• Launching is depends on the orbit of satellite to be launched.
• Satellites are directly injected into Lower Earth
Orbit(LEO) with the help of Launch Vehicles.
• Shuttle flying into an orbit are inclined at 28.5 degree to the
Equator of Earth Surface.
• Rockets have capabilities to put satellite into orbit which are
above 120 miles from earth surface
Launch Vehicles are classified as
1. Expendable Launch Vehicle - Delta & Ariane
2. Reusable Launch Vehicle - Space Shuttle or STS
Expendable Launch Vehicle
An expendable launch system is uses to carry a
payload into space. The vehicles used in expendable launch
systems are designed to be used only once (i.e. they are
"expended" during a single flight), and their components are not
recovered for re-use after launch.
Reusable Launch Vehicle
A reusable launch system is capable of launching a
payload into space more than once. No completely reusable
orbital launch system .
The Space Shuttle was partially reusable:
• Space Shuttle main engines
• two solid rocket boosters
were reused after several months of refitting work for
each launch. The external tank and launch vehicle load frame
were discarded after each flight
To launch satellite above 200 km direct injection by rocket is not
possible. In such cases ,the satellite is placed into transfer orbit
between destination orbit it is known as “Hohmann Transfer orbit”
Video -> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDbWsBzfkiM
Hohmann transfer orbit is tangent at the perigee of
LEO and destination orbit. It carry
• Perigee kick motor
• Apogee kick motor
• Propulsion system
• Auto piloting
• System required for satellite
Perigee kick motor – Provide required thrust at perigee
which injects satellite into transfer
orbit from circular to elliptical.
Apogee kick motor – It changes the velocity of satellite
which require transfer orbit from
elliptical to circular.
Launching of a satellite into orbit is an extraordinary
complex and costly operation.
Launch vehicle includes
• propellant storage and pumps
• guidance and control
India First Launch Vehicle SLV-3 (1980)
PSLV Launch more then 55 satellite into orbit