Website Globalization and E Business United Kingdom

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Website Globalization and E Business United Kingdom

  1. 1. Globalization Partners International White Paper | 2012 Website Globalization and E-Business United Kingdom The Website Globalization and E-Business Series includes a series of brief reports on country-specific website globalization and e-business topics. The series includes: • China • Russia • Japan • Argentina • Germany • France • US Hispanic Market • United Kingdom • Brazil • United Arab Emirates • India This series of reports is meant to be a primer on e-Business as well as a collection of language, culture and website globalization facts by country. These reports are by no means a complete coverage of these topics. For more comprehensive or customized reports on country-specific Website Globalization and E-Business topics, please email mspethman@globalizationpartners.com. No material contained in this report may be reproduced in whole or in part without prior written permission of Globalization Partners International. The information contained in this White Paper has been obtained from sources we believe to be reliable, but neither its completeness nor accuracy can be guaranteed. © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved. ® All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.The Website Globalization and E-Business paper All graphics used in this report were provided by Flikr, Google Images and other free internet resourceswas researched and written by: for pictures.Martin SpethmanManaging Partner Globalization Partners International helps companies communicate and conduct business in anyGlobalization Partners International language and in any locale by providing an array of globalization services including:mspethman@globalizationpartners.comPhone: 866-272-5874 • Translation • Multilingual Desktop PublishingNitish Singh, PhD, • Software Internationalization & LocalizationAuthor of “The Culturally Customized Website”, • Website Internationalization & Localization“Localization Strategies for Global E-Business”, • Software and Website Testingand Assistant Professor of International Business, • Interpretation (Telephonic, Consecutive, Simultaneous)Boeing Institute of International Business, John • Globalization ConsultingCook School of Business, Saint Louis University. • SEO (Global Search Engine Marketing)singhn2@slu.eduPhone: 314-977-7604 To learn more about Globalization Partners International, please visit us at blog.globalizationpartners.com.1 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. I. Market Introduction and Stats Stats/Source Online Activities Fast Facts Numbers UK Online • 94% of UK Internet homes General Stats GDP $2.47 trillion (2011) Population have broadband access • Usage of UK wireless hotspots Growth rate 0.9% nearly doubled from August Population Approximately 62.3 million, 2010 2010 to August 2011 to 4.9 million users Internet Internet population Approximately 51.4 million, 83% of the population eCommerce • 10% of total retail in the UK is Online spending $78.2 billion in 2011, up 11% over 2010 Shopping Trends online sales • Online retail is growing 6x Future estimates $89.14 billion by the end of 2012 (search engine faster than store sales and Kelkoo estimate Jan 2012) is estimated to exceed $57.9 billion by 2014 • The number of Brits making online purchases is expected to reach 32.5 million by 2014 (Verdict Research) L The United Kingdom is one of the top economies in the world with a GDP of almost $2.47 trillion Online Payment • 74% of adults in the UK have and a growth rate of 0.9%. Choices boradband (fixed + mobile) • Debit Card • PayPal (Paypal processes L 78% of potential car buyers say they will use their mobile device for both searching and purchasing $10 million per day in mobile their car. transactions) Access • 55% access the Internet from home L 17% of UK shoppers have made a purchase in response to a location-based advertisement. • 66% of UK households with a fixed connection use a wireless router L 32% of shoppers purchased Valentine’s Day gifts online in 2011, a 9% increase from 2010. • Android passed the 10 billion app download in December 2011 • Mobile accounts for 10% of UK L 83% of UK online shoppers use search engines to research a purchase. ecommerce Main Product • Travel L 4pm Wednesday ‘is peak-time for workplace shopping’ with a 75% increase of shopping over other Categories • Clothing • Groceries workday hours. • Consumer Electronics The British Online Consumer2 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. II. UK Culture and the Online Consumer Cultural Values UK Culture and Values Individualism: Cultures like the UK that are high on the Individualism Value tend to value individual goals The UK shares some of the common symbols and traditions of other western cultures yet still over group goals. Independence, individuality, and self- maintains its own unique, rich culture. At a macro-level, the UK culture can be described using five expression are preferred values. cultural values based on the work of Hofstede (1980). Professor Geert Hofstede conducted perhaps Power Distance: This is a belief in authority and the most comprehensive study of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture