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Leveraging agriculture for nutrition and health

Presented by Dr. R.V Bhavani

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Leveraging agriculture for nutrition and health

  1. 1. Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition and Health R V Bhavani 8 August, 2019
  2. 2. Undernourished Population and Dependence on Agriculture The National Family Health Survey - NFHS-IV (2015-16) shows: Population largely dependent on agriculture and allied activities Census 2011: 68.8 % of the population is in rural areas  Agriculture and allied activities engages more than half the workforce Small & marginal holdings account for 85% of operational holdings
  3. 3. Knowledge & Evidence WASH: an important nutrition- sensitive intervention to enhance agriculture’s impact on nutrition Agriculture Food Income Women’s empowerment Women’s health/nutrition Nutrition Prices Women’s caring capacity What are the direct linkages between agriculture and nutrition?
  4. 4. Research on Food & Nutrition Security • Reports on State of Food Insecurity; Policy Analysis; Action Research: CFB, empowerment of women farmers... • Portfolio of studies under LANSA (2012-2018)
  5. 5. Evidence of Nutrition Sensitive Agriculture • NSA: What have we learned so far? • Ruel et al. (2018) Global Food Security 17:128-153 • “Agriculture should focus on improving dietary diversity and high quality diets as precursor to better nutrition outcomes” • Nutrition Sensitive Agriculture envisages mainstreaming the nutrition dimension in agriculture to address the problem of malnutrition, a key Sustainable Development Goal. • Evidence that interventions such as home gardens, introduction of livestock, poultry and aquaculture may improve production diversity, animal ownership and women’s empowerment, leading to beneficial effects on intermediate nutritional outcomes such as dietary diversity and consumption of nutrient-rich crops.
  6. 6. Feasibility and scope of a Farming System for Nutrition (FSN) approach to improve the nutritional status of small holder farmers FSN: Design that mainstreams nutritional criteria in the selection of components of the farming system: integrates nutritious crops, trees, agro-forestry, poultry, livestock and fisheries ─ tailor-made to address the location specific nutrition needs of rural families Integral elements: Attention to gender and age dimensions; Nutrition Literacy
  7. 7. Farming System for Nutrition (FSN) Farming System Profitability Stability SustainabilityProductivity Nutrition How to design location-specific farming system for nutrition (FSN) to improve household diet diversity & lead to better nutrition outcomes? Participatory approach:
  8. 8. Study Locations • 7 villages (658 households) in Koraput district, Odisha; 5 villages (556 households) in Wardha district, Maharashtra • Purposively selected; agro-ecologically different; tribal population • Dependent on agriculture; Commercial in Wardha / Subsistence in Koraput • Study Period: Mid 2013 to March 2018 • High levels of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency
  9. 9. Food Consumption Pattern 172.5 95.6 9.4 16.8 16 14.3 11.2 76.7 86.2 50 63.5 1.4 2.3 33.8 51.6 15.8 52.5 150.4 0 50 100 150 200 Sugar and Jaggery Fats and Edible Oils Milk and Milk Products Fruits Other Vegetables Roots and Tubers Green Leafy Vegetables Pulses and Legumes Cereals and Millets Koraput Wardha AverageConsumptionas%ofRDI
  10. 10. Agriculture – Nutrition - Approach Less area & productivity of sorghum, finger millet, wheat Demand for consumption Increase in productivity and area Less diversity and low productivity of pulse crops Consumption less than RDI Scope for diversification Increase in area and productivity Minimum area under tubers Consumption less than RDI Option of Biofortified crops (OFSP) Minimum cultivation of Vegetables Consumption less than RDI Prevalence of anaemia Cultivation of different groups of vegetables Livestock used for cultivation/source of money Consumption less than RDI Access to sources of animal protein
  11. 11. FSN Interventions in Land Holding Farming Households
  12. 12. Existing farming systems practices & FSN Interventions (Koraput) Components of farming system Details Cropping system Primary purpose Kharif Rabi Crop Low land Paddy Fallow commercial and consumption Medium land Paddy/ vegetables Fallow consumption Upland Millet/maize/rice Fallow consumption Homestead /backyard vegetables Fallow consumption Animal husbandry Cattle/ Backyard free range poultry /Sheep/goat Cultivation and source of money Green gram & Black gram Finger millet Maize + Pigeon pea OFSPNutrition garden of fruits & vegetables Fishery Finger millet; if irrigation available
