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Community Agrobiodiversity Conservation for Food Security and Sustainable Livelihoods

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Presented By Dr.E.D.Israel Oliver King.

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Community Agrobiodiversity Conservation for Food Security and Sustainable Livelihoods

  1. 1. Community Agrobiodiversity Conservation for Food Security and Sustainable Livelihoods E.D.Israel Oliver King M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai. oliverking@mssrf.res.in International Consultation on Achieving Sustainable Development Goals and Strenthening Science for Climate Resilience 7-9 Aug 2019, MSSRF
  2. 2. Hill dwellers of Kolli Hills in Tamil Nadu
  3. 3. Marginal Communities of Koraput Region, Odisha
  4. 4. 4 Communities of Wayanad Region, Kerala
  5. 5. Millet Interspecies diversity - Kolli Hills
  6. 6. Koraput Case: Diversity in Rice
  7. 7. Diversified characters of Rice o 24 aromatic, o 27 flood resistant, o 2 deep water, o 10 drought resistant, o insect/ pest resistant, o puffing quality
  8. 8. Conservation • enhancement and sustainable use of biodiversity and comprises in situ on-farm and ex-situ conservation methods Cultivation • promoted low external inputs • sustainable agriculture based on principles of organic farming • the farming system with specific agricultural remedies for nutritional maladies • cultivation of naturally bio-fortified crops and crop-livestock integration Consumption • Product diversification provision and promotion of small machinery for processing and increasing consumption, • product diversification for linking with markets, nutritional surveys for identification of the major causes of chronic and hidden hunger • activities for mainstreaming nutrition in agriculture programs Commerce • creating an economic stake in conservation through options in livelihood security • given greater attention to increase the net income of smallholder farmers Participatory Research Science Based Enhancing Capacity Ensuring Resilience Building Grassroots Empowering Marginal Communities Using 4C Approach in Conservation and Sustainable Use
  9. 9. Chronicling Climate Smart Farming Practices Crops, duration and sequence of harvest in Conventional mixed cropping in Kolli Hills Local Name Scientific Name Duration (days) Sequence of Harvest Amaranthus Amaranthus sp. 60-70 I Thinai Setaria italica 100-110 II Maize Zea mays 125-130 III Ragi Eleusine coracana 150-160 IV Cucubits Cucumber sp. 150 V Avarai Purpureus lab lab 190-240 VI * Farm level variability exist based on land terrain, Soil, Farmers preferences Data base of Climate Resilient Practices; Mixed Cropping – Coping Mechanism Against Natural Calamities
  10. 10. Traditional Knowledge Documentation and linking with Exsitu Community Biodiversity Register Local Community Seed Bank Scaracia Mugnosa Community Gene Bank NBPGR National Gene Bank
  11. 11. Custodians Farmer’s Network  Custodians: Conserve, Cultivate, Share, Innovate
  12. 12. Crop Landrace Name Traits of the Varieties Samai/Little Millet Perunjsamai Suitable for Mixed Cropping, Samai / Little Millet Thirikulasamai Short duration crop (3 Month), fodder grass, taste, survive in poor soil Thinai / Italian Millet Palanthinai Suitable for mixed crop, Taste, survive in poor soil Thinai/ Italian Millet Perunthinai Suitable for mixed cropping , Ragi / Finger Millet Perungkelvargu Long duration crop (6Month), fodder, Ragi/GPU 48 Improved Var. High Productivity Perunsamai Perunthinai Recognizing Custodian Farmers Village Name: Padosolai, Farmer Name: Mrs. Malliga ,Age:33 No. of Family Member:5
  13. 13. •Abandoned Traditional Seed storage structures • Weakened Seed Exchange practice Community Seed Banks Seed Distribution CultivationSeed Multiplication Seed Storage – Thombai Seed exchange Millet seed distribution through Community Seed Banks (in Kg) On farm issues in Conservation Millet Seeds 2000- 01 2001- 02 2002- 03 2003- 04 2004- 05 2005- 06 2006- 07 2007- 08 2008- 09 2009- 10 2010- 11 2011- 12 2012- 13 2013- 14 2014- 15 2015- 16 2016- 17 2017- 18 2018- 19 Total Little Millet 900 1389 453 508 510 95 7.5 16.5 56.5 306 298 176 197 432 271.5 88.45 514.5 76 50 6345 Italian Millet 1089 987 357 435 279 18 55 150 63 81 353 166.4 96.8 147.5 85.5 140 4503 Finger Millet 227 240 172 112.8 519 232 246 270 562 664 305.1 1193 422.25 805 5970 Kodo Millet 24 43 0.5 20 10 5 10 15 6 3.5 13.5 12 163 Proso Millet 27 0.5 11 10 7 15 35 10 1.9 2 2.5 122 Total 1989 2400 1037 1183 510 616 7.5 16.5 188.3 911 700 497 573 1397 1117.9 495.75 1870.5 598.25 995 17103
