Website Globalization and E-Business Brazil

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A primer on e-Business for Brazil as well as a collection of language, culture and website globalization facts for Brazil.

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Website Globalization and E-Business Brazil

  1. 1. Globalization Partners International White Paper | 2012 Website Globalization and E-Business Brazil The Website Globalization and E-Business Series includes a series of brief reports on country-specific website globalization and e-business topics. The series includes: • China • Russia • Japan • Argentina • Germany • France • US Hispanic Market • United Kingdom • Brazil • United Arab Emirates • India This series of reports is meant to be a primer on e-Business as well as a collection of language, culture and website globalization facts by country. These reports are by no means a complete coverage of these topics. For more comprehensive or customized reports on country-specific Website Globalization and E-Business topics, please email mspethman@globalizationpartners.com. No material contained in this report may be reproduced in whole or in part without prior written permission of Globalization Partners International. The information contained in this White Paper has been obtained from sources we believe to be reliable, but neither its completeness nor accuracy can be guaranteed. © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved. ® All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.The Website Globalization and E-Business Brazil All graphics used in this report were provided by Flikr, Google Images and other free internet resourcespaper was researched and written by: for pictures.Martin SpethmanManaging Partner Globalization Partners International helps companies communicate and conduct business in anyGlobalization Partners International language and in any locale by providing an array of globalization services including:mspethman@globalizationpartners.comPhone: 866-272-5874 • Translation • Multilingual Desktop PublishingNitish Singh, PhD, • Software Internationalization & LocalizationAuthor of “The Culturally Customized Website”, • Website Internationalization & Localization“Localization Strategies for Global E-Business”, • Software and Website Testingand Assistant Professor of International Business, • Interpretation (Telephonic, Consecutive, Simultaneous)Boeing Institute of International Business, John • Globalization ConsultingCook School of Business, Saint Louis University. • SEO (Global Search Engine Marketing)singhn2@slu.eduPhone: 314-977-7604 To learn more about Globalization Partners International, please visit us at blog.globalizationpartners.com.1 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. I. Market Introduction and Stats Stats/Source Online Activities Fast Facts Numbers Usage Statistics • 75.9 million or 37.4% General Stats GDP $ 2,090,314 (IMF 2010) of the population (as of 2010, according to GDP Growth 7.5% (www.cia.gov 2010) internetworldstats.com/ Population 192.3 (Wikipedia, July 2, 2011) top20.htm) Population Growth 2.75% (Cia World Factbook, 2010) Top Web • Google.com.br Applications • Facebook.com Internet Internet population 75.982 million (www.cia.gov 2009) (www.alexa.com/ • Google.com topsites/countries/ • YouTube.com Future Internet Population Estimates 9% Growth Rate BR 2011) • Uol.com.br • Live.com (Windows Live) Summary Sheet has been compiled through the use of sources from academia Top Brazil Online • www.americanas.com.br Marketplaces • www.livrariasaraiva.com.br • www.webmotors.com L Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and seventh largest in terms of internet usage • www.marketplace.com.br (internetworldstats.com, 2011) • www.mercadolivre.com.br The Brazilian Online Consumer L Brazil is a federative republic consisting of 26 states and a federal district called Brazilla,which is the capital. (www.eiu.com, 2011) L The majority of internet users in Brazil are from the upper and upper-middle classes. L In late 2011, Brazil proposed a pan-South American broadband network, to bring down per-user cost access to the Internet. (www.engadget.com) L The retail sector of Brazil is considered the largest in Latin America and has continued to expand rapidly since 2004. (www.eiu.com, 2011) L Television is the most popular type of media in Brazil as it is less expensive than other types of media, including magazines and newspapers. Television viewing is considered a leisure activity. Brazil has the third largest television market in the world. (euromonitor, 2011) L The government has been working on digital inclusion programs such as funding internet cafés to help the lower income groups gain access to the internet.2 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. II. Brazil Culture and the Online Consumer Cultural Values Brazil Culture and Values Collectivism: This value indicates how closely a society is knit. In collectivist cultures like Brazil, the Although known as a popular tourist destination, Brazil is the “B” in “BRIC,” which stands for Brazil, needs, values and goals of the