and is the hierarchy (high power distance). Cultures that are author of several books including Culture’s Consequences (2nd fully revised edition), and Cultures and high on power distance accept power and hierarchy in Organizations, Software of the Mind (2nd fully revised edition). society and are low on egalitarianism. In such cultures, less powerful citizens are accepting of unequal Hofstede demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior power distribution in society. However, the UK is not of societies and organizations that are very persistent across time. Hofstede’s research showed that considered high on power distance. cultural values like Individualism-Collectivism, Power Distance, Masculinity-Femininity, Uncertainty Avoidance: The importance of High-Low Context and Uncertainty Avoidance can be used to categorize various national cultures predictability, structure, and order (high uncertainty (see sidebar for definitions of these terms). avoidance) versus a willingness for risk-taking and an acceptance of ambiguity and limited structure (low A country’s culture is made unique by which of these five values are incorporated into daily life and uncertainty avoidance.) People from cultures high on they emphasis it puts on each. For example, the UK rates significantly on Individualism, Masculinity, uncertainty avoidance tend to have low tolerance for Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance. uncertainty and avoid ambiguous situations. They view both conflict and competition as threatening and value security over adventure and risk. Masculinity-Femininity: A belief in achievement Insights into UK Consumer Values: and ambition (masculine) versus a belief in nurturing and caring for others (feminine). Masculine cultures L Loyalty: A recent study showed that 72 percent of British Internet users do not like to shop around like the UK value achievement orientation, material the web, but instead prefer to stick with 10 or less online stores they know. (www.receptional.com). possessions and success. High-Low Context: To communicate effectively across L Privacy and Security: Based on a report from the Office of Fair Trading (OFT), almost 79 percent cultures the correct level of context has to be found. of online British consumers are “very concerned” about online privacy and security. Almost 3.5 This context can be labeled as high or low, on a sliding million British shun online shopping due to lack of trust and security concerns. scale. High context societies have close connections among group members. Everyone has a similar, intrinsic L Gender-Differences: Women, aged 25-34 spend almost 20 percent more time online than their knowledge-base. Low context cultures are societies male counterparts (Ofcom communication market report). that are logical, linear, action-oriented, and the sharing of the information is explicit and formalized. Most L Mobile Devices: According to MobileWeb Metrix British Mobile, web users account for almost 67 communication takes place in a rational, verbal and percent of the entire mobile web audience of the UK. explicit way to convey concrete meanings through rationality and language. The UK is a combination of L Social Networking: Research shows that more than one third of British online consumers are both, High and Low Context. big on social networking and other social computing activities, like blogs, podcasting, etc. This participation in social networking is double the European average (Forester research).(Hofstede, Geert. Culture’s Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001) L Money: Data shows that British consumers have money to spend. Almost one quarter of them have a household income of about €50,000 ($100,000).3 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. II. UK Culture and the Online Consumer UK Consumer Decision Making: € Familiarity: UK consumers do not shop around, but prefer to stick to 10 or less online stores they know. € Payment: British consumers prefer to use credit and debit cards for online purchases. PayPal is used less frequently. Other online payments like direct debit are not yet widely accepted. (ensor). € Security: UK consumers are very worried about online security and want to purchase from a site that they feel has a good privacy policy and will keep their information secure. € Social Networking: Consumers are less likely to buy high-ticket items through social networking sites. 65% say that they would only ever spend between £1 and £50 on a social networking site. UK Consumer Segments: Note: Market segmentation is an exercise in carefully identifying profitable and accessible consumer segments based on socio-demographics, geographics, and psychographics. Segmentation is unique to each company and product. (Some general insights on the UK consumer segments-based research. Gong, Hie et Al., Fax and Xiao, McExen et al., Singh et al.). ” 15-25 Age Group: This group is 25% more likely to be online than the general online British population and spends 24% more time online than average users. (comscore). ” 35-44 Age Group: This group represents the largest online segment within the UK with 23% of the total online population. ” Silver Shoppers: This group is 55+ years of age and is overtaking the 