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Climate Change and Coastal Zone Management: MSSRF Experience


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Presented by Dr.Ramasubramanian at MSSRF 30 conference

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Climate Change and Coastal Zone Management: MSSRF Experience

  1. 1. Climate Change and Coastal Zone Management: MSSRF Experience 07.08.2019 Achieving Sustainable Development Goals and Strengthening Science for Climate Resilience A Multi Stakeholder Consultation
  2. 2. Sea level rise predictions By IPCC in 2100 Global • 52-98 cm sea level rise Indian Coast • Sea level rise: 16 cm by 2050; 32 cm by 2100 • Avg. sea level rise is about 1.7 mm/ year
  3. 3. Climate change impacts on the coastal community • The coastal areas along the Bay of Bengal are highly vulnerable to climate related impacts. • The impact on livelihoods of poor fishing communities will be high • Inundation of low lying coastal lands • Increased coastal erosion and seawater intrusion into freshwater and groundwater • Increase the intensity of extreme weather conditions such as cyclones and high waves • Coastal community unable to predict the situation and it seriously affects their safety and livelihoods
  4. 4. MSSRF initiatives to address the issues of climate change • Restoration of degraded mangroves • Biosaline Agriculture • Diversification of Livelihoods • Disaster Risk Reduction • Assessment of Green House Gas Flux in Mangrove Ecosystem
  5. 5. Restoration of Degraded Mangroves- Bioshields Degradation: Both anthropogenic and man made • Joint Mangrove Management (JMM) -a science based, community-centred and process- oriented approach to conserve, restore and sustain mangrove wetlands. • Extended to Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Maharashtra. More than 2,500 ha of degraded mangroves restored • 20 year old mangrove plantation sequester 1.83 tC ha−1 y−1 • The Ministry of Environment and Forests and Climate Change, Government of India, evaluated mangrove restoration technology and recommended that canal method is suitable to restore degraded mangrove areas. • The restored mangroves in Pichavaram saved lives and livelihoods during the 2004 tsunami and the was published in Science.
  6. 6. Before restoration After restoration Restoration of Degraded Mangroves through canal method
  7. 7. 1990 2018 Krishna Mangroves
  8. 8. Pichavaram Mangroves
  9. 9. Biosaline Agriculture – Halophytes More than 1.2 millon ha saline land in the coastal areas Potential crops – Saline tolerant crops – Traditional and improved varieties Halophytes Halophytes are saline tolerant plants which grows luxuriantly in saline soils. There are potential species for food, fodder and fuel More than 2000 species were recorded globally In India community uses species like Suaeda sp. and Sesuvium sp. as green leaf vegetable
  10. 10. Halophytes Genetic Garden 29 halophytes collected from the East coast
  11. 11. Cultivating halophytes Suaeda maritima, Salicornia brachiata Lab studies • Varying salinities were used (1–40 g L −1); Maximum growth was observed in the salinities 8 and 10 PPT. • These species show high levels of salinity tolerance and show the potential for its domestication and its use as food (leafy vegetable) Suaeda maritima Salicornia brachiata Total fresh biomass(g) per plant in different salinity levels at 90 Days EC (dS/m) Suaeda maritima Salicornia brachiata 1 48.47 22.27 6 55.07 32.33 11 62.77 37.70 16 70.67 36.47
  12. 12. Biosaline Farming of halophytes Suaeda maritima, Sesuvium portulacastrum and Salicornia brachiata were grown in saline soil. About 20 tonnes of biomass (fresh weight) has been harvested which is more or less equal to the biomass produced using fresh water. These plants were grown in saline affected land with saline water.
  13. 13. Halophyte Grass Halophytic fodder grass viz. Porteresia coarctata, Fimbristylis ferruguinea and Paspalum vaginatum cultivated in saline soil. After 180 days, P. coarctata yielded a biomass of 10 tons/ ha, followed by F. ferruguinea (4.9) tonnes and P. vaginatum (2.5 tonnes). Porteresia coarctata Paspalum vaginatum
  14. 14. On Farm Demonstration of Kagga Paddy cultivation in the Manikatta Ghazani during kharif 2017 Treatment Plant Ht (cm) Tiller/plant Panicles/plant Panicle length (cm) Grain yield (kg/ha) Broadcasting 161.8 7.96 6.72 29.30 560 Transplanting 161.9 8.97 7.21 28.05 784 Drum seeding 161.8 8.21 6.72 27.48 476
  15. 15. Beli Kagga Kari Kagga Seed purification of Beli and Kari Kagga at ARS Kumta