family and societal Russian, India and China (four of the globe’s largest emerging economies.) China is Brazil’s largest unit take precedence over individual goals. Group export market, followed by the USA. consciousness and family are major values that guide people’s behavior. Brazil has an extremely diverse mix of cultural values, heavily mixed by Portuguese, African and Native Power Distance: This is a belief in authority and American culture. In the last two centuries, the culture was also influenced by an influx of German, hierarchy (high power distance). Cultures like Brazil Italian, Spanish Japanese and Arab immigration. Language and religion are dominated by Portuguese that are high on power distance accept power and influences. hierarchy in society and are low on egalitarianism. In such cultures, less powerful citizens are accepting of Since about 99% of Brazil’s population speaks Portuguese, this is one of the strongest unifying unequal power distribution in society. influences in Brazilian culture. Brazilian Portuguese is a variant of European Portuguese, which is Uncertainty Avoidance: This is the importance of spoken by substantially fewer people. predictability, structure, and order (high uncertainty avoidance), versus a willingness for risk-taking and Brazilian culture has received worldwide attention in areas like architecture, visual arts and cinema. an acceptance of ambiguity and limited structure Television plays a key role in Brazilian popular culture, with telenovelas being considered a significant (low uncertainty avoidance.) People from cultures element in national identity and unity. high on uncertainty avoidance like Brazil tend to have low tolerance for uncertainty and avoid ambiguous Brazil is ranked as high in “Traditional Values” and relatively balanced between “Survival” and “Self- situations. Conflict and competition as threatening. Expression values” according to the cultural map of the world based on the World Values Survey. Security is valued over adventure and risk. Masculinity-Femininity: This is a belief in achievement and ambition (masculine), versus a belief Insights into Brazilian Consumer Values: in nurturing and caring for others (feminine). Masculine cultures like Brazil value achievement orientation, L Vanity: Brazilians put high on appearance. Looking good is an integral and important aspect of their material possessions and success. culture. (Euromonitor, 2011) High-Low Context: To communicate effectively across cultures, the correct level of context must be L National Goods: Whenever possible, Brazilians prefer to purchase products made within their determined. This context can be labeled as high or own country. (TGI, 2011) low on a sliding scale. High context societies, like Brazil, have close connections among group members. L Frugality: Brazilians enjoy saving money for larger purchases, such as a house. Therefore, they Everyone has a similar, intrinsic knowledge-base. often look for a deal when purchasing other items. (TGI, 2011) There is little information that is explicit. High context cultures use more symbols and nonverbal clues to communicate, with meaning embedded in the Brazilian Consumer Decision Making: situational context. € Women: The decision-making power of women in Brazil has increased which has resulted in many(Hofstede, Geert. Culture’s Consequences, Comparing Values, companies tailoring products and services to the interests and needs of this new group. (Euromonitor, 2011) Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001) € Generosity: 80% of Brazilian consumers prefer brands that support good causes, compared to 62% of global consumers. (trendwatching .com 2011)3 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. II. Brazil Culture and the Online Consumer Demographics Definitions Brazilian Consumer Segments: Ì Geographics: The geographical distribution of the market being Market segmentation is an exercise in carefully identifying profitable and accessible consumer analyzed. The criteria used to segment segments based on socio-demographics, geographics, and psychographics. Segmentation is unique to these consumers can be country, region, each company and product. Some general insights into the Brazilian consumer segments have been town, etc. For example, consumers can be segmented by residence or work. divided into demographic and specific consumer segments. (about.com) Ì Psychographics: The criteria used to ” Tweenagers: These consumers are between the ages of 10 – 13 and are the most profitable for segment consumers based on lifestyle, marketers as they have substantial purchasing power. They are highly influenced by the media attitudes, personality, buying motives, and very loyal to brand names. In addition, they are interested in a wide variety of products which and/or extent of product usage. (about.com) include leisure, electronics, fashion and cosmetics. ” Teenagers: This consumer segment is between 14 – 19 year old and represents one of the largest groups in Brazilian Society. They are responsible for purchases equaling more than $34 million dollars per year. Teenagers are extremely