8th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 5


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8th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 5

  1. 1. 8 th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 5 Pgs. 33-38 For Student Use Only
  2. 2. Modern Astronomy <ul><li>Aristotle popularized the “geocentric” (earth-centered) view of the universe. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He said that there were circular layers that all the heavenly bodies orbited around the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He also believed that God and nature were one (pantheism) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Modern Astronomy <ul><li>Aristarchus proposed that the Earth orbited the sun around the same time of Aristotle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People did not believe his theory. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Modern Astronomy <ul><li>Ptolemy- He also believed in the “geocentric” (earth centered) universe. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He convinced people by using charts and mathematical data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people (including churches) held this belief until after the Middle Ages. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Modern Astronomy <ul><li>The Christian View </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Reformation redirected people back to the Bible to discover the truths about Creation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This also led to Science being able to study the world as a creation with laws set to govern its workings. (They understood that God and Nature are separate.) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Modern Astronomy <ul><li>Nicolaus Copernicus- (Polish Astronomer) offered the “Heliocentric” (sun centered) view of the solar system. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic telescope helped prove that Copernicus was correct. (This happened after Copernicus died.) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Modern Astronomy <ul><li>Galileo Galilei- built an improved telescope and was the first to see that the modern Solar System (sun in the middle) </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo was also a Christian. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Modern Astronomy <ul><li>Johann Kepler- helped prove Copernicus’s heliocentric (sun-centered) ideas using charts and his teachers observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He also discovered that the planets move in elliptical orbits. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Modern Astronomy <ul><li>Kepler’s Three Laws of Planetary Motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Law- every planet orbits the sun in an ellipse with the sun as one of the foci of the ellipse and an empty point in space as the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd Law- as a planet moves closer to the sun is travels faster and as it moves farther away it slows down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd Law- the time it takes a planet to complete one orbit is related to its distance from the sun </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Modern Astronomy <ul><li>Kepler used Astronomical Units (AU units) to measure the distances of the planets (in relation to each other) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One AU is the distance between Earth to the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One AU= 93 million miles </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Modern Astronomy <ul><li>Isaac Newton- explained why planets orbit the sun. He explained GRAVITY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity- the force of attraction between 2 objects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He also wrote the Law of Universal Gravitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Law of Universal Gravitation- the strength of the gravitational force between two objects depends on their masses and distance between them </li></ul></ul></ul>