GDL: Defined stages Limits on number of passengers, night driving Some require accompanied driver – Israel 3 months, Germany 1 year for 17 year olds Global movement to stricter GDL programs In-car camera: Promoted by insurance companies – policy reduction Private decision, payment
iSafe’s identification technologies: Face recognition Fingerprint identification RFID Keypad iSafe is the only solution that focuses on the new driver – making sure they get quality driving experience.
Rosenbloom i safe final 20.8.13
An Innovative System forAn Innovative System for
Novice Driver Accompanying MonitoringNovice Driver Accompanying Monitoring
Bar Ilan University
The road is a very risky place for novice drivers, in
particular due to inexperience and poor driving skills
Young drivers are seeking more sensations and take
more risks in driving than elder drivers (Dunlop &
Romer, 2010; Rosenbloom & Wolf, 2002).
Driving skills can be built especially by increased
driving and exposure to risks on the road (Li Lin &
The hierarchical model of driving behavior suggested by
Keskinen (1996) presents the process of acquisition of
driving from the lowest level - ‘vehicle maneuvering’, i.e.
controlling the speed, direction and position of the car,
through the level of ‘mastering traffic situations’, which
means adaptation of behavior to the demands of a traffic
situation up to the level of ‘goals and context of driving’,
which refers to the purpose and circumstances of driving.
The highest level is called ‘goals for life and skills for
living’, which refers to the importance of cars and
driving for the drivers’ personal development and to
skills for self-control.
•The challenge for novice drivers’ training is to
elevate drivers to higher level. This process can be
viewed by adopting cognitive concepts referring to
processes of learning, automaticity and
• Driving has often been identified as an example of
behavior that becomes proceduralized or automated
with extended practice (Fitts & Posner, 1967; Shiffrin
& Schneider, 1977; Moors & De Houwer, 2006).
• The role of automaticity in skilled performance is
represented in theories of knowledge representation,
problem solving, and manual control (Shiffrin &
Automatic performance has generally been
characterized as efficient, unintentional, and
unconscious behavior that has become
proceduralized through extensive practice (Bargh &
Chartrand, 1999; Moors & De Houwer, 2006).
Graduated driver licensing (GDL) rules in many
countries are supposed to allow beginning drivers to
get their initial driving experience under less risky
conditions and to gradually ease them into more
complex driving situations (Morrisey, Grabowski, Dee &
Campbell , 2006).
The concept of graduated driver licensing (GDL) was
introduced in the mid-1970s to address this issue and
has since become an increasingly popular approach to
cope with the “young driver paradox” (Prato, Toledo,
Lotan and Taubma-Ben-Ari, 2010).
• This paradox relates to the contradiction
between the poor driving skills of the young
drivers on the one hand and to the need for
intensive driving for practice on the other
• This reasons that driving experience and skills
can mainly be built by increased driving and
exposure to risks on the road.
A graduated licensing system generally involves three
(a) the first stage is a supervised learner’s period that
lasts for a period of 3 to 6 months;
(b) the learner’s period is followed by an intermediate
licensing phase that permits unsupervised driving
only in less risky situations; and
(c) finally, a full privileged license is granted when the
conditions of the first two stages have been met (Li
Lin & Fearn, 2003).
It has been established that graduated licensing
systems lead to crash reductions among beginning
drivers (Williams, 2007).
The best GDL programs reduced young teen driver
fatalities by 19.4% (Morrisey, Grabowski, Dee &
Extended learner periods, nighttime restrictions, and
passenger restrictions have contributed to crash
reductions. A cost-benefit analysis carried out by
Gregersen, Nyberg and Berg (2003) in Sweden
showed that the benefits in terms of accident
reduction after licensing were 30 times higher than
the costs in terms of driving practice accidents.
There are ways to amplify the contribution of the
above-mentioned components through stronger
regulations and more reliable compliance. With the
application of better procedures of monitoring the
novice drivers’ actual driving during the GDL period,
substantial further reductions in young driver
crashes are achievable.
In Israel, a Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDL)
has been introduced requiring new drivers to be
accompanied by an experienced driver during the
first three months after obtaining a driving license.
More hours of accompanied driving contribute to
more positive perceptions of safe driving and a
higher evaluation of traffic violations as risky
(Taubman-Ben-Ari & Lotan, 2010).
High level of experience acquired during the
supervised period implies lower risk indices in the
following month of solo driving (Prato et al., 2010).
As can be concluded, GDL programs are an important
step in improving of novice teen driving. Yet, there is
a growing recognition that GDL programs are not
enough (e. e.g., Li Lin & Fearn, 2003; Williams, 2007).