loyal to brand names and have a strong influence on purchasing decisions of their families and parents. They are primarily interested in technology, and products/services to enhance appearance. ” Studying Age: This consumer segment is between 18 – 22 years old. Although, the level of disposable income varies between students who continue to live at home and those who attend college away from home, both groups have similar interests. Furthermore, this population represents 8-9% of the total population of Brazil. They are interested in leisure and technology products, as well as services and products that will help them to attain their education. ” Young Adults: This consumer segment is between 23 – 29 and usually has just started their first job and beginning their independent lifestyle. The primary purchasing interests of this segment are household items, furniture, electrical appliances, as well as leisure and technology items. In addition, young adults usually explore and develop new interests and enjoy going out with friends to the movies, clubs and pubs. ” Middle-Aged Adults: This consumer segment is aged 30 – 59 years old and usually has children. Their purchasing is usually focused on the family, which include food, travel, leisure and technology. This group is also focused on appearance and will spend income on products and services designed for enhancing beauty. ” Baby Boomers: These consumers are between the 40 – 59 years old. They are settled into life, occupy key jobs, might still be supporting a family and children, and are attempting to keep up with technology trends in order to maintain their job. They are interested in technology, continuing education courses for career advancement and business-related travel. Also, they are interested in financial planning and healthcare. ” Pensioners: This consumer segment is 60 years and older and is the fastest growing segment. They prefer traditional forms of payment, namely cash. Approximately 25% are responsible for maintaining a household and 68% decide on what to purchase for the family. Pensioners consider shopping to be a leisure activity and like to spend their time making choices.4 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. III. The Brazilian Portuguese Language Language Facts/Tips Portuguese is considered a Romance language like French and Italian. Brazilian Portuguese, a dialect, Ì Diacritics: These marks, placed above is the official language of Brazil and is spoken by 154 million people. (answers.com, 2008) Brazilian or below letters usually represent vowel Portuguese has been influenced by the languages that it displaced in Brazil, primarily in terms of sounds or other modifiers. vocabulary, but also in the phonology and grammar. There are words that are used today in Brazilian Portuguese that originated from the Tupi-guarani and Yoruba languages. Ì Verb Tense: There are several verb tenses in Brazilian Portuguese that differ from European Portuguese including você and seu. Ì Pronouns: The use of pronouns in Brazilian Portuguese is different than those of European Portuguese and the usage depends on the sentence and the use of possessive pronouns. Portuguese Pronouns European Brazilian Portuguese Portuguese Eu Canto Eu canto Tu cantas Você canto Unlike other Romance languages, Portuguese has maintained the stressed vowels of Vulgar Latin Ele (a) canta Ele (a) canta which make it unique. In addition, Brazilian Portuguese is written using the Latin alphabet and utilizes Nós cantamos Nós cantamos several accent marks. These include the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, the cedilla and the dieresis mark. There are also spelling differences between European and Brazilian Portuguese. Vós cantais Vocês cantam Some examples of the differences in spelling and writing varieties are: Eles(as) cantam Eles (as) cantam Possessive Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Brazilian Portuguese Translation Teu livro Your book Anómíno Anômíno Anonymous Seu livro Your /hi/her book Facto Fato Fact O livro dele His book Ideía Idéia Idea O livro dela Her book Direcção Direção Direction O livro deles Their (masc.) book Óptimo Ótimo Great O livro delas Their (fem.) book Frequente Freqüente Frequent Voo Vôo flight Quick Facts on Brazilian Portuguese • Brazilian Portuguese Writing System • Brazilian Portuguese Translation Services • The Brazilian Portuguese Language • Brazilian Portuguese Website Translation • Brazilian Portuguese Document Translation • English to Portuguese Translation • Brazilian Portuguese Localization5 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. IV. Website Globalization Whether you are trying to launch a multilingual website in order to expand the markets for your products and services, or you are trying to increase your company’s global operational efficiencies by developing multilingual extranets and intranets, Website Globalization is a requirement to make either a reality. In order to enable your web presence to communicate, conduct and complete international e-Business, you need to translate (globalize) your website. Website translation is also known