Anticipation as a Main Principle of Neural
Function and Mastering of Driving
Timo Järvilehto, Veli-Matti Nurkkala, Kyösti ...
Many forms of human behavior happen with such a speed that
it is difficult to understand how neurons which are basically
q...
But what does anticipation mean and how does
it develop?
Anticipation is usual in everyday life
• opening door
• catching a ball
• coming to a meeting
• approaching traffic lights
However, cognitive neuroscience has not been
much interested in anticipation
Reason: stimulus-processing –approach
• every...
• if anticipation means that there is an inner model waiting for
”processing” of environmental events, how is fast action
...
Systemic model of anticipation
Anticipation
• not a factor related to the expectation of the stimuli or modifying their
pr...
Development of anticipatory systems in mastering
driving
• anticipatory systems start to develop already during
phylogenes...
Further anticipatory systems are created during learning and
training
 leads to formation of potential neural systems tha...
Thus, anticipated result primes potential neural
systems directed towards the accomplishment of
the result
 these systems...
How is then anticipation realized by the
nervous system?
Systemic approach: the theory of the organism-environment
system
...
The organism-environment system
Is driving a motor or sensory process?
• driving is a process that involves always the whole organism-
environment system,...
• perception of traffic signs is not a linear process proceeding
from the sign to the percept, but rather a circle involvi...
• jig-saw puzzle: stimulus is as little in a causal relation to the
percept as the last piece of the puzzle is to the cons...
Teaching driving
• learning to master driving consists essentially of development
of anticipatory organization of the orga...
Task of the teacher
• determination of the developmental possibilities of
the trainee
• finding out his personal style in ...
Teaching driving is not a process of transmission
 a process of organizing the pre-existing skills of the trainee in
a la...
Conclusions
• Development of mastering driving skill is deeply social
process directed towards creation of an integrative ...
• In the training of driving it is not essential to try to carry out
the required movements quicker and quicker
 one shou...
These are the principles on which our experimental
study of driving is based
Our recent experimental attempts are next des...
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Anticipation as a Main Principle of Brain Function and Mastering of Driving Skills

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Jarvilehto

  1. 1. Anticipation as a Main Principle of Neural Function and Mastering of Driving Timo Järvilehto, Veli-Matti Nurkkala, Kyösti Koskela, and Jonna Kalermo Kajaani University of Applied Sciences, Kajaani, Finland
  2. 2. Many forms of human behavior happen with such a speed that it is difficult to understand how neurons which are basically quite slow information processors (as compared with a computer, for example) could manage in carrying out the presumed tasks The problem: How is skilled driving possible? Possible answer: anticipation! - especially in teaching driving anticipation is stressed
  3. 3. But what does anticipation mean and how does it develop?
  4. 4. Anticipation is usual in everyday life • opening door • catching a ball • coming to a meeting • approaching traffic lights
  5. 5. However, cognitive neuroscience has not been much interested in anticipation Reason: stimulus-processing –approach • everything starts with stimulus presentation • only events after the stimulus interesting (”information processing”) Role of anticipation stressed sometimes, but only as • “preparation” or waiting for the stimulus processing  makes sensory and motor processing more efficient  influences different parts of the stimulus-processing-response chain or • as an ”inner model” (representation of ”goal”) with which the incoming information is compared
  6. 6. • if anticipation means that there is an inner model waiting for ”processing” of environmental events, how is fast action possible? - presumed sequence of events: stimulusprocessing comparison with inner modelselection of motor program realization of movement • takes a lot of time, the action of the subject always lags the environmental event
  7. 7. Systemic model of anticipation Anticipation • not a factor related to the expectation of the stimuli or modifying their processing • main principle of the organization of the nervous system - determines the features of the environment that can be joined to the process which leads to the results of behavior: “stimulus” is a result of anticipation - nervous system actively organized with all necessary bodily and environmental constituents for action results
  8. 8. Development of anticipatory systems in mastering driving • anticipatory systems start to develop already during phylogenesis  structure of the newborn organism anticipates the features of the environment that can be used in the maintenance of its life process • every organism anticipates something about its environment  it has a structure into which only certain parts of the environment may be fitted
  9. 9. Further anticipatory systems are created during learning and training  leads to formation of potential neural systems that may be selected directly by environmental events
  10. 10. Thus, anticipated result primes potential neural systems directed towards the accomplishment of the result  these systems may be selected directly by environmental events during the execution of the task
  11. 11. How is then anticipation realized by the nervous system? Systemic approach: the theory of the organism-environment system Skilled action is created in an organism-environment system • consists of brain, body and all relevant environmental parts • result of action as organizing principle • anticipation is based on altenative possibilities for realization of result Information processing is not the basic principle of nervous functioning • nervous system makes possible the dynamic organization of the organism- environment system and the results of action • neurons as living units getting organized in systems realizing results of action
  12. 12. The organism-environment system
  13. 13. Is driving a motor or sensory process? • driving is a process that involves always the whole organism- environment system, leading to specific results of behavior • there is nothing “motor” in the motor cortex, or “sensory” in the sensory cortices. ‘motor’ and ‘sensory’ are anatomical, not functional concepts  neurons do not carry out psychological operations
  14. 14. • perception of traffic signs is not a linear process proceeding from the sign to the percept, but rather a circle involving both sensory and motor organs (e.g. head and eye movements) • perceptual process does not start with the stimulus, but the stimulus is rather the end of this process
  15. 15. • jig-saw puzzle: stimulus is as little in a causal relation to the percept as the last piece of the puzzle is to the constructed picture • e.g. , braking with the red traffic light is the result of anticipatory organization preceding the appearance of the red light
  16. 16. Teaching driving • learning to master driving consists essentially of development of anticipatory organization of the organism-environment system for skilled sequences of results  sensory and motor components integrated  anticipatory systems created in real traffic • such systems may be formed also in a simulated driving situation  “mental” training, partial formation of neural systems necessary in the real driving
  17. 17. Task of the teacher • determination of the developmental possibilities of the trainee • finding out his personal style in cooperation with the trainer • creation of the cooperative organization in which the learning resources of the trainee may be realized
  18. 18. Teaching driving is not a process of transmission  a process of organizing the pre-existing skills of the trainee in a larger social organization: trainer (and all other relevant people) and the trainee (norms, safety)  gets more differentiated and narrower with continuing training  finally the trainee is able to master the skill also without support of the associated people
  19. 19. Conclusions • Development of mastering driving skill is deeply social process directed towards creation of an integrative social organization that makes anticipation and safe driving possible • The brain also an important part , but learning process not confined to the brain only  presupposes also many other necessary components - body, environmental possibilities, teacher, other social relations, norms, etc.
  20. 20. • In the training of driving it is not essential to try to carry out the required movements quicker and quicker  one should concentrate on creating the anticipatory organization under varying circumstances taking into account also social relations  as the constituents of the anticipatory organization are created in relation to the final result to be achieved (i.e. safe driving), the training should be be related to the whole act (e.g. driving home) as it will be present under real conditions • Use of a simulator is very useful for training action especially in dangerous situations (accidents, bad weather conditions, etc.)
  21. 21. These are the principles on which our experimental study of driving is based Our recent experimental attempts are next described by Veli-Matti Nurkkala and Jonna Kalermo Thank you!

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