Immunology xvi ontogenesis_pregnancy

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Immunology xvi ontogenesis_pregnancy

  1. 1. Immunity in pregnancy, ontogenesis of immunity
  2. 2. Uterine mechanisms of fetus protection against mother´s immune system <ul><li>Most cell does not cross placental barrier . </li></ul><ul><li>No classical HLA- antigens are expressed on trophoblast . </li></ul><ul><li>Non classical HLA-G antigens protect trophoblast cells from NK cells. Their presentation of antigens probably leads to suppression of speciphic immune response. </li></ul><ul><li>CD46 on the surface of trophoblast cleaves C3b. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Maternal mechanisms protection fetus from the immune system attack <ul><li>Mother is in Th2 predominance </li></ul><ul><li>Possible immunosuppressive effects of HCG, high serum levels of progesterone, alfa-feto protein </li></ul><ul><li>Partial block of lymph nodes draining the uterus </li></ul>
  4. 5. Immune system in infancy and childhood <ul><li>Increased susceptibility to infectio n s diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical course of in f e c tions is usually mild. </li></ul><ul><li>Exception – severe course of infections caused by encapsulated bacteria during first two years. </li></ul><ul><li>Atopic diseases usually begin in early childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Au toimmune diseases are relatively rare. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Immune system in adulthood <ul><li>Infectious diseases are infrequent, but may be severe in course. </li></ul><ul><li>Autoimmune diseases typically begin in early adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>High prevalence of al l ergic diseases continues from childhood </li></ul>
  6. 7. Immunity in seniors <ul><li>Weak primary immune response, secondary imm u ne response is usually normal. </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in lymphocytes, mainly CD4+, serum immunoglobulin levels are usually increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Immune response is generally decreased, clinical symptoms of infection are milder than in young persons. </li></ul><ul><li>Diturbe d regul a tion of the immune system leads to frequent occurrence of autoantibodies and paraproteins, but this does not lea d to clinical diseases. </li></ul>

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