as “Website Globalization”. In order to truly “translate” a website into other languages you may need both Internationalization (I18n) and Localization (L10n) services. + Internationalization (I18n) involves enabling the backend of a website to handle different languages, character sets, currencies, submit form data, site search capabilities, etc… and involves understanding what database and content management systems you are using to author, store and publish your site’s content. Localization (L10n) involves translating and localizing the front end of your website into different languages ensuring all content (text and graphics) is translated in an accurate and culturally correct manner. The next two pages detail the steps that may be performed in a typical website globalization project. The tables list the team members, tasks and standard quality assurance steps utilized in translating a website.6 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. IV. Website Globalization Subject Matter Cultural Translation, Source File Project Glossary Localization of Training and Correctness Editing and Review Kick-Off Development all Graphics Research Assessment Proofreading GO! • Account Manager • Account Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Lead Translators • Lead Translators • Lead Translators • Lead Translators • Lead Translators • Localization Engineers • Lead Translators • Editors & Copy Writers • Editors & Copy Writers • Editors & Copy Writers • Editors & Copy Writers • Editors & Copy Writers Team • Internationalization Engineers • Localization Engineers • Desktop Publishers • Web CMS Specialists • Internationalization Engineers • Localization Engineers • Web Designers • Web CMS Specialists • Web Designers • Web Developers • Web Designers • Global SEM Specialists • Web Developers • Global SEM Specialists • Companies wanting to translate • A Project “Kick-Off” includes • A Globalization Services • Translation teams develop • Before the actual translation • Translation is performed • All embedded translatable their website put together all of and confirms the following: Team (GST) will review/study and maintains client specific begins, the source web by a base translation/copy text commonly found in the source files from their site any reference materials glossaries leveraging any content and overall site writing team, and editing/ navigation buttons, web art (called a”Localization Kit”) for a 9 The project team provided, including source existing client glossaries design and feature set proofreading by a second and other web graphics are globalization services provider to analyze. 9 Project schedules files, demos and general and the latest industry- is reviewed for basic linguistic team. pulled from graphics and • The files are prepared in order 9 Project specifications client information. specific dictionaries. cultural correctness and translated using the standard to utilize a translation memory 9 Workflow requirements customizations that may • All translations are completed translation workflow. tool workflow and preserve Communication • In addition, there may be be required. by human translators, Tasks 9 any mark-up/formatting code channels client-specific training for utilizing translation • The translated text is then in order to save time and costs translation teams related • An array of issues are memory technologies that incorporated into the 9 Review & approval with desktop publishing the to the subject matter of reviewed ranging from the ensure an efficient and original graphic, adjusting as language versions. opportunities 9 Review current the website. need to culturally customize consistent translation. required, to create a language • A proposal is generated based on graphics and adding or “localized” version of an array of factors including word web authoring and counts, localizable graphics, local phone numbers to the graphic. publishing workflow. target languages and any content comprehensive customization management systems and of website features based on workflows to be used. locale specific cultural values. GPI follows a comprehensive, customizable and fully Assurance documented Quality Control Quality Process. Each step in our translation workflow includes a series of checklist-based quality audits to ensure the accuracy of the translation and desktop publishing. Our client’s QA and workflow processes can also be easily Clients are given an opportunity to Clients are given an opportunity to incorporated into our workflow. review and approve at several stages in review and approve at several stages in the documentation translation process. the documentation translation process. 7 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com
