Food hygiene and control
SITHARA V . P
II nd semester
• Food is a potential source of infection and is liable
to contamination by microbes, at any point during
its journey from the producer to the consumer.
• Food hygiene may be defined as the sanitary science
which aims to produce food which is safe for the
consumer and of good keeping quality.
• It covers a wide field and includes the rearing,
feeding, marketing and slaughter of animals as well
as the sanitation procedures designed to prevent
bacteria of human origin reaching food stuff.
• Food hygiene in its widest sense, implies hygiene
in the production, handling, distribution and
• WHO (1984) has defined food hygiene as all
conditions and measures that are necessary
during production, processing, storage,
distribution and preparation of food to ensure
that it is safe, wholesome and fit for human
• The primary aim of food hygiene is to prevent
food poisoning and other food borne illness.
• The objective of control has three aspects
• 1. economic
• 2. aesthetic
• 3.public health
Different branches of food hygiene
• Milk hygiene
• Meat hygiene
• Fish hygiene
• Egg hygiene
• Hygiene of vegetables and fruits
• Food handlers hygiene
• Sanitation of eating place.
• Milk is an efficient vehicle for a great variety of
• Milk get contaminated by various sources like
udder, utensils, personal hygiene of the
handlers, storage environment, water etc.
Milk borne diseases
• A joint FAOWHO expert committee(1970) on
milk hygiene classified milk borne disease as
under- infections of animals that can be
transmitted to man.
• Streptococcal infections
Infections primary to man that can be
transmitted through milk
• Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers
• Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.
Clean and safe milk
• First essential is a healthy and clean animal.
• Secondly, the premises where the animal is
housed and milked should be sanitary.
• Milk vessels must be sterile and kept covered.
• Water supply should be bacteriologically safe.
• Milk handlers must be free from communicable
• Milk should be cooled immediately to 10o c after
it is drawn to retard bacterial growth.
Methylene blue reduction test
• It is indirect method for detection of
microorganisms in milk.
• Test is carried out on the milk accepted for
• Definite quantity of methylene blue is added to
10 ml of milk and sample is held at a uniform
temperature of 37 deg.c until the blue colour is
• This test serves as confirmation of heavy
contamination and compared with direct counts
of bacteria , it saves time and money.
Methods of pasteurization
• Holder (VAT) method – in this process milk is
kept at 63-66 0 c for at least 30 min and cooled
to 5 0 c .
• HTST method –milk is rapidly heated to a
temperature of nearly 72 0 c is held at that
temperature for not less than 15 sec and is then
rapidly cooled to 4 0 c .
• The diseases which may be transmitted by eating
unwholesome meat are:
• Tapeworm infestations
• Tinea saginata
• Trichinella spiralis
• Fasciola hepatica
• Animal intended for slaughter are subjected to
proper ante mortem and post mortem inspection
by qualified veterinary staff.
• Meat inspection is a very important process
before being accepted or rejected.
Anti mortem inspection
The term ante -mortem ‘’before death’’
• Is the inspection of live animals and birds prior
to being slaughtered.
• To screen all animals destined to slaughter
• To ensure that animals are properly rested and
that proper clinical information ,which will
assist in the disease diagnosis and judgement is
• To identify sick animals.
Antemortem rejection –it is based on
• Sheep pox
• Routine postmortem examination of a carcass
should be carried out as soon as possible after the
completion of dressing
• It helps to detect abnormalities, so that products
only conditionally fit for human consumption are
passed as food.
Signs of generalized disease are
• Inflammation of joints
• Lesions in different organs
Postmortem rejection –it is based on
• Cysticercus bovis, liver fluke, abscesses,
Sarcocystis sps, hydatidosis, septicaemia,
parasitic and nodular infections of liver and
lungs, tuberculosis, Cysticercus cellulosae.
Good meat qualities
It should be neither pale pink nor a
deep purple tint.
Elastic to touch
Should not be slimy
Have an agreable odour.
Slaughter house hygiene
• Hygiene of slaughter house is important to
prevent contamination of meat during the
process of dressing.
• There is a model public health act (1955) in
India, which standardizes on the location
,structure , disposal of wastes, water supply
,examination of animals , storage of meat ,
transportation of meat and miscellaneous other
activities connected with meat processing.
Location: Preferably away from residential
Structure: Floors and walls up to 3 feet
should be impervious and easy to clean.
Disposal of wastes: Blood, offal, etc… should
not be discharged into public sewers but
should be collected separately.