  13. 13. Existing farming systems practices & FSN interventions (Wardha) Components of farming system Details Cropping system Primary purpose Kharif Rabi Crop Rainfed Cotton or Cotton + pigeon pea Fallow Commercial & consumption Soybean or soybean + pigeon pea Fallow/Bengal gram Commercial & consumption Irrigated Cotton or cotton + pigeon pea Fallow Commercial & consumption Soybean or soybean + pigeon pea Wheat/ Bengal gram Commercial & consumption Homestead/ backyard/ community land Fallow No use Animal husbandry Backyard free range poultry , Cattle, Sheep, goat Cultivation & source of money Intercropping with pigeon pea/ green gram/ black gram; improved varieties; Improved varieties of wheat and bengal gram Backyard poultry for landless Nutrition garden of fruits and vegetables Hybrid variety of sorghum
  14. 14. Nutrition Awareness and Capacitating Local Men and Women to be champions at the Community Level • Understanding of balanced diet and dietary diversity • Nutritive value of different foods and their source • Food requirements at different stages of the lifecycle (emphasis on <5 yrs) • Linking Ag to Nutrition • Awareness & Access to Entitlements • Training & Exposure visits Community Hunger Fighters: 21 M+19 F
  15. 15. Increased availability of food grains, pulses and vegetables Increased farm income Household food availability : quantity and diversity Dietary Diversity & Improved Intake Farming System for Nutrition Improved varieties Introducing new crop Crop intensification Improved agriculture practices Nutrition awareness Change in the Nutritional status Endline Survey
  16. 16. No. of farmers participating in FSN Interventions (Total HH Wardha=556, Koraput=658) Inputs & technical knowledge Inputs & technical knowledge Inputs & technical knowledge Inputs (50%) & technical knowledge Only technical knowledge 2013201420152016 2017 (Kharif) 13 203 236 416 405 25 101 143 172 223 Wardha KoraputTimeline: 2013-14 to 2017-18
  17. 17. consumption pattern: end line survey 2017 Koraput (n=155) Increased frequency of consumption of different food groups (daily or twice/thrice a week)  14% increase in average intake per day of Finger millet (70 g/CU/day in baseline).  Diversified pulse consumption (pigeon pea, green gram, black gram), both as whole and dhal. 63 % increase in average intake per day (28 g/CU/day in baseline).  Increased avg intake/day of vegetables (GLV 1.15 times); fruits (44%)
  18. 18. consumption pattern: end line survey 2017Wardha (n=158) Increased frequency of consumption of different food groups (daily or twice/thrice a week)  Sorghum consumption (entirely from home grown) increased from 6% of HHs to 30%.  Diversified pulse consumption (pigeon pea, green gram, black gram and bengal gram), both as whole and dhal. Average quantity of per day intake increased 1.5 to 2 times.  Increased avg intake per day of vegetables (GLV 71%) & fruits (7 times)
  19. 19. Key findings • Improved variety & package of practice; crop diversification • Improved Dietary Diversity  Increased average intake (quantity)  Increased no. of items (diversity)  Increased frequency of consumption (daily or twice/thrice a week) • Greater understanding (94% of HH) and practise (69% of HH) of nutrition sensitive agriculture
  20. 20. Uptake & Innovations • Cultivation of vegetables in fields – on the bunds • New crop combinations (e.g. OFSP in cashew plantations, sorghum with black gram/pigeon pea/black gram) • Spread of FSN interventions from 5 to 16 more villages in Wardha and from 7 to 18 more villages in Koraput; • Village-level processing • Farm men and women as spokespersons at different forums: “Through FSN we are now doing different crop combinations of cotton with pigeon pea/green gram/black gram as well as are growing micronutrient rich varieties of wheat and sweet potato in fields and different groups of vegetables in nutrition gardens and are including the produce in our daily diets. ” Balakrishna Pethe Farmer, Borgaon village, Maharashtra - Block level consultation May 2017
  21. 21. Advocacy of FSN Approach • NITI Aayog recommended that ICAR promote FSN approach through KVKs (Jan 2018) • Advocacy in four states: AP, Bihar, Mah, Odisha • Policy analysis for scope for NSA in existing policies in these states and at national level • Promotion through KVKs in AP, Odisha, Mah