35-44 age group for the largest representation online. They are very interested in search engines. Adult and shopping classifieds are some of the most popular categories for the silver shoppers. ” Slow Adaptors: A little more than half of British view the web as not making their life easier and find it difficult to keep abreast with the fast changing online environment (Neilsen//NetRatings MegaPanel UK Digital Consumer Survey).4 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. III. The English Language Different Words – Same Meaning English is a West Germanic language that originated in England and is spoken by more than a billion (Adapted from Singh and Pereira) people worldwide on at least a basic level. There are several different dialects of English including the Queen’s English, American English, Cockney slang, Newfoundland English, Canadian English, and American English Queen’s English American Vernacular English (Ebonics) and South American English (Wikipedia.org). Truck Lorry Eraser Rubber English is written using the Latin alphabet. There Chips Crisps are over 600,000 words in the Oxford English Fries Chips Dictionary, and it is estimated that 25,000 new Hood (car) Bonnet words per year are added to the English Language Trunk (Car) Boot (Wikipedia.org). Mudguard Fender The English used in the UK, called either the Trash Can Dust Bin King’s or Queen’s English depending on the ruler Cookie Biscuit at the time, is different than the English used in Biscuit Scone America. UK English and US English are set apart Candy Sweets in terms of vocabulary equivalence, conceptual Baked Potato Jacket Potato equivalence and idiomatic equivalence leading Raincoat Mac (Macintosh) to some confusion and sometimes innocent linguistic blunders. For example, the word Glue Gum “rubber” in the UK is thought to mean a device Same Words – Different Spelling used to erase pen or pencil marks, whereas in the US it is associated with condoms. American English Queen’s English Judgment Judgement Curb Kerb Localization from US English to the Queen’s License (noun) Licence English can involve software that is aware of the Maneuver Manoeuvre differences in language and localizes accordingly. To truly localize from US English to UK English, a Neighbor Neighbour translator must be utilized in order to use specific Organization Organisation idiomatic and dialectical nuances that will appeal Aging Ageing to the British population. Pajamas Pyjamas Skeptical Sceptical Tire Tyre Gray Grey Example: Yahoo! mail has been localized with British specific phrases like “without spending a Draft Draught bean” or “no need to fret” – phrases that might not appeal to or work well with US audiences.5 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. IV. Website Globalization Whether you are trying to launch a multilingual website in order to expand the markets for your products and services, or you are trying to increase your company’s global operational efficiencies by developing multilingual extranets and intranets, Website Globalization is a requirement to make either a reality. In order to enable your web presence to communicate, conduct and complete international e-Business, you need to translate (globalize) your website. Website translation is also known as “Website Globalization”. In order to truly “translate” a website into other languages you may need both Internationalization (I18n) and Localization (L10n) services. + Internationalization (I18n) involves enabling the backend of a website to handle different languages, character sets, currencies, submit form data, site search capabilities, etc… and involves understanding what database and content management systems you are using to author, store and publish your site’s content. Localization (L10n) involves translating and localizing the front end of your website into different languages ensuring all content (text and graphics) is translated in an accurate and culturally correct manner. The next two pages detail the steps that may be performed in a typical website globalization project. The tables list the team members, tasks and standard quality assurance steps utilized in translating a website.6 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. IV. Website Globalization Subject Matter Cultural Translation, Source File Project Glossary Localization of Training and Correctness Editing and Review Kick-Off Development all Graphics Research Assessment Proofreading GO! • Account Manager • Account Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Lead Translators • Lead Translators • Lead Translators • Lead Translators • Lead Translators • Localization Engineers • Lead Translators • Editors & Copy Writers • Editors & Copy Writers • Editors & Copy Writers • Editors & Copy Writers • Editors & Copy Writers Team • Internationalization Engineers • Localization Engineers • Desktop Publishers • Web CMS Specialists • Internationalization Engineers • Localization Engineers • Web Designers • Web CMS Specialists • Web Designers • Web Developers • Web Designers • Global SEM Specialists • Web Developers • Global SEM Specialists • Companies wanting to translate • A Project “Kick-Off” includes • A Globalization Services • Translation teams develop • Before the actual translation • Translation is performed • All embedded translatable their website put together all of and confirms the following: Team (GST) will review/study and maintains client specific begins, the source web by a base translation/copy text commonly found in the source files from their site any reference materials glossaries leveraging any content and overall site writing team, and editing/ navigation buttons, web art (called a”Localization Kit”) for a 9 The project team provided, including source existing client glossaries design and feature set proofreading by a second and other web graphics are globalization services provider to analyze. 