip into the liquid. Do not throw the horizontally back and forward across the fire trying to blanket down as this may drive air into the fire and drive the flames off the surface of the burning cause it to be more intense or cause a plume of material. flame. If it is a liquid fire do not direct the CO2 at the Once the fire has been extinguished, do not remove surface because it will cause the burning liquid to the blanket until the previously burning item has had splash around causing the fire to spread. time to cool. Removing the blanket too soon may allow re- ignition.
  7. 7. EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND FIRE A person with burning clothes should be laid on the Jacket floor and wrapped in a blanket bto smother the Trousers flames. Belt Do not leave them wrapped in the blanket once the Boots flames are out as this may trap heat and cause more Gloves severe injury. Helmet Flash Hood ( not required by SOLAS) Foam Branch Pipe The foam branch needs 2 people to operate it. One Firemans Equipment person to hold the branch pipe and one to control the Fire Axe hydrant and change over the foam concentrate Electric Safety Lamp drums. Lifelin Keep yourself between the fire and the exit. Breathing Apparatus Approach the fire keeping low to avoid the heat and smoke. Fire Plans (Fire Wallet) When the water is first turned on, the branch pipe will produce a jet of water which should be directed away from burning liquid. Once the foam concentrate has been drawn into the branch pipe, and foam starts to be produced, the branch pipe can be directed towards the fire. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Muster list and location of muster pt. Crew list (no of crew). General arrangement plan Safety plan Cargo plan Trim stability booklet. Details of fired fire fighting system. Details of w/t doors and ventilation. Direct the branch pipe as is done with the portable foam extinguisher. However, if the fuel has had a significant preburn or if International Shore Connection there are high winds, these methods might not be The purpose is to provide a connection to the ships effective, try fire main that will allow shore side firefighters to Direct the foam at the floor in front of the fire sweeping it side to side and build up a blanket of foam which is pushed across the fire from front to back by the force of the jet. pressurise the fire main using their own pumps. A spanner of the correct size for the bolts should be stored beside the shore connection. Ships >500 tonnes should have at least one connection capable of being fitted either side of the Sand ship. Sand should be stored in a steel container, usually a bucket or a box. A shovel or scoop should also be provided. SOLAS requires a sand box to be provided in boiler rooms or to be substituted by a portable Breathing Apparatus The wearer of the BA should follow these rules: 1) content of the cylinder is less than 80% of its extinguisher. Cover spilt oil with sand to prevent the maximum working pressure. fire spreading. Firemans Outfit The items that make up a firemans suit are defined in SOLAS as: A BA set should not normally be used if the 2) The BA must be donned in fresh air, and the mask adjusted to give a good seal on the face.
  8. 8. EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND FIRE 3) 1 Pull - More air (if using bellows) BA team 4) There should be a minimum of 2 people in a 2 Pulls - Slack off the lifeline If one team member must withdraw freom an 3 Pulls - Help me out immediately incident, then all team members must withdraw. 5) Attendant to wearer BA teams must report to the BA Controller 3 pulls - Come out immediately. before entering the incident, and report back to the controller when they are clear of the incident. BA Pre- use Checklist 1) Check the cylinder is full – With the 6) When the whistle sounds, leave the incident demand valve turned off, open the cylinder 7) If your exit is blocked, remain calm to valve slowly and check the gauge pressure conserve air. Signal with lifeline. Bang on against the maximum pressure stated on the structure or use radio to alert people of your cylinder. location. 2) Leak Test – Close the cylinder valve again. The gauge reading should not drop by more BA Controller than 10 bar/ min. If the pressure drop is Is responsible for monitoring the activities of the BA unsatisfactory, check for leaks. team. The BA Controllers duties include the following: 3) Check Whistle – Operate the demand valve Check the BA wearer and set before he to reduce the pressure in thye system. The enters the incident whistle should sound when the pressure has Record where the BA wearer is going and dropped to between 60 and 40 bar. what task he will perform 4) Check Face Mask Leakage – Put on Record the BA wearers name and content apparatus. Close the cylinder valve and of his cylinder (control board) breath normally until the air in the system is Record the time the BA wearer enters the exhausted and the mask is pulled onto the incident face. The mask should stay pulled onto the Calculate and record the “Time to Whistle” face. If there is leakage, the mask will move for each member of the BA team. away from the face –check mask, seal edges Raise the alarm if any BA wearer is and adjust straps as required to minimise overdue. leakage. 5) Recheck Cylinder Pressure- Turn on the Time to Whistle Calculation cylinder fully open and check the contents A BA wearer is assumed to use 40 litres of air per gauge. minute. The whistle usually sounds 10 minutes before the cylinder is empty. Ventilation Control Ventilation control is very important when fire occurs Time to Whistle = ( Contents/ 40) – 10 minutes on board ship. The air supply to the fire can be restricted by closing fire flaps and shutting down ventilation fans. Lifeline Code of Signals This can starve the fire of oxygen and keep it under Wearer to attendant control. The spread of heat and smoke to adjacent