  8. 8. IV. Website GlobalizationFormatting of Localization of Delivery Final Edits and SEO and InternetLanguage QA / Testing Multimedia to Client Archiving of Files MarketingDocuments• Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager• Lead Translators • Lead Translators • Lead Translators • Desktop Publishers • Lead Translators• Editors & Copy Writers • Editors & Copy Writers • Editors & Copy Writers • Localization Engineers • Global SEM Specialists• Desktop Publishers • Desktop Publishers • Localization Engineers• Localization Engineers • Localization Engineers • Internationalization Engineers• Web Designers • Web Designers • QA-Testers • Web Developers • Web CMS Specialists • Web Designers • Web Developers• Many websites have an array • Many websites incorporate various • GPI provides basic Online Localization • After the website and all components • Client provides any final comments for • GPI recommends the client plan on and of linked documents which may multimedia components which may Quality Assurance (QA) as a standard have been localized, final draft sets of the translation and formatting. conduct some form of global internet require localization. require localization. line item for all website projects. the source files in all target language marketing (IM) and/or search engine versions are provided to the client. • Comments are incorporated and final marketing (SEM) in order to drive traffic• Formatting or desktop publishing (DTP) • Multimedia must be analyzed • This QA checks the language versions websites and documents are produced. to your new language sites. of these documents includes formatting individually for numerous items. These of your site under selected browser-OS • Client may review and approve all web the target language documentation to items range from determining word combination for any cosmetic or content for both translation accuracy • GPI ensures the client’s Translation • This may include global search engine match the original source documents counts in screen text, audio scripts and linguistic issues, and will help identity and design correctness. Memories and Glossaries are updated optimization of the localized web in terms of layout, fonts, graphics, and graphics, to the analysis of the types of basic functionality issues as well. with any final linguistic changes and content, submission of pages to key overall design. assets and how they were digitized and • Another round of QA is performed once the final project folder, including all country (locale) search engines and included in your multimedia. • Typically all testing is client-driven and language versions of a website are in source files are securely stored for pay-per-click marketing campaigns• Adobe PDF’s can be created and GPI’s professionals can work side by their final hosting environment future revisions if required. through services like Google AdWords optimized for screen or print and linked • All multimedia can be localized and side with your expert users to perform or Overture. off of the new website. tested to play in any target languages. Internationalization (I18N), Localization (L10N) and/or Functionality Testing, onsite or offsite.Clients are given an opportunity to review and Clients are given an opportunity to review andapprove at several stages in the documentation approve at several stages in the documentationtranslation process. translation process. 8 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com
  9. 9. V. Brazilian Cultural Correctness and Web Customization Cultural Customization: Key Issues The basis for cultural customization of websites is a theoretically-sound, empirically-validated framework built on five unique cultural values that account for similarities and differences across global cultures. Research studies indicate that attitude towards websites, interactivity and usability of web sites, as well as purchase intentions at web sites are enhanced when sites are congruent with the target customers’ cultural predispositions. The cultural customization framework is drawn from established research and is based on five unique values: Individualism-Collectivism, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity-Femininity, and Low-High Context. (See page 4 of this report) These five predominant country cultural values can be represented in comparison to other countries using the maps below: Masculinity - Femininity vs. Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance vs. Individualism - Collec vism 100 100 Ì Brazil Individualism - Collec vism IndexUncertainty Avoidance Index 50 50 Ì Brazil Masculinity - Femininity Index Power Distance Index 0 0 0 50 100 0 50 100 Arab World Argen na Australia Austria Brazil Arab World Argen na Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Brazil Canada Chile China Colombia Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark East Africa Ecuador Colombia Costa Rica Czech Republic Denmark East Africa El Salvador Finland France Germany Greece El Salvador Finland France Germany Guatemala Guatemala Hong Kong Hungary India Indonesia Hungary Hong Kong India Indonesia Ireland Iran Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Iran Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Japan Malaysia Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Malaysia Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Norway Pakistan Panama Peru Philippines Pakistan Panama Peru Philippines Poland Poland Portugal Russia Singapore South Africa Portugal Russia Singapore South Africa South