In language, the ignorant have prescribed laws to the learned.

(Richard, 1830)
Syntax is:

A sentence is a sound
in itself on which
sounds called words
may be strung.
strung

• The study of sentence st...
Syntax aims
To answer the following questions:
• What are the parts that make up a sentence?
• What are the properties of ...
Syntactic Hierarchy
MORPHEMES
Morphemes represent the inner structure of words
Morpheme Categories
• Morpheme is the minimal distinctive unit of grammar

• Based on the differences between morphemes,
w...
Morpheme Categories
• Content vs. Function
1.Morphemes like -ed and -un are
function morphemes because they
have no inhere...
WORDS
Words matter to syntax because:
• Sentences are made up of words.
• A word’ category (part of speech) shows
how a wo...
Why Word Categories?
• Reason 1: A sentence can contain
an infinite number of words.
• Reason 2: Different words, same
wor...
Categorizing Words
Three Criteria
o Semantic
o Morphological
o Syntactic
Semantic Criteria
Meaning-based Criteria
• Noun refers to a person, place or thing.
• Verb refers to an action.
• Adjectiv...
Semantic Criteria:
Inadequate
Counterexamples:
•
•
•
•

sincerity, happiness, pain, etc.
assassination, construction, etc....
Morphological
Criteria
• Inflectional Properties
-Different forms of the same word
cat + -s
cats
• Derivational Properties...
Morphological Criteria:
Not Sufficient
• Morphological criterion, though reliable in
many cases, is not a sufficient condi...
Syntactic Criteria
• Different categories have different distributions.
e.g.

1. They have no ____.
2.
3.
4.
5.

They can ...
Syntax of Major Word Classes
Noun
Morphological Properties
• It can take a plural -s morpheme;
Exceptions: children, deer, mice, etc.
• It can be modif...
Noun
Syntactic Properties
• Preceded by determiners like: a, an, the, this,
that, these, those and numerals like: one,
two...
Verb
Morphological Properties
• takes a past tense -ed; exceptions: went,
left, etc.
• third-person singular agreement -s;...
Verb
Syntactic Properties
• preceded by AUXILIARIES.
• preceded by MODAL VERBS.
• preceded by negation words
like not and ...
Adjective
Morphological Properties
• has morphemes like -ous, -y, -ish and,
sometimes, -ly. e.g. fibrous, angry, freakish,...
Adjective
Syntactic Properties
•
•

can be preceded by ADVERBS.
can occur after determiners like the, a,
this, these, thos...
Adverb
Morphological Properties
• often followed by the morpheme -ly
e.g. swiftly, quickly, angrily.
Exceptions: abroad, n...
Adverb
Syntactic Properties
• modifies a VERB; e.g. walks quickly
• modifies an ADJECTIVE; e.g. swiftly angry,
• modifies ...
Preposition
Morphological Properties
• Invariable; takes no affixes
Syntactic Properties
• occurs before a noun phrase
• n...
Determiners
• Determiners refer to articles,
demonstratives, possessives, quantifiers.

Morphological Properties
• invaria...
Auxiliaries
Morphological Properties
• can be inflected for tense, voice, mood, aspect

Syntactic Properties
• occur befor...
Conjunctions
Morphological Properties
Invariable; don’t take affixes
Syntactic Properties
Typically connect words of the s...
Complementizers
Morphological Properties
• invariable; don’t take affixes.
Syntactic Properties
• create embedded sentence...
Grammar with
word Categories
A man kicked the ball.

S

Det N V Det N

• This grammar misses a great deal of properties
th...
PHRASES
Constituency
• Why two different agreement patterns?
• Two different possibilities for grouping the words
a. [The mother o...
Constituency Tests
Evidence for the existence of phrase units
• Cleft Construction
• Constituent Questions
• Pronoun Subst...
Syntax of Major
Phrase Categories
Phrase Structure
Rules (PS Rules)
Phrases are projected from lexical categories.
o NP: Noun Phrase
o VP: Verb Phrase
o Adj...
NP: Noun Phrase
• head is noun.
__ [liked ice cream].
Options:
•
•
•
•
•

PS Rule
NP

Ahmad, I, you, students,
the student...
VP: Verb Phrase
• head is verb.
The student __.
Options:
•
•
•
•

ran, sang,
lifted heavy chair,
walked the dog through th...
Adj P:
Adjective Phrase
• head is adjective.
He feels__.
Options:
•
•
•
•

PS Rule
Adj P

happy, sad,
proud of you,
proud ...
Adv P:
Adverb Phrase
• head is adverb.
He behaved __.
Options:
• well, carefully
• very politely, very well, etc.

