WARNING: There are NO aircraft accident videos or obscene language presentedwith in this presentation (Adults may be shocked), seek nearest AED prior to viewing.
Overview• Chapter 9, Aircraft Weight & Balance• Discuss F-16C/D W&B Process• Terms & Definitions (Pilots must know)• Center of Gravity (CG) Application• Management of W&B Control• W&B Check Demo (Cessna 206)• Quick Video - Load & Go• iFly Computation Demo (Falcon 900EX)• Conclusion
Aircraft weight and balance• The weight limits of any aircraft is critical to flight safety. Operatingabove the maximum weight limitation compromises the structural integrity ofan aircraft and adversely affects its performance. Operation with the centerof gravity (cg) outside the approved limits results in control difficulty.
why might an f-16c/d need to be weighted & Balanced?• added parts, hardware, equipment, etc.• new or added paint• airframe modified• after major repairs (??)• periodic requirement (i.e. Every 36 calendar months)
f-16C/D w&B discussion• follow t.o’s (1-1b-50), & (jg’s, as well as any local guidances)• document a/c forms• input data into imds (integrated maintenance data system)• Conduct chart “a”• wash aircraft• hanger a/c for X # of hrs (settle)• refuel/defuel as required• assist qa w&b certified official--towing--lifting/leveling onto weighing scales--operating portable scales--computing weight measurements--opening & closing a/c access panels
Terms and Definitions - As defined by the General Aviation manufacturers association - (gama)• Arm (moment arm) - the horizontal distance in inches from the reference datum line tothe CG of an item. The algebraic sign is plus (+) if measured aft of the datum, and minus(-) if measured forward of the datum.• Basic Empty Weight (GAMA) - the standard empty weight plus the weight ofoptional and special equipment that have been installed.• Datum (reference datum) - an imaginary vertical plane or line from which allmeasurements of arm are taken. The datum is established by the manufacturer. Oncethe datum has been selected, all moment arms and the location of CG range aremeasured from this point.• Delta – Greek letter expressed by the symbol ∆ to indicate a change of values.Example: ∆CG indicates a change (or movement) of the CG.• Floor Load Limit – the max weight the floor can sustain per square inch/foot asprovided by the manufacturer.• Fuel Load - the expendable part of the load of the aircraft. It includes only usable fuel,not fuel required to fill the lines or that which remains trapped in the tank sumps.• Licensed Empty Weight - the empty weight that consists of the airframe, engine(s),unusable fuel, and un-drainable oil plus standard and optional equipment as specified inthe equipment list. Some manufacturers used this term prior to GAMA standardization.
Terms & Definitions Continued• Maximum Landing Weight - the greatest weight that an aircraft normally is allowed tohave at landing.• Maximum Ramp Weight - the total weight of a loaded aircraft, and includes all fuel. Itis greater than the takeoff weight due to the fuel that will be burned duringthe taxi and run-up operations. Ramp weight may also be referred to as taxi weight.• Maximum Takeoff Weight - the maximum allowable weight for takeoff.• Maximum Weight - the maximum authorized weight of the aircraft and all of itsequipment as specified in the TCDS for the aircraft.• Maximum Zero Fuel Weight (GAMA) - the maximum weight, exclusive of usable fuel.• Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC) - the average distance from the leading edge tothe trailing edge of the wing.• Moment - the product of the weight of an item multiplied by its arm. Moments areexpressed in pound-inches (in-lb). Total moment is the weight of the airplane multipliedby the distance between the datum and the CG.• Payload (GAMA) - the weight of occupants, cargo, and baggage.•Note: Refer to additional terms and more in-depth definitions in Chapter 9, pg 9-5
Definition of the term: CGThe center of gravity (CG) is the averagelocation of the weight of the aircraft. Theweight is actually distributed throughout theairplane, and for some problems it isimportant to know the distribution. But fortotal aircraft maneuvering, we need to beconcerned with only the total weight and thelocation of the center of gravity. CG
Continued CG terms & definition• CG limits - the specified forward and aft points within whichthe CG must be located during flight. These limits areindicated on pertinent aircraft specifications.• CG range - the distance between the forward and aft CGlimits indicated on pertinent aircraft specifications. CG
Management of weight and balance control• Title 14 of the code of federal regulations (14 cfr) section 23.23 requires establishment ofthe ranges Of weights and cg’s within which an aircraft may be operated safely. The manufacturerprovides this information, which is included in the approved afm, tcds, or aircraft specifications.• 14 cfr part 125 requires aircraft with 20 or more seats or weighing 6k lbs or more to beweighed every 36 calendar months. Same for Multi-engine aircraft operated under a 14 cfr part135 (other restrictions/guidance may apply)
Weight & Balance DEMO After repairs (Cessna 206)!!Notice!! this task is being conducted by 5 highly qualified a&p mechanics: Joe, jim, jon, jack & jake…avg salary ranges from $30k to $179k
Load & go videoDo you think computations are important when it comes to the weight of an aircraft or what is being loaded or adjusted?
Load & go video Question?• What might happen if cargo is not Calculated as added weight?1) It will Increase the chance of performance deficiencies such as:A. Higher takeoff speedB. Longer takeoff runC. Reduced rate and angle of climbD. Lower maximum altitudeE. Shorter rangeF. Reduced cruising speedG. Reduced maneuverabilityH. Higher stalling speedI. Higher approach and landing speedJ. Longer landing rollK. Excess weight on the nose wheel or tail wheelShorter, Higher, excess, longer, lower, & Reduced Your aircraft s.h.e.l.l. becomes… - reduced -
conclusion• Covered Chapter 9• Discussed an F-16C/D W&B Process• Reviewed pilot must know terms• Overwhelmed with the CG Application• Watched Joe, Jim, Jon, Jack & Jake video• Watched awesome iFly computation-- The aircraft operation within the weightand balance limits is critical to flightsafety & the contents from inside a canof whoop-ass! --