Korea South Korea Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Turkey Thailand Turkey U.S. Hispanic Market United Arab Emirates United Kingdom U.S. Hispanic Market United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay United States Uruguay Venezuela West Africa Venezuela West Africa Cultural Maps for Brazil Tables and section based on the book, “The Culturally Customized Website: Customizing Web Sites for the Global Marketplace” – by Nitish Singh and Arun Pereira. Cultural maps are from Hofstede, Geert. Culture’s Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organization Across Nations Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001)9 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. V. Brazilian Cultural Correctness and Web CustomizationThe Cultural Customization ScorecardOnce we have identified the country’s predominant cultural values using the cultural maps, the next step is to evaluate the website on the relevant culturalvalues. This can be done using the Cultural Customization Scorecard. The scorecard is produced by analyzing the site on the features that conform to thecultural values of that market The cultural values for Brazil are Collectivism, Masculinity, High Context, Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance. Theseare carefully derived based on the cultural distinctions that are meaningful to the members of a given society.The cultural values of interest for the Brazil are Collectivism, Masculinity, High Context, Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance. These are carefullyderived based on the cultural distinctions that are meaningful to the members of a given society. (For a detailed cultural analysis of your web site pleasecontact mspethman@globalizationpartners.com) The Cultural Customization Scorecard™ - Brazil Grading Scale: Values Individualism Collectivism Uncertainty Power Masculinity Low High Avoidance Distance Context Context > 90% Excellent Customization on Cultural Value Cultural 70-89% Good Customization on Cultural Value Scores < 70% Poor Customization on Cultural Value Cultural Customization (Examples) Collectivism: Brazil is a collectivist culture. Websites may be culturally customized by emphasizing collective themes like family and community. For example, Häagen-Dazs has a section entitled, “Imprensa” in which they feature pictures of their customers enjoying Häagen-Dazs at their own social gatherings. Masculinity – Femininity: Brazil is a masculine culture. There are numerous ways that masculinity can be depicted on a website, including highlighting achievement orientation, success, product durability, as well as adventure and fun. For example, Colgate has a colorful page that is dedicated to their special promotions.10 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. V. Brazil Cultural Correctness and Web Customization High-Low Context: When customizing a site for a high-context culture like Brazil, elements like harmony and aesthetics should be considered.t For example, LG emphasizes harmony on their website in their choice of colors and images. Furthermore, on their Brazilian website they have a special multimedia section on “experience LG”. This is an interactive section which enables the user to choose different multimedia commercials and advertisements, giving them a unique experience. Power Distance: Brazil scores high on Power Distance. Some ways to customize a site for this value is to highlight awards and honors that the company, its employees or brand has received. For example, Colgate has a page dedicated to their executive management team containing a professional picture and brief biography of each member. Uncertainty Avoidance: As Brazil is a very risk-averse society, it is important to reduce risk, anxiety and uncertainty that these consumers might have shopping online. For example, Motorola Brazil has the product features of the phone clearly listed along with a picture of the product so the consumer knows exactly what they are buying. Stating the company’s business practices and offering online or live customer support are other ways to build online shopping confidence.11 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. V. Brazil Cultural Correctness and Web CustomizationWeb Site Customization Considerations Symbols and IconsThere are many symbols and icons that carry special cultural meaning in Brazil. It is important to be aware of them to avoid inappropriate useor cultural blunder.Some examples:L The Fig: This is a good luck sign that is made by placing the thumb between the index and middle fingers while making a fist. It is also considered a national symbol of Brazil.L Handkerchiefs: In the Brazilian culture, handkerchiefs symbolize grief and mourning, especially when given to a person.L Bad Luck: It is considered bad luck to walk under a ladder. In addition, it is considered bad luck to either cross paths with a black cat or to see a black cat through the rungs of a ladder.L Money: If a purse or wallet is left on the floor, the owner’s money will disappear. If sugar is put in the cup before coffee or tea, the person will become rich. If lentils are eaten on January 1st, the person will make good money throughout the next year.L Vulgar Symbols: The O.K. sign made by a circle of the first finger and thumb is considered a vulgar symbol. ColorsIn Brazil, certain colors carry specific meaning and symbolize aspects of their culture.