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01 microbiology and_medicine

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01 microbiology and_medicine

  1. 1. Institute for Microbiology, Medical Faculty of Masaryk University and St. Anna Faculty Hospital in Brno Miroslav Votava, Vladana Woznicová MICROBIOLOGY AND MEDICINE February 1 6 , 200 9
  2. 2. What is the Medical Microbiology? <ul><li>Medical microbiology = complex of sciences about microorganisms ( microbes ) that are of significance in medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, medical microbiology deals with: </li></ul><ul><li>microbes called pathogenic which cause diseases of man or animals </li></ul><ul><li>microbes which form so called normal microflora of human beings and animals </li></ul><ul><li>mutual relationships between microbes and their host </li></ul><ul><li>relations between the microbes and the environment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Different kinds of microbiology <ul><li>Actually, there are two kinds of medical microbiology: human and veterinary one </li></ul><ul><li>But most often medical microbiology is considered as a science about microbes important for human medicine only </li></ul><ul><li>A part of medical microbiology which deals with the etiology, pathogenesis and diagnostics of diseases caused by microbes is called clinical microbiology </li></ul><ul><li>Besides medical microbiology, there are: </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitary microbiology </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental microbiology (of soil, water, plants etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Food microbiology </li></ul><ul><li>Other kinds of industrial microbiology </li></ul>
  4. 4. Division of microbiology <ul><li>bacteria bacteriology </li></ul><ul><li>mi c romycetes (moulds & yeasts) mycology </li></ul><ul><li>(algae) ( algology) </li></ul><ul><li>parasites parasitology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protozoa protozoology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helminths helminthology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arthropods entomology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>viruses virology </li></ul><ul><li>general microbiology × special microbiology </li></ul>
  5. 5. B acteria Bacillus subtilis, photo: B. Skalka
  6. 6. M i c romycetes (moulds & yeasts) Aspergillus niger (left), Candida Albicans (right)
  7. 7. P arasites Enterobius vermicularis, photo: M.Dvořáčková
  8. 8. V iruses The chicken embryo (right), photo: M.Dvořáčková
  9. 9. What should we know about the microbe X ? – I <ul><li>1. Classification, morphology, structure </li></ul><ul><li>Is it a bacterium, a yeast, or a protozoon? </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterium: is it G+, G-, or does it stain differently? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it a coccus, rod, filament, spiral? </li></ul><ul><li>How are they arranged? In pairs, chains, clumps, palisades? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they produce spores, capsules, granules? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Physiology, biochemistry, genetics, tenacity </li></ul><ul><li>Is it an anaerobe? </li></ul><ul><li>Has it got any important biochemical property? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it interesting from the point of genetics? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it tenacious, or delicate? </li></ul>
  10. 10. What should we know about the microbe X ? – II <ul><li>3. Antigenic structure </li></ul><ul><li>Does the microbe exist in one or several antigenic types? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Pathogenicity </li></ul><ul><li>Which disease or syndromes does it cause? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their Latin names? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Pathogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>What is the port of entry, dissemination through the body, excretion from it? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the symptoms develop? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the main factors of pathogenicity? </li></ul><ul><li>6. Immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Does it form at all? </li></ul><ul><li>Transient, or lifelong? Humoral, or cellular one? </li></ul>
  11. 11. What should we know about the microbe X ? – III <ul><li>7. Epidemiology </li></ul><ul><li>Source of infection: man, animal, environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Way of transmission? </li></ul><ul><li>8. Prevention or prophylaxis </li></ul><ul><li>Do we vaccinate, or do we immunize passively? </li></ul><ul><li>Type of vaccine: attenuated, inactivated, toxoid? </li></ul><ul><li>9. Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>What is the drug of choice? </li></ul><ul><li>If an antibiotic, which one? </li></ul>
  12. 12. What should we know about the microbe X ? – IV <ul><li>10. Laboratory diagnostics </li></ul><ul><li>Detection of the microbe – direct or indirect one? </li></ul><ul><li>If the direct one, what sample is taken from </li></ul><ul><li> the patient? </li></ul><ul><li> How is it examined? </li></ul><ul><li> If by culture, is a special medium needed? </li></ul><ul><li> How is the isolated strain identified? </li></ul><ul><li>If the indirect one, is a special serologic reaction </li></ul><ul><li> needed? </li></ul><ul><li> What is considered to be the positive result? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Anniversaries 2009 – I <ul><li>335 1674 Protozoa first seen by van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><li>260 1749 * Edward Jenner , founder of vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>against smallpox </li></ul><ul><li>145 1864 Pasteur discovered that wine is spoiled by </li></ul><ul><li>microbes </li></ul><ul><li>130 1879 Neisser discovered gonococci </li></ul><ul><li>125 1884 Löffler & Klebs: agent of diphtheria </li></ul><ul><li>Eberth & Gaffky: agent of typhoid fever </li></ul><ul><li>Metchnikoff described phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Gram described „Gram staining“ </li></ul><ul><li>115 1894 Kitasato & Yersin: agent of plague </li></ul>
  14. 14. Anniversaries 2009 – II <ul><li>90 1919 Bordet : Nobel prize for discovery of </li></ul><ul><li> BWR, complement, agent of pertussis </li></ul><ul><li>70 1939 Domagk: effect of sulphonamides on </li></ul><ul><li> gonococci </li></ul><ul><li>65 1944 Waksman discovered streptomycin </li></ul><ul><li>55 1954 Salk: inactivated vaccine against polio </li></ul><ul><li>Enders et al. grew poliovirus on cell culture </li></ul><ul><li>20 1989 Bishop & Varmus: Nobel prize for discovery </li></ul><ul><li> of cell origin of retroviral oncogenes </li></ul>
  15. 15. Recommended teaching material <ul><li>1) Basic textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Greenwood et al.: Medical Microbiology, 17th Ed., 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives : </li></ul><ul><li>Murray et al.: Medical Microbiology </li></ul><ul><li>Mims et al.: Medical Microbiology </li></ul><ul><li>2) Lecture notes </li></ul><ul><li>3) List of questions </li></ul><ul><li>4) Protocols from practical exercises </li></ul><ul><li>+ www.medmicro.info </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Thank you for your attention </li></ul>

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