PS Rule...
PP:
Preposition Phrase
• head is preposition.
The squirrel ran right__.
Options:
• up the tree,
• into the box, etc.

PS R...
Grammar with
Phrases
• PS rules can generate infinite number of
grammatical sentences.
– Recursive application of PS rules...
Phrase
Representation
• Labelled Bracketing
[The woman] [went] [to the store]]

• Tree Diagram

(Phrase Marker)

S
NP

Det...
3 Dimensions of Analysis
The monkey scratched a boy on Monday.

• Syntactic Categories
[S [NP The monkey] [VP scratched [N...
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Sir ahmad naveed - aziz

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Sir ahmad naveed - aziz

  1. 1. In language, the ignorant have prescribed laws to the learned. (Richard, 1830)
  2. 2. Syntax is: A sentence is a sound in itself on which sounds called words may be strung. strung • The study of sentence structure
  3. 3. Syntax aims To answer the following questions: • What are the parts that make up a sentence? • What are the properties of these parts? • How are these parts related to one another? • What are the rules and principles underlying sentence structure?
  4. 4. Syntactic Hierarchy
  5. 5. MORPHEMES Morphemes represent the inner structure of words
  6. 6. Morpheme Categories • Morpheme is the minimal distinctive unit of grammar • Based on the differences between morphemes, we can categorize them into groups: • Bound vs. Free morphemes 1.Morphemes like the past-tense -ed and the plural marker -s are called bound morphemes because they cannot occur on their own in language. Instead, they are always attached to other morphemes inside a word. 2.But morphemes like cat are called free because they can also occur as independent words.
  7. 7. Morpheme Categories • Content vs. Function 1.Morphemes like -ed and -un are function morphemes because they have no inherent lexical meaning (i.e.) don’t refer to anything in the real world. 2. In contrast, morphemes like lock and color are content morphemes because they have inherent content or meaning. Such morphemes are also called roots.
  8. 8. WORDS Words matter to syntax because: • Sentences are made up of words. • A word’ category (part of speech) shows how a word functions in a sentence.
  9. 9. Why Word Categories? • Reason 1: A sentence can contain an infinite number of words. • Reason 2: Different words, same word categories. • If we have categories for words that can appear in certain positions and categories for those that don’t, we can make generalizations (scientific ones) about the behavior of different word types. This is why we need parts of speech in syntactic theory.
  10. 10. Categorizing Words Three Criteria o Semantic o Morphological o Syntactic
  11. 11. Semantic Criteria Meaning-based Criteria • Noun refers to a person, place or thing. • Verb refers to an action. • Adjective refers to a quality. • Adverb refers to the manner, location, time or frequency of an action.
  12. 12. Semantic Criteria: Inadequate Counterexamples: • • • • sincerity, happiness, pain, etc. assassination, construction, etc. remain, appear, exist, etc. The meaning of that in ‘She said that he would call you’?. • you can know the part of speech of a word without even knowing what it means: The yinkish dripner blorked quastofically into the nindin with the pidibs.
  13. 13. Morphological Criteria • Inflectional Properties -Different forms of the same word cat + -s cats • Derivational Properties – How words are derived from other words sad + -ness sadness
  14. 14. Morphological Criteria: Not Sufficient • Morphological criterion, though reliable in many cases, is not a sufficient condition for determining word categories. • Many nouns such as information, love and pain do not have a plural form. • Some adjectives such as absent and circular do not have comparative and superlative forms.
  15. 15. Syntactic Criteria • Different categories have different distributions. e.g. 1. They have no ____. 2. 3. 4. 5. They can ____. They read the ____ book. He treats patient very____. He walked right ____ the wall. Only a restricted set of words can occur in each position.
  16. 16. Syntax of Major Word Classes