  9. 9. EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND FIRE compartments can also be restricted by closing fire will give time to assemble the fire party. Remove flaps and dampers. combustibles from adjacent spaces. The fire flaps and dampers may also be opened in a compartment to allow the escape of smoke and fumes Fire Party while firefighters are tackling the fire in that Assemble the fire party outside the accommodation at compartment to give them better visibility. the access point nearest to the fire. The hose team should be wearing BA and firemans suits. Enter the Remote Fan Stops accommodation with the hose nozzle set to give a The accommodation should be able to be stopped wide spray. This will protect the hose party from the form a number of different locations. heat and tend to push the smoke along the alleyway. Engineroom and machinery space fans will have (water curtain) remote stops outside the room that they serve. The At the door of the compartment where the fire is remote stop panel will shut down fans, electric fuel located, the hose team should crouch down before pumps in the compartment. opening the door. When the door is opened, a fresh The fans will also shut down if the control cabinet is supply of air will rush in causing the fire to flare up. A opened for the fixed fire fighting (CO2 or Halon). ball of burning gas will blow out of the compartment A above the heads of the hose team. Raise Alarm (verbally, break glass, telephone bridge) The rest of the fire party outside the accommodation F should stand to the side of the access door so as not Find out as much as you can about fire (tackle fire yourself if small. No risks) to get caught by the blast of burning gas. I Inform fire party when they arrive The hose team should then set the nozzle to give a R Restrict fire as much as possible (doors, vents, narrow spray and direct it at the seat of the fire. combustibles from adjacent spaces) All the burning material should be well soaked but the E use of excess water may cause problems with the Extinguish when fire party arrives stability of the vessel. Fire Fighting Techniques Accommodation Fires Boundary Cooling The fuel in the accommodation fire would include Whilst the first team is tackling the seat of the fire, wood, paper, plastics, fabrics and upholstery foam. other fire teams should be deployed to provide The plastics and foam would produce thick, black boundary cooling. smoke and toxic fumes, which could be fatal if not The fire can spread in 6 directions from a protected by BA. compartment and the fire teams involved in boundary cooling need to cover all the boundaries of the compartment. Detection Boundary Cooling should be accomplished by The fire may be detected by an automatic system or means of a water spray rather than a jet. by a crew member in the vicinity. Ventilation Control Boundary Fuel Starvation Restrict the supply of air to the compartment that is on As well as boundary cooling, the other fire teams fire by closing doors, ports and ventilation trunks. This should be removing combustable material from the will also restrict the spread of smoke and toxic fumes boundaries of the compartment that is on fire. to the rest of the accommodation. Ventilation control
  10. 10. EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND FIRE Machinery Space Fires Same Level Entry – Assemble the Fire Fuel Control Party outside the engine room at the access Try to isolate the supply of fuel to the fire by closing point nearest to the fire. The hose team valves, switching off pumps, isolating electrical should be wearing BA and firemans suits. circuits etc. if this can be done wthout putting anyone At the door of the ER, the hose teams should in danger. crouch down before opening the door, and The main engines should not be shut down without keep behind it. When the door is opened, a consultation with the watchkeeper on the bridge. The fresh supply of air will rush in and the fire will watchkeeper may need to manoeuvre the vessel to a flare up. A ball of burning gas will blow out of safe location before he loses power and steering. the compartment above the heads of the hose team. Firefighting The rest of the fire party should stand to the side of the access door so as not to get Portable extinguishers If the fire is small, it should be tackled with portable extinguishers as soon as possible. If the fire is beyond the scope of portable extinguishers, the engineer should leave the engine room, closing the door behind him. caught by the blast of the burning gas. If possible, 2 nozzles should be employed, one with its nozzle set to a wide spray to form a water wall, the other used to send a jet of water through the water wall to the seat of the fire. The hose teams should advance into the engine room to approach the seat of the Fixed Firefighting systems fire, sheltering behind the water wall. The decision to employ the fixed firefighting system Vertical Entry – Assemble the fire party on should be taken by the Master, bearing in mind the deck at the access point furthest from the following: fire. The hose team should be wearing BA 1) It is a “one- shot” system and firemans outfits. Open the hatch cover 2) Gas discharge systems provide no cooling and crouch down behind the hatch lid. The effect fresh air entering the hatch will cause the fire After use, it may be some time before the to flare up, sending out a ball of burning gas. atmosphere in the engine room can be Lower one hose halfway down the ladder cleared and made safe to enter and restart to the lower deck, with the nozzle set to machinery. give a wide spray. Lower a second hose to 3) the bottom of the ladder with the nozzle shut. The first firefighter climbs down the ladder, Fire Party protected from the heat by the water wall It may be decided to fight the fire using hose teams, created by the hose. On reaching the or after the use of the fixed equipment, it may be bottom, he steps to one side holds the hose necessary to send in hose teams to provide cooling. to create a water wall protecting himself and Access to the engine room may be horizontally on the the ladder. The second firefighter then same level or may be vertically down the emergency descends the ladder and takes up the escape hatch. second hose. A jet of water can then be