Water Supply: should be independent,
adequate and continuous.
Examination of animals:
Antemortem and postmortem examination to be arranged. Animals
or meat found unfit for human consumption should be destroyed or
animals other than those to be slaughtered should not be allowed inside
Storage of meat:
Meat should be stored in fly-proof and rat-proof rooms; for overnight
storage, the temperature of the room shall be maintained below 5°C.
Transportation of meat:
Meat shall be transported in fly-proof covered vans.
• Fish deteriorates or loses its freshness because
of autolysis which sets in after death and
because of the bacteria with which they become
• Stale fish should be condemned.
• The signs of fresh fish:
1) It is in a state of stiffness or rigor mortis
2) The gills are a bright red
3) The eyes are clear and prominent
Tinned fish hygiene
Inspection of tinned fish-
• The tin must be new and clean without leakages
• There should be no evidence of having been
tampered with such as sealed openings.
• On opening the tin, the contents should not
blown out which indicates decomposition.
• Although the majority of freshly laid eggs are
sterile inside, the shells become contaminated by
faecal matter from the hen.
• Microorganisms including pathogenic
Salmonella can penetrate a cracked shell and
enter the egg yolk leading to spoilage .
• Eggs can also be pasteurized to increase the shelf
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES HYGIENE
• Vegetables & fruits host many
pathogens like bacteria , fungal
,protozoan which can enter the
plant material during or after
• Generally proper washing and
sanitization are employed to
increase shelf life and product
• Freshly harvested products are
routinely washed to remove soils
,pesticide residues ,insects , plant
debris , and microbes.
Hygiene for Food Handlers
• Food sanitation rests directly upon the state of
personal hygiene and habits of the person
working in food industries.
• The infections which are likely to be transmitted
by the food handlers are diarrhoea, dysenteries,
typhoid and para-typhoid fevers, entero-viruses,
viral hepatitis, protozoa cysts, eggs of
helminthes, streptococcal and staphylococcal
infections and salmonellosis.
Rules for food handling
• Medical examination carried out of all food
handlers at the time of employment. Any person
with a history of typhoid fever, diphtheria,
chronic dysentery, tuberculosis or any other
communicable disease should not be employed.
• Persons with wounds, skin infections should
not be permitted to handle food or utensils.
• The day to day health appraisal of the food
handlers is also equally important; those who
are ill should be excluded from food handling
• Any illness which occurs in a food handler's
family should at once be notified
• Education of food handlers in matters of
personal hygiene, food handling, utensils,
dishwashing, and insect and rodent control
is the best means of promoting food hygiene.
• Personnel hygiene to be promoted:
(a) Hands: The hands should be clean at all
times. scrubbed and washed with soap and
water immediately after visiting a lavatory.
nails to be kept trimmed and free from dirt.
(b) Hair – to provide covering to the head
(c) Overalls: Clean white overalls to be worn by
all food handlers.
(d) Habits: Coughing and sneezing in the vicinity
of food, licking the fingers before picking up an
article of food, smoking on food premises are to
SANITATION OF EATING PLACES
• It is a challenging problem in India.
• There some minimum standards suggested for
restaurants and eating places in India under the
MODEL PUBLIC HEALTH ACT, govt.of
• Location: Shall not be near filth or open drain,
stable, manure pit and other sources of
• Floors: To be higher than the adjoining land,
made with impervious material and easy to keep
(a) Rooms where meals are served shall not be
less than 100 sq. feet and shall provide
accommodation for a maximum of 10 persons.
(b) Walls up to 3 feet should be smooth, corners
to be rounded; should be impervious and easily
c) Lighting and ventilation – ample natural lighting
facilities aided by artificial lighting with good
circulation of air are necessary.
It should be ample floor space , window opening ,
proper flooring and ventilation.
(5) Storage of cooked food:
Separate room to be provided. For
long storage, control of
temperature is necessary.
(6) Storage of uncooked foodstuffs.
Perishable and non-perishable
articles to be kept separately in
rat-proof and vermin-proof
space; for storage of perishable
articles temperature control
should be adopted.
Flies on the Food
Should be reasonably strong and easy to keep
clean and dry.
(8) Disposal of refuse: To be collected in
covered, impervious bins and disposed of twice a
(9) Water supply: To be an independent source,
adequate, continuous and safe.
(10) Washing facilities: To be provided.