€ Purple: The color of mourning€ Black: The color of mourning, grief or formality€ Red: Strength, reliability, happiness and prosperity12 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. V. Brazil Cultural Correctness and Web Customization Spatial Orientation:Spatial Orientation means how the web content is structured. According to Barber and Badre (1998), spatial orientation has a direct effect on websiteusability because it effects the visual perception. The spatial orientation for Brazil needs to take into account the complex usage of accent marks so thatthey are clearly displayed. They prefer a clear, concise navigation that clearly shows products. In addition, the navigation bars should be detailed, with “fly-out” navigational menus. Both the top and left navigation panes should be utilized. Text Length:When translating a document or website, it is important to take into account how the length of the text will change after translation. There are a variety ofreasons why text expansion occurs. Equivalent phrases in a target language may have more characters or words than in English, and some cultures preferusing a more formal style than other cultures, avoiding abbreviations, for example. Additionally, for both documents and websites both line and page breaksmay be different in the localized version than in the English version. Finally, the layout of the document or website itself may change depending on thedirection of the text. For example, Arabic is a bi-directional language and is read right-to-left, which will not only switch the layout of the text, but also thegraphics, the tool bars, the navigation bars, and the binding of the book, etc... Similarly, some languages like Chinese and Japanese can be displayed eitherin left-to-right character rows or vertical character columns, and the choice influences how document elements such as graphics, figures, tables, call outs,etc. are arranged in the final document or webpage.There can either be text expansion or compression when a document or website is translated from English into a target language. For example, Portuguesecan expand up to 35% when translated from English. With document localization, there are several steps that can be taken to help preserve the integrity ofthe look and feel “layout” of the document. These include:L Using a larger font in the original language, if it is expected the language will expand during translation. This will help to develop a better feel for the final size of the document and how the document elements will be laid out relative to the text. If the text is expected to shrink, use a slightly smaller font for the same reasons.L Tables and graphics may need to be resized or changed. Some, like the vertical Chinese or Japanese layout, will require more finessing than others.13 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. VI. Internet and Search Engine Marketing for Brazil The key to promoting a website internationally is to create localized content, localized keywords, register local domain names and then promote it through local search engines, affiliate marketing, online and offline branding and positions. A search engine marketing campaign for Brazil should be multi-dimensional, including not only localized organic search content, but also localized pay-per-click campaign advertisements. Furthermore, landing pages in Brazilian Portuguese can be a useful tool in an overall search engine It is recommended that firms plan on and conduct some marketing strategy. form of global search engine marketing (SEM) in order to drive traffic to their new language sites. This may include global search engine optimization of Long-term search engine marketing plans should Most Popular Search Engines your localized Web content, submission of pages to key country (locale) search engines, and a pay-per-click include the use of keywords in both Brazilian (www.seowarrior.net/title-search-engines- marketing campaigns through services like Google Portuguese and English. Brazilian Portuguese may in-south-america’s-biggest-country-brazil) Adwords or Overture. be the primary language of business in Brazil, Ì Google Brazil (http://Google.com.br) For more information on Global SEM Services, see www.globalizationpartners.com/SEM but many Brazilian internet users visit English Ì MSN (http://Br.MSN.com) language websites for content. Ì Yahoo! (http://Br.Yahoo.com) Ì Aonde (http://aonde.com) Brazil Commerce Payment Options The top level domain in Brazil is .br. Other Ì Achei (http://www.achei.com.br) Brazilians prefer to have multiple payment domains that are popular in Brazil are .com, options when purchasing online. It is advisable .org, .net, .info, and .biz. It is advisable to have a local legal representative if a non-Brazilian company to include credit card and Boleto (a local bank would like to obtain