9 Project schedules files, demos and general and the latest industry- is reviewed for basic linguistic team. pulled from graphics and • The files are prepared in order 9 Project specifications client information. specific dictionaries. cultural correctness and translated using the standard to utilize a translation memory 9 Workflow requirements customizations that may • All translations are completed translation workflow. tool workflow and preserve Communication • In addition, there may be be required. by human translators, Tasks 9 any mark-up/formatting code channels client-specific training for utilizing translation • The translated text is then in order to save time and costs translation teams related • An array of issues are memory technologies that incorporated into the 9 Review & approval with desktop publishing the to the subject matter of reviewed ranging from the ensure an efficient and original graphic, adjusting as language versions. opportunities 9 Review current the website. need to culturally customize consistent translation. required, to create a language • A proposal is generated based on graphics and adding or “localized” version of an array of factors including word web authoring and counts, localizable graphics, local phone numbers to the graphic. publishing workflow. target languages and any content comprehensive customization management systems and of website features based on workflows to be used. locale specific cultural values. GPI follows a comprehensive, customizable and fully Assurance documented Quality Control Quality Process. Each step in our translation workflow includes a series of checklist-based quality audits to ensure the accuracy of the translation and desktop publishing. Our client’s QA and workflow processes can also be easily Clients are given an opportunity to Clients are given an opportunity to incorporated into our workflow. review and approve at several stages in review and approve at several stages in the documentation translation process. the documentation translation process. 7 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom www.globalizationpartners.com
  8. 8. IV. Website GlobalizationFormatting of Localization of Delivery Final Edits and SEO and InternetLanguage QA / Testing Multimedia to Client Archiving of Files MarketingDocuments• Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager • Project Manager• Lead Translators • Lead Translators • Lead Translators • Desktop Publishers • Lead Translators• Editors & Copy Writers • Editors & Copy Writers • Editors & Copy Writers • Localization Engineers • Global SEM Specialists• Desktop Publishers • Desktop Publishers • Localization Engineers• Localization Engineers • Localization Engineers • Internationalization Engineers• Web Designers • Web Designers • QA-Testers • Web Developers • Web CMS Specialists • Web Designers • Web Developers• Many websites have an array • Many websites incorporate various • GPI provides basic Online Localization • After the website and all components • Client provides any final comments for • GPI recommends the client plan on and of linked documents which may multimedia components which may Quality Assurance (QA) as a standard have been localized, final draft sets of the translation and formatting. conduct some form of global internet require localization. require localization. line item for all website projects. the source files in all target language marketing (IM) and/or search engine versions are provided to the client. • Comments are incorporated and final marketing (SEM) in order to drive traffic• Formatting or desktop publishing (DTP) • Multimedia must be analyzed • This QA checks the language versions websites and documents are produced. to your new language sites. of these documents includes formatting individually for numerous items. These of your site under selected browser-OS • Client may review and approve all web the target language documentation to items range from determining word combination for any cosmetic or content for both translation accuracy • GPI ensures the client’s Translation • This may include global search engine match the original source documents counts in screen text, audio scripts and linguistic issues, and will help identity and design correctness. Memories and Glossaries are updated optimization of the localized web in terms of layout, fonts, graphics, and graphics, to the analysis of the types of basic functionality issues as well. with any final linguistic changes and content, submission of pages to key overall design. assets and how they were digitized and • Another round of QA is performed once the final project folder, including all country (locale) search