English West Germanic Germanic Indo European Proto-Germanic (IE) (PGmc)Other ProtoLanguages Proto-Indo- European (PIE) Languages
World Languages by percentage of speakers 1.50% 3.50% Indo-European 5% 6% 2% Niger-Congo5% Dravidian 45% Sino-Tibetan Afro-Asiatic 22% Austroasiatic 6% Altaic Austronesian Tai-Kadai 4% Other
Some modern similarities languages of twoLanguages have language share inherited families genes, features are shown from Older in the next languages slideshow
Numbers one, two and three in some Romance languages. Italian French Spanish Portuguese LatinOne Uno Un Uno Um UnusTwo Due Deux Dos Dois DuoThree Tre Trois Tres Tres Tres
Numbers one, two and three in some Germanic languages. English Dutch German Swedish YiddishOne One Een Eins En EynsTwo Two Twee Zwei Två TsveyThree Three Drie Drei Tre Dray
Romance languages share an ancestor language: LATIN. Germanic language’s ancestor must be inferred, a case different from Latin, because Germanic was never written.
Some Germanic vocabulary words that express genetic relationEnglish Dutch German Swedish YiddishLove Liefde Liebe Ljuv LibeMother Moeder Mutter Mo(de)r MuterHouse Huis Haus Hus Hoyz
The Indo-European Language Family A family of languages that where Identified in the spoken by an important part of 18th and 19th Europe and Asia. centuries. The concept is Of the 11 linguistic; the The IE family term is subgroups, one ofcontains about 140 languages, which them is geographic are classified into Germanic, where (easternmost: English comes India and 11 subgroups. from. westernmost: Europe)
Indo-European Language Family Anatolian Indo- IndicIranian Iranian
Fragmentary Languages (languagesthat only survive in fragments, inscriptions, alsoclassified as IE) Ligurian Thracian Messapic Phrygian Sicel and Sicanian Illyrian Venetic Others
Phonological correspondencePhonology among some PIE languages PIE Sanskrit Hittite Latin p p p p Kw k/c ku qu
PIE reconstructions based on vocabulary from IE languages Hittite Greek PIE three teri- treîs *trei- foot pata-x podós° *ped-X: The form is Hieroglyphic Luwian°: The genitive case reveals the stem
Morphology ‘PIE, considered a fusional language, is a language were nouns, adjectives, pronouns, indicate their grammatical relationship to other words in a sentence and mark gender and number agreement among words in phrases’ ‘The protolanguage is reconstructed with 8 or 9 cases Cases: which indicate Nominative, genitive, dative, ac grammatical and cusative, ablative, locative, instsemantic distinction’ rumental and vocative.
Such as There is a variety In PIE and its of syntactic patterns Modern descendants from different English languages or French Syntax Due toWord order is not a grammatical Word order Case endings device Like in ‘Strawberries, I like’ PIE As in Modern English Grammatically While in fix elements in We usually a sentence