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Sustainable livelihoods Ecotech

Presented by Dr.Rengalakshmi

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Sustainable livelihoods Ecotech

  1. 1. Sustainable Livelihoods 8 Aug 2019
  2. 2. Status of small holders Stabilising Farm Incomes The Employment Challenge Increasing Climate Risk Challenge of Agroecology Market Risks Changing context of rural agrarian systems Status • 85% are small holders, operates 45% of the area • Structure of income: crop cultivation (47%), Animal husbandry(13%). Non-farm business (8%) and wages and salaries (32%) – average income (Rs 78000 to one lakh) • Groundwater Overuse and Declining Water Levels – Visible over 33% of the Districts and Blocks – 66% of the wells owned by small holders • Soil degradation due to imbalanced use of organic vs inorganic nutrients • Gender inequity in land ownership and access to productive resources • Share of institutional credit – 46% • Increasing degree of Climate variability and change& • Market access and risk Main challenges
  3. 3. Sustainable Livelihoods Framework Policies Institutions Processes NS FP H The Poor Vulnerability Context Shocks Seasonality Trends Changes influence Livelihood Strategies Livelihood Outcomes Slide 16 Livelihoods: Capabilities, the Assets (both material and social resources) & the Activities required for a means of living. It is sustainable when they can able to cope with and recover from stresses and shocks; maintain or enhance capabilities and assets without ... without undermining the natural resource base
  4. 4. Approaches – Livelihoods 1. Biovillage 2. Bioindustrial watersheds – landed farmers 3. Sustainable agriculture – intensification and diversification 4. Ecoenterprises – landless agrl. labourers Common framework is – Enhancing the productivity in concurrence with natural resources
  5. 5. Augment Agro ecosystem Sustainability & Enhancement of Livelihoods for Watershed Communities HUMAN CENTERED Pro Nature - Pro Poor Pro Women - Pro Jobs OUTCOMES FPOs/ BIO INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTIONS INCREASED Land & Water Productivity Exclusion to Inclusion - Financial Diversified & Value added Livelihoods Community Managed Institutions Management of Climate Change Risks Stakeholders Concerted Action SUSTAINABLE Agriculture / Food Security Environmental Quality Livelihoods and Happy Farm Families OUTCOMES Bioindustrial Watershed - Operational Framework Climate Change - Mitigation and Adaptation Bio village Paradigm Gender Mainstreaming Partnerships / Entitlements & Capacity Building Cross Cutting Issues KEY COMPONENTS Convergence Biomass Actors Watershed Community Owned, Monitored & Managed PRI NREGA Conservation and Enhancing NR Land , Water & Biodiversity Improving Small Farm Productivity & Profitability - PTD /IIFS Crop - Livestock Integration Generation of Non Farm Market driven Enterprises BV BV BV
  6. 6. Bio Industrial Scale Up based on Watershed Development Access to Water & other assets & services Building social capital - FPOs Intensification /Diversification livelihood options Integration of Value Chain Scaling Up Models Key Drivers 1. Equitable access to water, credit & other support services 2. Bridging the yield gap and increase productivity, Value addition and Profitability of small farms 3. Risk management (abiotic) and 4. Institutional building and 5. Market access
  7. 7. o Enhancement of natural resources: Individual Farm Ponds (8) tank (1), open wells (25), Water Harvesting Structures (3), irrigation channels (2000 m), diversion weirs (9), compartmental bunding (58 acres), / Staggered Trenches (43), gully plugging structures (11), Agro forestry and farm forestry  Addressing productivity issues: Production of Paddy almost doubled in both the seasons, 30% increase in groundnut in rabi season and 66% in vegetables o Case of Tolla watershed Total area – 750 ha (320 ha –cultivable land) covering 272 families
  8. 8. 8 Physical capital: 162 Farmers covered with different land & water management works and ensured cropping, where as 303 Acres land provided with assured irrigation facility. Natural Capital: 161 Acres land treated with different land & water management practices, brought in to cultivation (Fallow, Cultivable, Uncultivated & affected by soil erosion) became productive. Water table increased up to 65%– Drinking water scarcity in summer is addressed. Human Capital: 8465 workdays employment generated through land & water management works and Employment Workdays ensured - 180 to 200 days. Social capital: Promoted one Farmer collective with 740 farmers (32% women) Financial capital: Community banking system established Additional income increased: • Rs. 2000 to 10000 per acre - paddy, ragi & groundnut • Rs. 5000 to 20000 for Vegetables
  9. 9. Ecoenterprises