  14. 14. •Farmer participatory research in identifying high yielding varieties through PVS •Yield Enhancement Demonstrations for increasing productivity with profitability •Promotion of intercrops for better nutrition •Reduction of drudgery of women in crop production - row maker, cono weeder, inter cultivation and modified spade FARMERS’ METHOD IMPROVED METHOD Traditional seed Selected quality seed Broadcasted seed Row planted seed Little or no manure & fertilizers Promote healthy soil management with use of manure & fertilizers No regulation of plant population Thinning and seedling density regulation Weeding or no weeding Weeding & interculture Productivity Enhancement (PVS, QSP, Intercropping)
  15. 15. Farm Implements and Processing tools Traditional method – rope Improved - Row Marker Making row for line sowing Reduced drudgery and 80 per cent of time saved by using row maker than rope for line sowing weeding in line sowing of millets Conventional Method of Weeding Weeding used by Cono Weeder 75 per cent of time saved by using Cono - weeder when we compare to traditional method Conventional Spade Modified Spade Modified Spade for Weeding in Tapioca Field 40 per cent of time saved by using customized spade when we compare to traditional spade in tapioca inter cropping Mechanical PulverizerConventional Method of Pulverizing Reduced drudgery and 90 per cent of time saved by mechanical processing machine than conventional method of Pulversing Pulverser
  16. 16. Gap in culinary knowledge in millets Value addition Training Building capacities on Culinary Knowledge (Processing, Cooking and Consumption) in Millets and value addition
  17. 17. Value Added Products Finger Millet Malt (Ragi Malt) Thinai Payasa Mix Thinai Laddu Samai Bajji Mix Samai Uppuma Mix Samai Rava Dosa Mix Little Millet rice Italian Millet rice Finger Millet Flour LITTLE MILLET ITALIAN MILLET BAKED COOKIES BUNS FRIEMS DIABETIC MIX Baked, Puffed & Fried….. Neutraceuti cal Mixes Branding and Product Development
  18. 18. Millet Value Chain Development Producer – Procurer - processor – Value adder – Distributor - Consumer Quantity of different form of millets Marketed 2001 - 2019 Linkages of products to Health foods shops and organic outlets Kolli Hills Natural Food Shop Managed by the KHABCOFED Collectives of the Members of the federation Function as a Hub in the supply chain of the Kolli Hills products Kolli Hills (3) Thiruppathur (1) Chennai (2) Namakkal (3) Erode (1) Salem (4) Thiruppur (1) Karur (1) Coimbatore (2) Viluppuram (1) Madurai (1) Mayiladudhurai (1) Tanjavur (2) Kumbakonam(1) Paramathi Velur (1) Dindigul (1) Vellakovil (1) Thiruchengode (1) Karaikkal (1) Year Whole Grain (Kg) Millet Rava and Flour (Kg) Value Added Products (Kg) Gross Returns (Rs) 2001-2002 9000 1200 62,000 2002-2003 2662 70,068 2003-2004 1365 25,524 2004-2005 3138 71,500 2005-2006 2255 1110 1,16,098 2006-2007 1062 240 50,598 2007-2008 1770 414.45 73,694 2008-2009 2672 831 1,29,639 2009-2010 1465 1061 1,25,853 2010-2011 681 984 1,32,893 2011-2012 1373 1119.75 2,42,422 2012-2013 3658 1660.2 4,20,054 2013-2014 5486.5 1497.85 5,49,908 2014-2015 9548.5 1696.65 9,31,580 2015-2016 15,081 1179.65 13,12,855 2016-2017 11,816 1,147.95 11,41,423 2017-2018 10,915 911.50 9,97,356 2018-2019 10,918 583.23 9,49,691 Total 9,000 87,065.86 14,437.23 74,03,156
  19. 19. Sales Deed Partnership Deed TIN Cert Sales Tax Cert. SSI Cert. Dhan Settlement • Creating Common Property • Partnership deed in SHG • MOU with the Block development Office • Tax Payer’s Identification Number certificate (TIN) • Sales Tax Certificate (CTC) • Small Scale industry certificate (SSI) • Tamil Nadu Food Safety and Drug Administration Certificate Community Based Infrastructure creations through Social Capital building FSSAI
  20. 20. Kalajeera (An aromatic Rice for Promotion) o Formation of Kalinga Kalajeera Rice Growers Cooperative Society (KKRGCS) o 500 acres , involving more than 700 farm families o Procurement by NAFED o One & half times more price than other rice o GI trial of Kalajeera in 5districts