a local domain, such as .com.br. The domain needs to be registered at registro.br. invoicing system), instead of the standard PayPal. Ì Banco de Brazil Ì Banco Itaú Ì Caixa Econômica Federal Ì Banco Bradesco Ì ABN Amro Real Ì Unibanco Ì Santander Banespa Ì Banca Safra Ì HSBC Ì Votorantim Most Popular Brazil Online Product Purchases (www.nytimes.com/2011/11/10/ fashion/10iht-ronline.html) Ì Home appliances Ì Books/magazine & newspaper Americanas.com.br utilizes a layout that is easily navigated by utilizing the contrasting colors of red and white to separate the subscriptions navigation panes from their commerce section. In addition, their commerce section clearly displays the items by type, – showing a brief product description with price. Additional information is available, if the item is clicked on. Ì Health/beauty/medicine products Ì Computer products Ì Consumer electronics References available upon request.14 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Resources Search Enginesß GuiaWeb ß Buscar ß Radaruol www.guiaweb.com www.buscar.com.br www.radaruol.com.brß Aonde (Portugese) ß Busca Site ß Terra www.aonde.com www.buscasite.com.br www.terra.com.br/buscaß Argos ß DMOZ ß Todobr www.argos.com.br dmoz.org/Regional/South_America/Brazil www.todobr.com.brß Boibaeo (Portugese) ß Gigabusca (Portugese) ß UOL www.boibao.com.br www.gigabusca.com.br www.uol.com.br/erros/index.htmß Brazil Crawler ß Guiaweb ß Yahoo! Brazil www.brazilcrawler.com www.guiaweb.com dir.yahoo.com/Regional/Countries/Brazilß Brazil Studies Guide ß Google Brazil ß Zarp www.umich.edu/~port150 www.google.com.br www.zarp.netß Brazilis ß Ondeir www.brazilis.com.br www.ondeir.com.brß Buscador ß Ondeachar www.uol.com.br/busca www.ondeachar.com.brß Buscapique ß Ponteiro www.buscapique.com/busqueda www.ponteiro.com Acrobat may ask you for permission to open the links. Click on the “Allow” button to let Acrobat open the link in your browser15 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. ResourcesUseful Linksß Delta Translator ß U.S. State Department - Brazil ß Doing Business - Brazil www.deltatranslator.com/delta/accents_.htm www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35640.htm www.doingbusiness.org/ß Orbilat: Brazilian Portuguese Grammar ß Economist.com, Country Briefings: Brazil ExploreEconomies/?economyid=28 www.orbilat.com/Languages/Portuguese- www.economist.com/countries/Brazil ß Brazil Internet Access Providers Brazilian/Brazilian-Grammar.htm ß GSM World - Brazil herbison.com/iap_meta_list/ß Languages on the Web: Brazilian Portuguese www.gsmworld.com/roaming/gsminfo/ iap_meta_list_br.html www.lonweb.org/link-brasilian.htm cou_br.shtml ß Export.gov - Brazil Internet E-Commerce FAQß Topics Magazine: Brazilian Superstitions ß Brazil: Virtual Tour www.export.gov/sellingonline/Internet_ www.topics-mag.com/internatl/superstitions/ www.v-brazil.com Environment/Brazil.asp brazil.htm ß Top Web Application in Brazil ß Linked Words: Brazil SEO Marketingß Wikipedia: Brazilian Culture www.readwriteweb.com/archives/top_web_ www.linkedwords.com/local-search/local. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Brazil apps_in_brazil.php php?REQ=Brazil%20SEO%20internet%20ß Brazil Search Engines ß Brazzil Magazine marketing www.philb.com/cse/brazil.htm www.brazzil.com ß Sun Microsystems: Brazil Projectß Internet World Stats - Brazil ß World Travel Guide: Brazil research.sun.com/brazil www.internetworldstats.com/south.htm www.worldtravelguide.net/country/39/ ß Brazil Travelß Internet Law Library - Brazil country_guide/South-America/Brazil.html www.v-brazil.com/science/internet.html www.lawmoose.com/index. ß World Newspapers - Brazil ß Wikipedia: Internet in Brazil cfm?Action=SearchEngine. www.world-newspapers.com/brazil.html en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_in_Brazil Search&New=Yes&CKS=WorldLaw ß Gringoesß Viva Brazil www.gringoes.com www.vivabrazil.com ß Info Brazilß CIA World Factbook - Brazil www.infobrazil.com https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/ ß Busy Trade - Brazil the-world-factbook/geos/br.html brazil.busytrade.comß InfoPlease - Brazil ß Brazil Facts www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107357.html brazil.busytrade.comß Lonely Planet - Brazil ß Portals of the World - Brazil www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107357.html www.loc.gov/rr/international/hispanic/brazil/ß Geographia - Brazil brazil.html www.geographia.com/brazil/ ß Country Studies - Brazilß The Library of Congress, Country countrystudies.us/brazil Studies: Brazil ß Internet Public Library - Brazil lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/brtoc.html www.ipl.org/div/news/browse/BRß BBC News, Country Profile: Brazil ß ICL - Brazil news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/country_ www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/br__indx.html profiles/1227110.stm Acrobat may ask you for permission to open the links. Click on the “Allow” button to let Acrobat open the link in your browser16 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.

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