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Sitting is the New Smoking

Recent research links many health risks to prolonged sedentary behavior. This webinar looked at the new research findings, current behavior trends, and strategies to break up sedentary time and incorporate more light activity into your day.

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Sitting is the New Smoking

  1. 1. Sitting is the New Smoking Presented by Neal Andrews, MUS Wellness May 22nd, 2013
  2. 2. Sitting is the New Smoking Thanks to the MSU College of Education, Health and Human Development!
  3. 3. Sedentary Lifestyle Trivia (i.e. Prolonged Sitting)  The term sedentary comes from the Latin ‘sedere’ (to sit) and can be defined as any waking sitting or lying behavior with low energy expenditure. Technically, <1.5METS  One of the first “sitting” studies was released in 1953. The study found that seated bus-drivers had twice the risk of heart attack when compared to active bus conductors.  A 2011 study found that the average U.S. adult spends 50- 60% of waking hours in “sedentary pursuits.”  Driving. Sitting at a desk/computer. Watching TV.  According to 2010 Neilson ratings, the average U.S. adult spends 35.5 hours per week (2130 minutes) watching TV.  Most of us spend more time sitting (9.3 hours) than sleeping.  Results of most studies look at sedentary behavior independently from exercise.
  4. 4. Effects of Sedentary Lifestyle (i.e. Prolonged Sitting)  Meta-Analysis  Sedentary time in adults and the association with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death. (Diabetologia, Wilmot, et al., 2012)  Looked at 18 studies involving nearly 800,000 participants  Results: Higher levels of sedentary behavior were associated with: • 112% increase in the relative risk of diabetes, • 147% increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, • 90% increase in the risk of cardiovascular mortality • 49% increase in the risk of all-cause mortality  These results were largely independent of exercise. (i.e. high levels of sedentary behavior are still associated with higher risks, even if the person is getting moderate exercise.)
  5. 5. Effects of Sedentary Lifestyle (i.e. Prolonged Sitting)  Television Viewing Study  Television viewing time and reduced life expectancy. (Veerman et al. 2012.)  Observational study based in Australia. 11,247 participants age 25 and above (mean 50).  Results: Compared with persons who watch no TV, those who spend a lifetime average of 6 hours per day watching TV can expect to live 4.8 years less.  On average, every single hour of TV viewed after the age of 25 reduces the viewer’s life expectancy by 21.8 minutes. • This statistic is comparable to other major chronic disease factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, and smoking. • Smoking. 1 cigarette=11 minutes off of life span.
  6. 6. Effects of Sedentary Lifestyle (i.e. Prolonged Sitting)  From the researchers:  Results independent from exercise. “…a person who does a lot of exercise but watches six hours of TV” every night “might have a similar mortality risk as someone who does not exercise and watches no TV.” --Dr. J. Lennert Veerman, University of Queensland (Australia). “Many of us in modern society have jobs which involve sitting at a computer all day. We might convince ourselves that we are not at risk of disease because we manage the recommended 30 minutes of exercise a day…*but we+ are still at risk if we sit all day.” --Dr. Emma Wilmot, University of Leicester (England).
  7. 7. What is a M.E.T.?  M.E.T.: Metabolic Equivalent of Task  1 M.E.T.: Energy expenditure of an average person seated at rest.  1 calorie per kg per hour. (For most persons somewhere a little more than a calorie per minute.
  8. 8. What is a M.E.T.?  M.E.T.: Metabolic Equivalent of Task  1 M.E.T.: Energy expenditure of an average person seated at rest.  Walking 2mph=2.5 M.E.T.S.  Walking 3.3mph=3.5 M.E.T.S.  Walking 4mph=5 M.E.T.S.  Jogging 6mph=10 M.E.T.S.  Running 8.5mph=14 M.E.T.S.  *All of these are on level ground. Walking/running up a grade increases energy expenditure.
  9. 9. Breakdown of Waking Hours Sedentary Time, 9.3 LIPA, 6.5 MVPA, 0.7 LIPA: Low Intensity Physical Activity MVPA: Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (Formal Exercise)