engines and included in your multimedia. • Typically all testing is client-driven and language versions of a website are in source files are securely stored for pay-per-click marketing campaigns• Adobe PDF’s can be created and GPI’s professionals can work side by their final hosting environment future revisions if required. through services like Google AdWords optimized for screen or print and linked • All multimedia can be localized and side with your expert users to perform or Overture. off of the new website. tested to play in any target languages. Internationalization (I18N), Localization (L10N) and/or Functionality Testing, onsite or offsite.Clients are given an opportunity to review and Clients are given an opportunity to review andapprove at several stages in the documentation approve at several stages in the documentationtranslation process. translation process. 8 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom www.globalizationpartners.com
  9. 9. V. UK Cultural Correctness and Web Customization Cultural Customization: Key Issues The basis for cultural customization of websites is a theoretically-sound, empirically-validated framework built on five unique cultural values that account for similarities and differences across global cultures. Research indicates that attitude towards websites, the sites’ interactivity and usability, as well as purchase intentions of users are enhanced when sites are congruent with the target customers’ cultural predispositions (see “The Culturally Customized Website,” Elsevier). The cultural customization framework is drawn from established research and is based on five unique values: Individualism-Collectivism, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity-Femininity, and Low-High Context (See page 4 of this report). These five predominant cultural values can be represented in a country-to-country comparison using the maps below: Masculinity - Femininity vs. Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance vs. Individualism - Collec vism 100 100 Ì UK Individualism - Collec vism IndexUncertainty Avoidance Index 50 Ì UK 50 Masculinity - Femininity Index Power Distance Index 0 0 0 50 100 0 50 100 Arab World Argen na Australia Austria Brazil Arab World Argen na Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Brazil Canada Chile China Colombia Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark East Africa Ecuador Colombia Costa Rica Czech Republic Denmark East Africa El Salvador Finland France Germany Greece El Salvador Finland France Germany Guatemala Guatemala Hong Kong Hungary India Indonesia Hungary Hong Kong India Indonesia Ireland Iran Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Iran Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Japan Malaysia Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Malaysia Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Norway Pakistan Panama Peru Philippines Pakistan Panama Peru Philippines Poland Poland Portugal Russia Singapore South Africa Portugal Russia Singapore South Africa South Korea South Korea Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Turkey Thailand Turkey U.S. Hispanic Market United Arab Emirates United Kingdom U.S. Hispanic Market United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay United States Uruguay Venezuela West Africa Venezuela West Africa Cultural Maps for UK Cultural Maps adapted from: “The Culturally Customized Website: Customizing Websites for the Global Marketplace” by Nitish Singh and Arun Pereira (2005), and Hofstede, Geert. “Culture’s Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations” Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001)9 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. V. UK Cultural Correctness and Web CustomizationThe Cultural Customization ScorecardOnce we have identified the country’s predominant cultural values using the cultural maps the next step in customizing a website is to evaluate it on therelevant cultural values. This can be done in the form of The Cultural Customization Score Card. The score card is produced by analyzing the site on thefeatures that conform to the cultural values of interest.The cultural values of interest for the UK are Individualism, Masculinity, and a balance of High and Low Context. (For a detailed cultural analysis of yourwebsite, please contact mspethman@globalizationpartners.com) The Cultural Customization Scorecard™ - China Grading Scale: Values Individualism Collectivism Uncertainty Power Masculinity Low High Avoidance Distance Context Context > 90% Excellent Customization on Cultural Value Cultural 70-89% Good Customization on Cultural Value Scores < 70% Poor Customization on Cultural Value Cultural Customization (Examples)Â Individualism: Research suggests that there are web-specific features, like personalization, that can make a site more appealing to individualistic cultures. Some examples of websites customized for the UK are: • At advancedmp3players.co.uk they have a section entitled MP3 matchmaker, in which the consumer can put in a mixture of features and get an individualized selection of MP3 players. • Privacy is an important factor to the UK online customer. Therefore, clearly emphasizing the privacy policy on a website may be a very good strategy. • In