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# 8th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 2

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### 8th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 2

1. 1. 8 th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 2 Pgs. 145-152 For Student Use Only
2. 2. Laws of Fluids <ul><li>Fluids can be in motion or at rest </li></ul><ul><li>Fluids at rest is pressed upon either by an outside force or its own weight </li></ul><ul><li>Important Laws: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pascal’s Principle (Blaise Pascal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boyle’s Law (Robert Boyle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles’s Law (Jacques Charles) </li></ul></ul>
3. 3. Laws of Fluids <ul><li>Pascal’s Principle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pressure applied to any surface of a confined fluid is transmitted equally in every direction throughout the fluid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure is distributed equally throughout the whole object </li></ul></ul>
4. 4. Laws of Fluids <ul><li>Pressure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of force pressing down on each unit of area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For every 1 psi= one pound of force pushes upon each square inch of the objects surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normal Atmospheric pressure= 14.7 psi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Car Tires= 30-35 psi above atmospheric pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bicycle Tires= 60-90 psi </li></ul></ul></ul>
5. 5. Laws of Fluids <ul><li>Pressure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic Jack- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Pascal’s principle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 sealed containers which contain a fluid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One container with a small piston </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One container with a large piston </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force= Pressure x Area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>F= PA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work input= work output </li></ul></ul></ul>
6. 6. Laws of Fluids <ul><li>Gas Laws: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boyle’s Law: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE: When the pressure upon a gas is lowered, the volume of the gas increases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boyle’s Law= The product of the pressure and volume of a gas is a constant if the temperature remains unchanged </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OR= As long as the temperature of a gas remains constant, its volume will be inversely related to its pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P 1 /P 2 =V 2 V 1 </li></ul></ul></ul>
7. 7. Laws of Fluids <ul><li>Charles’s Law: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law= As long as pressure of gas is constant, its volume is directly related to temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V 1 /T 1 =V 2 T 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law= If volume of a gas is a constant, its pressure and temperature are directly related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P 1 /T 1 = P 2 /T 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are both DIRECT relationships </li></ul></ul>
8. 8. Laws of Fluids <ul><li>Tying Laws together: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The hotter the substance the faster the motion, the cooler the substance the slower the motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute Zero= when atoms cease to move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kelvin Scale= from absolute zero on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kelvin= 273.15 + Celsius Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gases are even frozen solid </li></ul></ul></ul>
9. 9. Laws of Fluids <ul><li>Temperatures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic Theory helps explain why gasses behave the way they do (Charles’ Law) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gases move fast and spread out as they get hot= more collsions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gases slow down as they cool= less collisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Volume: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic Theory helps explain why gases work in Boyle’s law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As volume increases and temperature is the same= less collisions (have more room to move) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As volume decreases and temperature is the same= more collisions (have less room to move) </li></ul></ul></ul>