  16. 16. Integrated Mangrove Fishery Farming System Blue solutions considered IMFFS as one of the adaptation strategies for SLR The Mangroves acts as a barrier and the water spread area helps the farmers to rear fish. Tidal fed ponds; About 50 ha of IMFFS farms established and other 25 ha is being done
  17. 17. • Produce fish integrated agriculture crops around fish pond. • Farming sub-systems fish, crop, livestock are linked to each other. • The byproducts/wastes from one sub-system become valuable inputs to another sub-system • Increase the Productivity; income • Household food security Promoted 154 farms in 21 villages Integrated Fish Farming System
  18. 18. Lobsters Groupers Small Fishes • Biodiversity and bioresources enhancement technique • Acts as a barrier to reduce the height and speed of the waves • Protecting the eroding coast and coastal settlements Reef modules Community Based Artificial Reef for Marine Bio Resource Enhancement
  19. 19. • Within the short period of time enormous settlement of sedentary flora and fauna was recorded • Assemblage of different varieties of fishes was recorded in the artificial reef system • There is an overwhelming support from the traditional fisher folk Tuticorin : 2004 Karaikal :2018 Artificial Reef : Deployment Pattern
  20. 20. Wave Rider Buoys : Real Time Waves Monitoring System – Partnership with INCOIS • Measures wave height, wave direction and seawater temperature • 16 WRBs across Indian Ocean • 3 buoys in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry monitored by MSSRF – Puducherry, Cholachel and Tuticorin
  21. 21. Features in Fisher friend : Disaster alerts Sea water temperature, Sea current Wave Height and Wind patterns Potential fishing zone Mark danger zones in the Sea Market Prices International Border Line (IBL) SOS (Save our Soul) Navigation to Harbour locations Government schemes Daily News My Tracker Compass Media archives: fisheries contents Calling facility Key contacts for communication Fisher Friend Mobile App : Sustainable and Climate Smart fishing
  22. 22. Greenhouse Gas Flux in Pichavaram The Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) of the Pichavaram mangrove shows that it acts as a sink for CO2.
  23. 23. Anticipatory Research • Genetic purification of saline tolerant traditional varieties for yield enhancement • Screening traditional landraces for salinity tolerance traits • Molecular approaches for enhancing salinity tolerance • Microbes as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in stressed soils
  24. 24. • A collection of 47 saline tolerant rice landraces (including 3 sensitive/tolerant checks) • From geographically divergent coastal regions of India (also from NBPGR, RRS-Chinsurah, IRRI and farmer’s fields) • Multiplied in our experimental fields in IGCAR, Kalpakkam over two seasons Nona Bokra -1 Nona Bokra -2 Nona Bokra -3 Nona Bokra -4 Altaluti Hoogla Katrangi Darsal Rupsal Kaksal Marisal Dudhersor Gheus Jingasal Nonasoren Kalonunia Patnai 23 Mundon-1 Mundon-2 Kamini Hamilton Anakodan Orkyma Orumundakan 1 Orumundakan 2 Chettivirippu PallipuramPokkali Korgut Kalamocha Matla -2Matla -1 Dudheshwar Aduisen-1 Aduisen-2 Talmugur-1 Talmugur-2 Talmugur-3 Pokkali -1 Pokkali-2 Pokkali-3 Pokkali-4 FL478 IR28 IR29 Screening traditional landraces for salinity tolerance traits
  25. 25. S.No Landraces 10th day scoring 16th day scoring Tolerance 1 FL478 3 3 Tolerant 2 IR 28 7 9 Highly susceptible 3 IR 29 7 9 Highly susceptible 4 Nona Bokra 1 3 3 Tolerant 5 Nona Bokra 3 3 3 Tolerant 6 Aduisen 1 3 3 Tolerant 7 Aduisen 2 3 3 Tolerant 8 Orumundakon 1 3 3 Tolerant 9 Orumundakon 2 5 5 Moderately tolerant 10 Anakodan 5 7 Susceptible 11 Mundon 1 3 3 Tolerant 12 Mundon 2 3 3 Tolerant 13 Talmugur 1 3 3 Tolerant 14 Talmugur 2 3 5 Moderately tolerant 15 Talmugur 3 3 3 Tolerant 16 Nonasoren 3 3 Tolerant 17 Pokkali 1 3 3 Tolerant 18 Kalamocha 5 5 Moderately tolerant 19 Pallipuram Pokkali 3 3 Tolerant 20 Chettivirippu 5 5 Moderately tolerant Standard Evaluation Score (SES) of visual salt injury at seedling stage
  26. 26. Molecular approaches for enhancing salinity tolerance • Understanding molecular mechanisms of drought and salt stress response – Bioinformatics and molecular approaches • Validation of identified saline tolerant genes in rice • Functional characterization of stress responsive genes in saline tolerant wild relative of rice plant
  27. 27. Saline tolerant PGPR (Pseudomonas sp. MSSRFD41) • Novel species in the group of Pseudomonas sp. • Potential biocontrol and PGPR agent • Tolerant to1M NaCl • AHL positive (Quorum sensing) • Produce ACC deaminase Plant growth promoting traits of Pseudomonas sp. MSSRFD41 PGPR as biocontrol agent
  28. 28. Future Focus • Biosaline Agriculture (Halophytes) • Sustainable Aquaculture
  29. 29. Thanks