both British advertising and web communication, there’s a certain common theme: independence, respect for privacy, and emphasis on uniqueness. Virgin Mobile, for example, emphasizes this uniqueness with a service called “Crave” and th slogan - “Everyone Wants It. You’ve Got It”.10 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. V. UK Cultural Correctness and Web Customization Masculinity: The UK is a culture that leans towards masculinity. Emphasizing themes, values and graphics that relate to this aspect, is an important component of a website for the UK. Emphasizing achievement, success, product durability and effectiveness, and adventure in the web content are ways to depict masculinity for the British audience. For example, the UK site of Virgin Mobile emphasizes achievement by using words like prominantly displaying their customer service award and emphasizing that they are “The only UK operator to have won best customer service award seven years running”. High-Low Context: The UK is unique as it is neither high or low context, but instead a mixture of both; therefore, companies need to balance imagery, aesthetic and colors with a clear well-organized layout suitable for British users. Some examples include: • The UK Virgin Mobile website exhibits low context features like a clear, to the point communication style and a direct, persuasive theme. These include providing consumers reasons for choosing them or information on how they will best take care of the customer. TESCO’s site is full of colorful boxes, and its layout is very linear and organized.11 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. V. UK Cultural Correctness and Web CustomizationWebsite Customization Considerations Symbols and IconsThe United Kingdom, also known as Great Britain, was established through the merging of four constituent countries, England, Northern Ireland, Scotlandand Wales, each with their own unique culture. However, as time passed, many of the symbols and icons from the individual countries fused together tocreate a unique UK culture.For example:L 13 is considered a very unlucky number.L Friday is considered an unlucky day, especially Friday the 13th.L Black cats are considered lucky.L It is considered good luck to touch a piece of wood. It is not uncommon to hear one yell, “Touch Wood!” to prevent a change in luck.L Animals: Peacock feathers are considered unlucky, possibly because the eye-shape on the feather can be considered the evil-eye. A sparrow entering a house is considered a death omen.L Red poppies are worn on Remembrance Day in memory of service personnel who lost their lives in the First and Second World Wars and subsequent conflicts.L British Monarchy: People in general are proud of the monarchy and like to celebrate this ancient institution. ColorsCertain colors carry specific meaning and symbolize aspects of the British culture.€ Red: Considered to be the most masculine of colors signifying authority, government, power and visibility.€ Black: Considered to be the color of death. It is also a very formal color – such as “black-tie” events. Spatial Orientation:Spatial orientation refers to how web content isstructured. According to Wendy Barber and AlbertBadre, authors of “Culturability: The Merging ofCulture and Usability” (1998), spatial orientationhas a direct effect on website usability, becauseit affects visual perception. Manipulating theorientation can change the user’s comfort level.What is user-friendly for one country may bevastly different for another. Orange balances imagery with a neat, clean layout and a logical orientation.12 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. V. UK Cultural Correctness and Web Customization Text Length:When translating a document or website, it is important to take into account how the length of the text will change after translation. There are a variety ofreasons why text expansion occurs. Equivalent phrases in a target language may have more characters or words than in English, and some cultures preferusing a more formal style than other cultures, avoiding abbreviations, for example. Additionally, for both documents and websites both line and page breaksmay be different in the localized version than in the English version. Finally, the layout of the document or website itself may change depending on thedirection of the text. For example, Arabic is a bi-directional language and is read right-to-left, which will not only switch the layout of the text, but also thegraphics, the tool bars, the navigation bars, and the binding of the book, etc... Similarly, some languages like Chinese and Japanese can be displayed eitherin left-to-right character rows or vertical character columns, and the choice influences how document elements such as graphics, figures, tables, call outs,etc. are arranged in the final document or webpage.There can either be text expansion or compression when a document or website is translated from English into a target language. With documentlocalization, there are several steps that can be taken to help preserve the integrity of the look and feel “layout” of the document. These include:L Using a larger font in the original language, if it is expected the language will expand during translation. This will help to develop a better feel