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9th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs.5-8

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9th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs.5-8

1. 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 Pgs. 5-8 For Student Use Only
2. 2. Science and Measurement <ul><li>In order to express physical relationships with math, they first have to be measured! </li></ul><ul><li>Measurements must be precise . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise means that the measurement is exact and definite. </li></ul></ul>
3. 3. Science and Measurement <ul><li>Because humans make mistakes and devices can be wrong there is a way to test the certainty (or uncertainty) of measurements. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 ways to test certainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy : the exactness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precision : the repeatability </li></ul></ul>
4. 4. Science and Measurement <ul><li>Accuracy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements are not always exact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be accurate means to be as exact as possible (not approximate). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy- how closely a measurement or series of measurements reflects the actual value </li></ul></ul></ul>
5. 5. Science and Measurement <ul><li>Precision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting the same answer over and over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precision is the same as repeatability- or how close several measurements are to each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements must be consistent in order to be valid. </li></ul></ul></ul>
6. 6. Science and Measurement <ul><li>Significant Figures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a way to be exact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers are recorded to the first uncertain digit. (Ex. 2+2=4 not 2+2=4.00000) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The digits that are certain and the first uncertain digit are called significant figures . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always think about the number of significant figures. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note: More sensitive instruments can give you more significant figures. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
7. 7. Science and Measurement <ul><li>Scientific Notation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A short cut for really big or really small numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the fact that every number can be expressed as a number between 1 and 10 and multiplied by a power of 10. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. 19,000,000,000,000,000,000 is 1.9 x 10 19 </li></ul></ul></ul>
8. 8. Science and Measurement <ul><li>Scientific Notation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Exponent= big number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative Exponent= small number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 -14 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 -2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 16 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First number is written to significant figures. </li></ul></ul>
9. 9. Science and Measurement <ul><li>Scientific Notation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to do Scientific Notation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain first factor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Write a decimal after first non 0 digit. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain second factor (power of 10). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Count number of spaces decimal point moved. 10 ? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If number starts large- positive exponent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If number starts small (decimal)- negative exponent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>