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English as an indo european language

  1. 1. Maria Francisca Rojas Victoriano
  2. 2. Languages Contain Lexicon Phonology Morphology Syntax (Vocabulary) (Sound) (Word Structure) (Grammar)
  3. 3. English West Germanic Germanic Indo European Proto-Germanic (IE) (PGmc) Other Proto Languages Proto-Indo- European (PIE) Languages
  4. 4. World Languages by percentage of speakers 1.50% 3.50% Indo-European 5% 6% 2% Niger-Congo 5% Dravidian 45% Sino-Tibetan Afro-Asiatic 22% Austroasiatic 6% Altaic Austronesian Tai-Kadai 4% Other
  5. 5. Some modern similarities languages of two Languages have language share inherited families genes, features are shown from Older in the next languages slideshow
  6. 6. Numbers one, two and three in some Romance languages. Italian French Spanish Portuguese Latin One Uno Un Uno Um Unus Two Due Deux Dos Dois Duo Three Tre Trois Tres Tres Tres
  7. 7. Numbers one, two and three in some Germanic languages. English Dutch German Swedish Yiddish One One Een Eins En Eyns Two Two Twee Zwei Två Tsvey Three Three Drie Drei Tre Dray
  8. 8.  Romance languages share an ancestor language: LATIN.  Germanic language’s ancestor must be inferred, a case different from Latin, because Germanic was never written.
  9. 9. Some Germanic vocabulary words that express genetic relation English Dutch German Swedish Yiddish Love Liefde Liebe Ljuv Libe Mother Moeder Mutter Mo(de)r Muter House Huis Haus Hus Hoyz
  10. 10. The Indo-European Language Family A family of languages that where Identified in the spoken by an important part of 18th and 19th Europe and Asia. centuries. The concept is Of the 11 linguistic; the The IE family term is subgroups, one of contains about 140 languages, which them is geographic are classified into Germanic, where (easternmost: English comes India and 11 subgroups. from. westernmost: Europe)
  11. 11. Indo-European Language Family Anatolian Indo- Indic Iranian Iranian
  12. 12. Greek Italic Germanic
  13. 13. Celtic Tocharian Baltic
  14. 14. Slavic Armenian Albanian
  15. 15. Fragmentary Languages (languages that only survive in fragments, inscriptions, also classified as IE) Ligurian Thracian Messapic Phrygian Sicel and Sicanian Illyrian Venetic Others
  16. 16. Phonological correspondence Phonology among some PIE languages PIE Sanskrit Hittite Latin p p p p Kw k/c ku qu
  17. 17. PIE reconstructions based on vocabulary from IE languages Hittite Greek PIE three teri- treîs *trei- foot pata-x podós° *ped- X: The form is Hieroglyphic Luwian °: The genitive case reveals the stem
  18. 18. Morphology ‘PIE, considered a fusional language, is a language were nouns, adjectives, pronouns, indicate their grammatical relationship to other words in a sentence and mark gender and number agreement among words in phrases’ ‘The protolanguage is reconstructed with 8 or 9 cases Cases: which indicate Nominative, genitive, dative, ac grammatical and cusative, ablative, locative, inst semantic distinction’ rumental and vocative.
  19. 19. Such as There is a variety In PIE and its of syntactic patterns Modern descendants from different English languages or French Syntax Due to Word order is not a grammatical Word order Case endings device Like in ‘Strawberries, I like’ PIE As in Modern English Grammatically While in fix elements in We usually a sentence

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