  10. 10. Case 2. Mass multiplication of Bioinputs – Ecoenterprises Issues and Context – Reddiyarchatrm block • In the total work force – 52 % of them are agrl.laborers, of which 60 % are women • Belongs to socially disadvantaged communities (mostly dalits and chakkliars) • Total area under cultivation is around 20,000 ha • Literacy rate: 62 Percent among women and 74% among men • vulnerability context among agricultural labourers: skewed employment opportunities (year around), lack of savings, lack of assets, less wage rate, poor health conditions, seasonal migration etc • Lack of rural entrepreneurship • Since women do not have equal access to credit, training, business development services etc., access to science and technology is unlikely to have a major impact on improving their livelihoods
  11. 11. • Major livelihood strategies are wage labour (Available labour days – 107 for men and 157 for women in agriculture) and livestock rearing such as goat and poultry. During lean season the family moves to nearby industrial towns such as Tirupur, Coimbatore etc. The labour group follows seasonal migration, advance selling of labour, sale of livestock, borrowing from moneylenders, consumption adjustment, work for less wage are the common coping strategies. • Targeted households are mobilized into groups and groups federated at the apex level – 160 groups – organised in to women federation
  12. 12. Biological products: Demystified into Eco-enterprises Products Common name 1. Trichoderma viride 2. Pseudomonas fluorescens Bio fungicide 3. Trichogramma chilonis/japanicum 4. Cryptolaemus or Scymnus Bio pesticide 5. Beauveria bassiana 6. Metarhizium spp 7. Verticillium leccani 8. Bacillus subtilus Bio pesticide 9. Azosprillum brazilliensis 10. Phosphobacteria 11. K mobilizers 12. Rhizobium 13. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Biofertilizers 14. Paeciliomyces lilacinus Bio nematecide (pest) 15. Nesolynx thymus pupal parasitoid to control Uzifly
  13. 13. Enhancing capacities ……
  14. 14. Technology appropriation to the local context and user groups
  15. 15. Production process of biofungicide (Pseudomonas and biofertilizers)……
  16. 16. Business Development Services Services provision was institutionalized through federation - Kulumai federation – committee within federation established to monitor and implement Credit services Technology upgradation Product diversifi cation Marketing services Legal complian ces Quality assurance
  17. 17. Outcomes 1. Access to technology – skilled employment - five women groups around 75 women 2. Non traditional jobs, new skills and knowledge 3. Assets in women’s name – collective 4. Entrepreneurship capacities - risk taking ability, continuous innovation, diversification, Control over decision making on the enterprise management, innovation in the process etc 5. Expansion on the institutional linkages
  18. 18. GainsandLosses–rural womenaccesstotechnology andentrepreneurship Indicators more less Remarks Work burden + Less equitable for women Leisure time - Less equitable for women Skill + More equitable for women Knowledge + More equitable for women Responsibilities + More equitable for women Participation in public/civic/political + More equitable for women opportunities + More equitable for women Decision making + More equitable for women Control over assets (group assets) + More equitable for women Social prestige + More equitable for women Conflict/violence - More equitable for women Women workload is increased while gender division of reproductive work is yet to change and Women rarely own immovable assets
  19. 19. Rice Bio Park Provide a scope for adopting a circular economy approach which is minizing waste and maximizing the use of resources
  20. 20. Concluding remarks • Social mobilization and organization – group coherence and women’s leadership • The capacity building process- pedagogy, interactive learning, learning by doing and learning by evaluation – partners need to be sensitized to the approach • Ensure the availability of business development services/support services :build capacity of the group members to build the networks and negotiate • Access to technology and demystification or customization of the technology to the local context • Networking and linkages with technical and marketing institutions
  21. 21. Challenges • Complexity and challenges in striking balance among ecological and economic sustainability dimensions • Sustaining the collective power to address the inequalities – measures of nurturing • Goals of economic and social empowerment may not always go together – what kind of strategies are needed?
  22. 22. FPOs Collectives Technology support Market and financial Access Access to productive resources Decision making Self confidence Agency and Power Key learnings
  23. 23. Rice Bio Park Provide a scope for adopting a circular economy approach which is minizing waste and maximizing the use of resources Explore the scope for such processing initiatives
  24. 24. Thank you