  10. 10. Breakdown of Waking Hours  Sedentary time is not commonly displaced with MVPA, but with higher levels of light-intensity activity.  Substituting sedentary behavior with standing or light-intensity physical activity may reduce the risk of chronic disease and mortality, independently to the amount of MVPA undertaken.  From a study from the Sedentary Behavior Research Network Sedentary Time LIPA MVPA An activity profile that looks more like this should lower Risk Factors like the ones described in the Wilmot study: Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, Cardiovascular Mortality, and All-cause Mortality.
  11. 11. Breakdown of Waking Hours An office Tuesday An office Friday, NBTWW 14,000 Steps!
  12. 12. Breakdown of Waking Hours Sunday, no exercise Non-stop Saturday
  13. 13. Stretch Break!!!
  14. 14. Effects of Sedentary Lifestyle (i.e. Prolonged Sitting)  Why is sedentary behavior so harmful? “The most striking feature of prolonged sitting is the absence of skeletal muscle contractions, particularly in the very large muscles of the lower limbs.” --Dr. David W. Dunstan, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute in Australia.  When muscles don’t contract, they require less fuel, and the surplus, in the form of blood sugar, can accumulate in the bloodstream.
  15. 15. Effects of Sedentary Lifestyle (i.e. Prolonged Sitting)  Why is sedentary behavior so harmful?  Effect on Metabolism  Triglycerol Uptake  Reduced HDL levels  Impaired glucose tolerance by peripheral insulin resistance • Skeletal muscle is the largest insulin-sensitive organ in the body, accounting for 80% of insulin- stimulated glucose disposal. • Excess sitting has a “rapid and deleterious impact on insulin resistance and glycaemia” • Largest skeletal muscles in the body? Hips and legs.  Sedentary behavior leads to the depression of metabolic processes  Effect on Joints  Synovial Fluid  Blood Flow/Circulation
  16. 16. Effects of Sedentary Lifestyle (i.e. Prolonged Sitting)  Good News!  Breaking up periods of prolonged sitting with 2-minute bouts of LIPA every 20 minutes in overweight and obese adults resulted in positive changes in blood glucose and insulin levels compared to uninterrupted sitting.  Larger number of breaks in sedentary time are associated with more favorable metabolic profiles in one study.  In TV study, those who watched <2 hours of TV per day were categorized as “low-risk.” • “All things in moderation!”
  17. 17. Effects of Sedentary Lifestyle (i.e. Prolonged Sitting)  What about standing?  Prolonged standing (without movement), can have undesired effects as well. • Blood Pooling • Low back stiffness  Changing positions, breaking up sedentary time, and Movement are the keys to lower health-risks.
  18. 18. Effects of Sedentary Lifestyle (i.e. Prolonged Sitting)  What about sleep?  We are only referring to behaviors during waking hours.  Sleep is restorative, beneficial, and necessary to our body, our body systems, and our brain.  Good sleep helps relieve stress.  Even studies linking sleep to weight loss.
  19. 19. Recommendations  Replacing sedentary behavior/time with light-intensity activities in addition to increased moderate to vigorous physical activity (exercise) and healthy dietary practices.  Regardless of how much MVPA you are getting, everyone who works at a desk, or a job which requires a lot of sitting, should raise awareness about how to minimize the effects of sedentary behavior.  If you predominantly sit at work, the last thing you need when you get home is more sitting.  “There is absolutely no doubt that exercise is beneficial for health.” If you exercise for 30 minutes a day, “take time to reflect on your activity levels for the remaining 23.5 hours,” and *aim to+ “be active, sit less.”  Dr. Emma Wilmot
  20. 20. Practical Applications  Take a break—from sitting!  Stand up. Stretch. Walk. Break up prolonged sitting!  Use the stairs rather than elevators/escalators.  Park farther away from your destination.  Transportation options? Ride a bike more?  Stand during phone calls.  Walking meetings. Standing meetings.  Using the bathroom on another floor/area of building.  Office Behavioral architecture. • Put the garbage bin/printer on the other side of the office. • Adjustable workstations.  Use triggers to remind you to get up. • Alarms, Bell Tower, etc.
  21. 21. Online Wellness Resources    