Goodwin, Wells, Foss & Williams (2006) assert that
although GDL programs have reduced the high crash
rates for novice drivers, the expected effect of GDL in
reducing fatalities of novice drivers is far from
In the period of accompanying, novice drivers are
obliged to drive with an experienced driver for a set
period or accumulating a number of hours (in Israel it
is obligatory to drive for three months with an escort
but recently it has been decided to change the rules
so that 50 hours all in all will be required).
It is moving to the forefront as the additional step for
making a real impact on driving behavior and skills.
Various accompanied driver models range from a
few hours of accompanied driving for passing the
driving test, to a combination of voluntary and
minimum requirements for accompanied practice, to
a minimum requirement of driving hours before
and/or after licensing (Li Lin & Fearn, 2003).
What is lacking today, however, is a means for
monitoring the accompanied driving process — to
make sure the new driver meets the requirements
(number of hours or distance driven) and is
accompanied by an approved person.
• However, this number of hours is an official
requirement, but in fact novice drivers drive much
less than recommended. A recent study found that
male novice drivers drive during the accompanied
period an average of 15.8 hours (Prato et al., 2010).
• Driving while accompanying is considered as
burdensome and therefore irritating for many novice
drivers (Shinar, Perlman, Gordon & Elharizi, 2005).
• Many teen drivers feel that parents while
accompanying them in driving disturb their feeling of
independence and therefore avoid driving together
with them (Shinar, Perlman, Gordon & Elharizi,
• Others try to minimize driving at the period of the
GDL in order to avoid the criticism of the adults,
considering the risky behavior preferred by teen
drivers (Toledo, Musicant & Lotan, 2008).
As a consequence, the GDL rules, although positive in
their essence, might miss their initial goal and in
many cases may even be harmful because novice
drivers, as well as their parents, try to evade
fulfilling their duty and simply wait for the required
time to pass without driving (in countries that
require a period of time of accompanied driving).
In these cases, the novice drivers do not practice the
skills and knowledge acquired in the driving lessons.
In many countries great efforts have been made to
find effective means to ensure that the novice
drivers actually drive accompanied by an adult driver
a minimum of kilometers or minimum of hours
during the GDL period but with no success.
Recently, a solution for this problem has been
developed - A monitoring system that offers an
appropriate process for controlling the accompanied
driving. It can be a key element in ensuring that
novice drivers gain more and better experience in
order to become safer drivers.
• iSafe company has developed a user-friendly solution
with a focus on accompanied driver monitoring.
• The system validates that the “owner” of the data —
the novice driver — and the approved experienced
driver throughout the driving session, has completed
his or her duty in means of the law requirements.
• This is done while collecting data on driver speed,
location, distance, type of road along with the road’s
speed limit, driving duration and time of driving (i.e.
The iSafe solution for controlling the GDL rules is
purported to raise significantly the effectiveness of GDL
rules all over the world.
The ability to ensure that the novice driver complies
with the GDL rules and yields the maximum of the
benefits of accompanied driving can increase the safety
of the teen drivers on roads.
• The system also contains a driving analysis algorithm
that may allow the driver to log into the Internet and
review the drive. The data collected by the system
can be used for a variety of programs with licensing
authorities, parents, and insurance companies.
• This system effectively monitors the behavior of new
drivers to promote quality driving experience and
compliance with GDL and accompanied driving
It identifies the driver and his/her designated
accompanying driver; monitors and records driving
activity including time behind the wheel, direction/
location, distance, speed, type of road along with the
road’s speed limit, driving duration and time of
driving (i.e. day/night).
• It also contains a driving analysis device that may
allow the driver to log into the Internet and review
the drive. The information is then analyzed for
feedback to the driver and parents/accompanying
driver and, where appropriate, to transportation
authorities or insurance companies.
• In order to avoid privacy abuse the identification of
the novice driver is stored only on the driver’s device
and at no point there is no accumulation of
identification data to a pool.
• Smartphone device agnostics App
• Monitors accompanied driver period
• Facial identification
– Driver and approved Escort verification
• Measures and records: distance, speed, day/night,
• Driving behavior analysis
The key to making new drivers better drivers = experience behind the wheelThe key to making new drivers better drivers = experience behind the wheel
– Insurance companies – promote through reduction
in insurance benefits
– Ministry of Transport
– National Road Safety Authority
– Research Units
A pilot of 10-20 novice drivers from
various countries from all over the world
that will practice the accompanied
period with iSafe system could
contribute to the success of this project.