Metabolism of magnesiumand it’s disorder Submitted by ABDUL MUHEEM M.PHARMA 2ND SEM. (PHARMACEUTICS) JAMIA HAMDARD
Content –• Introduction• Sources• Diet intake• Biochemical functions• Action of Mg• Transport of Mg• Disorders• References
Introduction• Inorganic elemental atoms that are essential nutrients.• Not changed by digestion or metabolism.• The adult body contains about 20gm Mg ,70% of which is found in bones in combination with Ca & phosphorous.• Soft tissue magnesium functions as a cofactor of many enzymes involved in energy metabolism, protein synthesis, RNA and DNA synthesis.• Magnesium is an essential mineral used for hundreds of biochemical reactions, making it crucial for health.
• All minerals are interconnected with each other.
Sources –• Green leafy vegetables• Seafood• Legumes• Nuts• Dairy products• Chocolate• Brown rice• Whole grains.
• Bioavailability influenced by: Calcium, Phosphorous.• Even the magnesium inside whole grains and fresh vegetables has been declining steadily in recent years because of depletion of minerals in our soils, making magnesium supplementation necessary for most people.
The modern diet, with an overabundance of refinedgrains, processed foods and sugars, contains very littlemagnesium.
Diet intake-• ADULT MEN (19 to 30) 400mg• 31 yrs. and older 420mg• ADULT WOMEN (19 to 30) 310mg• 31 yrs. and older 320mg
Biochemical functions of Mg-• Magnesium is the most critical mineral required for electrical stability of every cell in the body.• Mg is required for the formation of bones & teeth.
• Mg serves as a cofactor for several enzymes requiring ATP eq- glucokinase , phosphofructokinase, hexokinase.
Magnesium is considered the “anti-stress” mineral. Itis a natural tranquilizer that functions to relax skeletalmuscles as well as the smooth muscles of bloodvessels and the gastrointestinal tract
Action of magnesium –• Initially much of this magnesium is readily exchangeable with serum and therefore represents a moderately accessible magnesium store which can be drawn on in times of deﬁciency.• Neutralizes negatively charged ions• Energy metabolism
• In plants, magnesium is necessary for synthesis of chlorophyll and photosynthesis.
Transport of Mg- • Magnesium ions (Mg2+) in cellular biology are usually in almost all senses opposite to Ca2+ ions, because they are bivalent too, but have greater electronegativity and thus hold on to water molecules stronger, preventing passage through the channel (even though magnesium is smaller). Thus Mg2+ ions block Ca2+ channels (NMDA channels) for example, etc.
• Thus Mg2+ ions block Ca2+ channels (NMDA channels) for example, etc.
Signs of severe magnesium deficiency include:Extreme thirstExtreme hungerFrequent urinationSores or bruises that heal slowlyDry, itchy skinUnexplained weight lossBlurry vision that changes from day to dayUnusual tiredness or drowsinessTingling or numbness in the hands or feetFrequent or recurring skin, gum, bladder or vaginal yeastinfections
• first symptoms of deficiency can be subtle – as most magnesium is stored in the tissues, leg cramps, foot pain, or muscle ‘twitches’ can be the first sign.
• Magnesium deficiency will disturb sleep and background stress levels.• Other early signs of deficiency include loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weakness.
• Magnesium deficiency worsens, numbness, tingling, seizures, personality changes, abnormal heart rhythms, and coronary spasms can occur at resulted lead to death
• Persons only slightly deficient in magnesium become irritable, highly-strung, and sensitive to noise, hyper- excitable, apprehensive and belligerent.• A magnesium deficiency can affect virtually every system of the body.
• Symptoms or signs of the cardiovascular system include palpitations, heart arrhythmias, and angina due to spasms of the coronary arteries, high blood pressure and mitral valve prolapse.• Anxiety and panic attacks are addressed by magnesium by keeping adrenal stress hormones under control so it really helps in dealing with stressful emergencies.
• Magnesium deficiency is a common factor associated with insulin resistance.
• Magnesium deficiency is also associated with low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia).
Possible manifestations of magnesium deficiency:Low energy FatigueWeakness ConfusionNervousness AnxiousnessIrritability Seizures (and tantrums)Poor digestion PMS and hormonal imbalancesInability to sleep Muscle tension, spasm/crampsCalcification of organs Weakening of the bonesAbnormal heart rhythm
References –• Therapeutic use of Mg in anesthesiology, intensive care and emer med: a review ,Laurent Dubé, Jean- Claude, Can J intensive care 2003• Review of functions of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, Shashank Joshi, JAPI Aug 2008• Magnesium and the anaesthetist,David Gambling,Laird Birmingham; Can J Anaesth 1988 / 35: 6 / pp644-54.• Biochemistry by U.Satyanarayana,U.Chakrapani,third edition ,arunabha sen books & allied(p) ltd.