for the final size of the document and how the document elements will be laid out relative to the text. If the text is expected to shrink, use a slightly smaller font for the same reasons.L Tables and graphics may need to be resized or changed. Some, like the vertical Chinese or Japanese layout, will require more finessing than others.13 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. VI. Internet and Search Engine Marketing in the UK The key to promoting a website internationally is to create localized content and keywords, register local domains and then promote through local search engines, online and offline branding and promotions, and affiliate marketing. According to an independent survey completed by Nominet, UK web addresses are the gateway to the Internet for the majority of British searching for information and purchasing online. In the UK, Nominet is the national registry for registering ccTLD ending in.uk and they manage over 6 million domain It is recommended that firms plan on and conduct some names. This makes the.uk domain almost the 4th largest registry in the world after.com,.org and.de form of global search engine marketing (SEM) in order to drive traffic to their new language sites. (website-law.co.uk). This may include global search engine optimization of your localized web content, submission of pages to key country (locale) search engines, and a pay-per-click These are several syntax rules that need to be taken into account when registering a.uk domain with marketing campaigns through services like Google Nominet (adapted from Baker and McKenzie, 2001): Adwords or Overture. For more information on Global SEM Services, see www.globalizationpartners.com/SEM. L Two letter names are not allowed, expect ISO country codes L Two character names are allowed, i.e. 3x.co.uk, but not aa.co.uk L All second level names of.uk are banned from being third level names, i.e. nhs.co.uk The Importance of.uk Sites L All top level names are banned from being third level names, i.e. net.org.uk If a company chooses to have a.uk site in addition to L All one character domain names, such as [a-z0-9].xxx.uk are reserved for possible future sub- its.com site it is important to not only make the UK English site, different in terms of dialect use, but also domain usage localize to have original content specific to the UK audience. This is not just a good localization policy to address each locale uniquely, but is also necessary to avoid penalties from search engines like Google. This In addition, second level names by Nominet have a unique purpose. For example: is because Google tries to identify and penalize sites that are carbon copies of one another (Sean Carlos: www.antezeta.com/search-engines-site-localization- € .co.uk are used for commercial entities duplicate-content.html). € .me.uk are used for personal sites € .org.uk are used for non-profit organizations UK SEO Considerations € .net.uk are used for Internet service providers’ infrastructure Ì Your keywords for SEO need to be adapted for the corresponding locale, Top UK Search Engines (Spider based) in 2010 were: in this case, the UK. This ensures that your website employs keywords most € www.google.co.uk frequently used by UK consumers. € search.msn.co.uk Ì Content and metadata translation/copy writing/research needs to be performed € www.ask.co.uk by in-country (UK)translators. This is € uk.search.yahoo.com essential to ensure that original content is adapted to your targeted UK consumers. Ì Strong website quality assurance (QA), performed by UK, in-country translators, will ensure that your website works properly for targeted UK consumers. The QA process will detect and eliminate broken links, missing information, and uncover any other cultural issues diminish your website experience for UK consumers. References available upon request.14 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Resources Search Enginesß ExciteUK ß Dogpile UK ß Mojeek Beta www.excite.co.uk www.dogpile.co.uk www.mojeek.co.ukß UKIndex ß Ezilion.com ß Tell Me About (UK Directory) www.ukindex.co.uk www.ezilon.com www.tellmeabout.co.ukß UKPlus ß EuroFind: European Business Directory ß UK Nation www.ukplus.co.uk www.eurofind.biz www.uknation.co.ukß Altavista UK ß Aboacho ß Lifestyle.co.uk uk.altavista.com www.abacho.co.uk www.lifestyle.co.ukß Yahoo UK ß ooBdoo ß Splut: Directory of UK Wesbites uk.yahoo.com www.oobdoo.co.uk www.splut.comß LycosUK ß entireweb.com ß Business Link www.lycos.co.uk www.entireweb.com www.businesslink.gov.uk Useful Linksß www.iabeurope.eu ß www.i-uk.com ß news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/country_profilesß www.nielsen-netratings.com ß www.bis.gov.uk ß www.export.govß www.startups.co.uk ß www.bbc.co.uk ß globaledge.msu.eduß ec.europa.eu/index_en.htm ß www.direct.gov.uk ß www.buyusa.govß https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the- ß www.countrywatch.com world-factbook/geos/uk.html Acrobat may ask you for permission to open the links. Click on the “Allow” button to let Acrobat open the link in your browser15 of 15 Website Globalization and E-Business | Japan www.globalizationpartners.com © Copyright 2008 - 2012 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.

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