Cleaning of utensils and crockery to be done in
hot water and followed by disinfection
ADULTERATION OF FOODS
• Adulteration of foods consists of a large number of
practices - mixing substitution, abstraction,
concealing the quality, putting up decomposed
foods for sale, misbranding or giving labels and
addition of poisons.
• Some forms of adulteration are injurious to health,
eg., adulteration of mustard oil with argemone oil.
But for the most part food adulteration has an
economic rather than a sanitary significance eg.,
addition of water to milk
• “….the regulatory activity enforce by national
or local authorities to provide consumer
protection and ensure that all foods during
production, handling, storage, processing, and
distribution are safe, wholesome and fit for
human consumption; conform to safety and
quality requirements; and are honestly and
accurately labeled as prescribed by law”.
Food control administration
• This varies from country to country.
• The central ,state and local bodies are
responsible to enact laws and implementations.
• There should be laws to control raw materials ,
processing foods , preservation methods and
control of milk or meat hygiene , etc..
Laws relating to food control in India are
• The prevention of food adulteration act
1954,amended in 1976,1986.
• Prevention of food adulteration rules,1955.
• Indian penal code 1860 as amended.
• Cantonment act 1924.
• The Bombay municipal corporation act ,1888.
• The Bombay provincial municipal corporations
• The Maharashtra zilla parishads and panchayat
samiti’s act ,1961.
• Tamil nadu public health act,1939 and so on for
PROVISIONS OF THE ORIGINAL PFA ACT,1954
1) Definition of food.
2) Definition of food adulteration or misbranding.
3) Appointment of an advisory committee called
the central committee for food standards
4) Establishment of the central food laboratory
,Calcutta, in 1955 and later in each state to
give a final option in cases challenged in the
court of law.
5) Restriction on imports of adulterated or
misbranded foods or other spoilt foods.
6) Power of the state governments to appoint
public analysts or food inspectors.
7) Procedure for food inspectors in drawing and
dispatching sample of food to laboratory.
8) Powers to the central govt for defining the
standards of quality ,control , over production ,
distribution ,sales , packing , labelling ,etc.
9) Penal provisions provided a maximum
imprisonment of one year or a minimum fine
of Rs.2000/- in the first instance and
imprisonment of 2 years on the second offence
and in the third instance, imprisonment up to
• Codex alimentarius is a collection of international
food standards prepared by codex alimentarius
commission (organ of FAO/WHO food standard
Indian standards are based on this .
• PFA standards based on PFA act 1954 “central
committee of food standards” revised periodically
to get minimum level of quality of food stuff
attainable under Indian conditions.
• AGMARK (Agricultural Marketing ,
HO , Faridabad) standards set by the
director of marketing and inspection,
govt of India.
• The AGMARK gives consumers the
assurance of quality in accordance
with standards laid down.
• H azard A nalysis and C ritical C ontrol P oints
• The HACCP system, which is science based and
systematic, identifies specific hazards and measures
for their control to ensure the safety of food.
• HACCP is a tool to assess hazards and establish
control systems that focus on prevention rather than
relying mainly on end-product testing.
• Any HACCP system is capable of accommodating
change, such as advances in equipment design,
processing procedures or technological
• The successful application of HACCP requires the
full commitment and involvement of management
and the work force.
• It also requires a multidisciplinary approach; this
multidisciplinary approach should include, when
appropriate, expertise in agronomy, veterinary
health, production, microbiology, medicine, public
health, food technology, environmental health,
chemistry and engineering, according to the
• The application of HACCP is compatible with the
implementation of quality management systems,
such as the ISO 9000 series, and is the system of
choice in the management of food safety within such
HACCP’S SEVEN PRINCIPLES FOR
1. Analyze Hazards
2. Identify Critical Control Points
3. Establish Critical Limits for each Critical
4. Establish Monitoring Procedures
5. Establish Corrective Actions
6. Establish Verification Activities
7. Establish Records and Documentation
Principal food control options available
Develop an understanding of food hazards.
Develop an appreciation of personal hygiene ,sanitation
,and food hygiene.
Develop an understanding of microbial contaminants and
Introduce factors affecting microbial growth and survival.
Monitor adherance to a recommended or required food
Follow a recommended or required guideline such as good
Cite violations or make recommendations for improving
surveys and testing of
•Sample and analyze ingredients,
components , and finished product.
•Monitor for pathogens ,indicators,
total numbers ,etc.
•Compare to a standard ,a guideline ,
a defect action level ,etc. and advice
or regulate accordingly.
“New approaches” •Combinations of the above to
improve upon the prevention of
food borne diseases