  11. 11. EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND FIRE directed at the seat of the fire through the Vessel at Sea Fire in Hold water wall. The 2 firefighters can then 1. Batten down and seal off space advance towards the fire. 2. Close all vents, shut down fans 3. Activate any fixed fire fighting equipment or After any fire, beware of re ignition. Keep the space battened down and wetted for at least 24 smothering systems (Masters decision) 4. hours. Commence boundary cooling. Remember some cargoes may be dangerous when wetted Ventilation 5. May be necessary to shut down adjacent It may be possible to open vents at the end of the holds and activate smothering equipment to engine room opposite to where the hose team is keep the fire from spreading. entering. This will allow smoke to escape and give 6. better visibility to the hose team. Head for nearest port. Do not open the fire space until in port and fire department standing by. Fire in Port 7. Send out urgency on Masters orders 1. Ring fire brigade even for small fire. 8. Prepare lifeboats 2. Indicate ship position in harbour by using 9. Radio ahead to port giving details and searchlight etc 3. request assistance from the fire brigade Try to contain the fire until they arrive unless 10. Have fire wallet ready for fire brigade it is small and you think it can be 11. On arrival at port, stand off, follow port extinguished 4. authority instructions Send all non essential personnel ashore and alert Port Authority. Musters and Drills (MGN 71 and COSWP) 5. Prepare for emergency sailing if required. 6. Have Fire Wallet ready and put yourself and signals, assigned survival craft and assigned equipment at fire brigades disposal. tasks.). Must be conspicuously posted. The Information required by Fire Department : Muster List should be supplemented by 7. 1. Muster List details.( Muster point, emergency Name of vessel emergency instructions for each crew Location member i.e. posted in cabin. Missing persons 2. An Abandon Ship and Fire Drill must be held Fire situation so that each crew member participates in at Hazardous cargo least one of each per month. Location of fire 3. As soon as possible after joining, crew Location of International Shore members should familiarise themselves with Connection. their emergency duties, the various alarms and the location of the lifeboat station and of all FFE and LSA. Initial Actions on Bridge on Fire Alarm 1. Sound GE alarm 4. Crew should muster wearing lifejackets 2. Notify Fire Party of fire and location 5. A head count should be conducted to identify 3. Deck lighting on. any missing persons 6. A fire drill should be held simultaneously with the first stage of the abandon ship drill
  12. 12. EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND FIRE 7. Fire pumps main and emergency should be 5) 1 spare charge is to be carried for each started to see that full pressure is put on the extinguisher. main by both. All crew should know how to start the emergency fire pump. 8. Fixed Installations CO2 An adequate number of hoses should be 1) if down 10% or more. deployed and charged firstly by main fire pump and then by emergency fire pump. 9. 2) Remote controls for fans, fuel pumps and fuel tank valves, the closing of openings and 3) Check alignment of cylinders. Gang release mechanism may not work if out of line. 4) 10. At each drill, one extinguisher should be let off. Distribution systems to be checked for leaks using compressed air. the isolation of electrical equipment should be demonstrated. Contents to be verified every 4 years. Refill Check alarm system and ventilation shut down 5) 11. BA gear should be worn by members of the Bulk CO2 tanks to be checked internally every 10 years. fire party. Foam 1) Emergency Fire Pump 1. Test distribution system and control gear withfoam or water Open sea suction and valve to fire main. 2) After testing, wash pipes clear Open hydrant on deck 3) Test foam solution every 2 years. 2. Open fuel to on 3. Decompression lever open 4. Crank engine and put compression on. 5. Should kick in Water Spray 1) Test with fresh water monthly or compressed air to ensure pipes clear and nozzles clear Care and Maintenance of Firefighting Equipment Pumps and Hoses 1) To be rigged and tested to full pressure. Nozzle to be fitted to hose and closed to Firemans Outfits 1) fully charge the hose to full pressure. Check To be stowed (in pairs if 4 to be carried) as far apart as possible. no leaks. 2) 2) Check no damage and lamps charged Main and Emergency fire pumps to be 3) Ensure lifelines are free from knots. tested for 2 jets of water from adjacent BA Gear hydrants Portable Fire Extinguishers 1) All charges except CO2 to be checked for 1) Service every 2 years 2) Cylinders to be pressure tested every 5 condition annually 2) To be pressure tested every 4 years and date stamped. 3) A proportion to be tested at fire drills 4) CO2 need only be emptied if the weight of gas is less than 90% of the rated capacity years 3) Hoses and bellows to be checked for wear and tear.