  21. 21. Millets Food Fair, Seed Fair, Inter School Competition Promoting Nutritional literacy using traditional crops
  22. 22. Seed villages • Centre established 25 seed villages so far • Seed villages has been ensuring the supply of traditional paddy seeds of 10 varieties like Adukkan, Veliyan, Chenellu, Chenthadi, Chomala, Gandakasala, Jeerakasala, Mullankaima, Kalladiaryan and Thondi. • ability to withstand the incidence of drought, flood and pest/ disease incidence • Established 8 pulse seed village
  23. 23. Farm diversification with climate resilient varieties in Kerala • adaptation strategy among smallholders, centre promoted the conservation and cultivation of climate resilient crops (tubers, pepper and rice) and their varieties across Wayanad • Diversified the farm with traditional varieties of different crop to enable farmers to address risks related to crop loss • The diversification with leafy greens, other vegetables, tubers, fruits, pulses, ensured dietary diversity among smallholders
  24. 24. Home Nutrition gardens • increased access and consumption of diversified food groups including leafy greens, other vegetables, pulses, fruits, tubers poultry and inland fishery, centre established home nutrition gardens • ensures dietary diversity among smallholder farm families including tribes. • access to dietary diversity and choice of food increased among women and children in the intervention areas. • The social network (sharing of harvest, seed , knowledge) among these small holders has been strengthened
  25. 25. Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems
  26. 26. Kuttanad Below–Sea Level Farming System
  27. 27. A Complex Mosaic of Fragmented Agricultural Landscape • Coastal backwaters • Rivers • Paddy fields, • Marshes • Ponds, • Garden lands • Edges • Corridors and • WATER WAYS
  28. 28. MSSBGarden RET Plants diversity Western Ghats Wayanad MSSBG Total No. of plant species 4679 2123 1058 Endemic to Western Ghats 1637 622 376 Threat category 325 148 54 645 species of evergreen trees (56%Endemic)
  29. 29. Biju Patnaik Medicinal Plants Garden & Research Centre Nine tribal Medicinal Plants Garden
  30. 30. Engaging Youth, Panchayat Raj Institutions, State departments
  31. 31. Stakeholders interaction with communities
  32. 32. Legal literacy Forum • Legal literacy on PGR conservation PPVFRA and BD Acts and provisions • Registration of Landraces and farmers varieties • Genome savior award and Equator Initiative Award
  33. 33. Registration of Farmers’ variety • Helped out the rural and tribal farmers to register their paddy landraces as farmers’ variety under Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Right Act 2001 • Facilitated recognition of Genome Saviour Award for the Kurichiya and Kuruma farmers of Wayanad for their contribution in the conservation of rice • The interest accrued from Genome Saviour Recognition (ten lakh)is given to selected farmers every year who conserve maximum number of crops and varieties.
  34. 34. Conservation • enhancement and sustainable use of biodiversity and comprises in situ on-farm and ex-situ conservation methods Cultivation • promoted low external inputs • sustainable agriculture based on principles of organic farming • the farming system with specific agricultural remedies for nutritional maladies • cultivation of naturally bio-fortified crops and crop-livestock integration Consumption • Product diversification provision and promotion of small machinery for processing and increasing consumption, • product diversification for linking with markets, nutritional surveys for identification of the major causes of chronic and hidden hunger • activities for mainstreaming nutrition in agriculture programs Commerce • creating an economic stake in conservation through options in livelihood security • given greater attention to increase the net income of smallholder farmers Participatory Research Science Based Enhancing Capacity Ensuring Resilience Building Grassroots Empowering Marginal Communities Using 4C Approach in Conservation and Sustainable Use
  35. 35. Conclusion • Recognizing Custodian Farmers • Nutritive and Underutilized Species • Value Chain Development • Community Based Initiative • Nutrition Sensitive and Sustainable Dev. Approach • Convergence with State Intiatives

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