  17. 17. Noun Morphological Properties • It can take a plural -s morpheme; Exceptions: children, deer, mice, etc. • It can be modified by a possessive (apostrophe: ’s) • It contains morphemes like the following: -ity, -ness, -action, -er, -ion, -ment, -ance, -hood.
  18. 18. Noun Syntactic Properties • Preceded by determiners like: a, an, the, this, that, these, those and numerals like: one, two, three • Preceded by an ADJECTIVE • Followed by a PREPOSITION • Preceded by a PREPOSITION
  19. 19. Verb Morphological Properties • takes a past tense -ed; exceptions: went, left, etc. • third-person singular agreement -s; e.g. writes • takes a progressive tense morpheme -ing; e.g. running
  20. 20. Verb Syntactic Properties • preceded by AUXILIARIES. • preceded by MODAL VERBS. • preceded by negation words like not and never. • preceded by an ADVERB. • can be followed by a NOUN.
  21. 21. Adjective Morphological Properties • has morphemes like -ous, -y, -ish and, sometimes, -ly. e.g. fibrous, angry, freakish, friendly • able to form comparatives and superlatives with -er and -est. e.g. angrier, angriest.
  22. 22. Adjective Syntactic Properties • • can be preceded by ADVERBS. can occur after determiners like the, a, this, these, those and numerals and before NOUNS. • modifies a NOUN • can follow VERBS.
  23. 23. Adverb Morphological Properties • often followed by the morpheme -ly e.g. swiftly, quickly, angrily. Exceptions: abroad, now, fast, often, well, also, very, too, never, so, etc.
  24. 24. Adverb Syntactic Properties • modifies a VERB; e.g. walks quickly • modifies an ADJECTIVE; e.g. swiftly angry, • modifies another ADVERB; e.g. very angrily
  25. 25. Preposition Morphological Properties • Invariable; takes no affixes Syntactic Properties • occurs before a noun phrase • never occurs before an ADVERB or an ADJECTIVE by themselves. • can precede another PREPOSITION.
  26. 26. Determiners • Determiners refer to articles, demonstratives, possessives, quantifiers. Morphological Properties • invariable i.e. take no affixes Syntactic properties • occur before adjectives and nouns
  27. 27. Auxiliaries Morphological Properties • can be inflected for tense, voice, mood, aspect Syntactic Properties • occur before the main verb or before an adverb modifying the main verb • can occur before other auxiliary verbs • can undergo inversion in questions
  28. 28. Conjunctions Morphological Properties Invariable; don’t take affixes Syntactic Properties Typically connect words of the same category
  29. 29. Complementizers Morphological Properties • invariable; don’t take affixes. Syntactic Properties • create embedded sentences e.g. I wonder if he did so. - that, if, whether, for
  30. 30. Grammar with word Categories A man kicked the ball. S Det N V Det N • This grammar misses a great deal of properties that we can observe, e.g., the agreement and ambiguity facts in examples like the following: a. The mother of the boy and the girl is arriving soon. b. The mother of the boy and the girl are arriving soon.
  31. 31. PHRASES
  32. 32. Constituency • Why two different agreement patterns? • Two different possibilities for grouping the words a. [The mother of [the boy and the girl]] is arriving. b. [The mother of the boy] and [the girl] are arriving. • The grouping of words into larger units called constituents provides the first step in understanding the agreement facts.
  33. 33. Constituency Tests Evidence for the existence of phrase units • Cleft Construction • Constituent Questions • Pronoun Substitution • Coordination
  34. 34. Syntax of Major Phrase Categories
  35. 35. Phrase Structure Rules (PS Rules) Phrases are projected from lexical categories. o NP: Noun Phrase o VP: Verb Phrase o Adj P: Adjective Phrase o Adv P: Adverb Phrase o PP: Preposition Phrase
  36. 36. NP: Noun Phrase • head is noun. __ [liked ice cream]. Options: • • • • • PS Rule NP Ahmad, I, you, students, the students, the tall students the students from UMT, the students who cam from UMT, etc. (Det) (A) N (PP/S)
  37. 37. VP: Verb Phrase • head is verb. The student __. Options: • • • • ran, sang, lifted heavy chair, walked the dog through the park, thought Izza is honest, etc. PS Rule VP V (NP) (PP/S)
  38. 38. Adj P: Adjective Phrase • head is adjective. He feels__. Options: • • • • PS Rule Adj P happy, sad, proud of you, proud to be his students, proud that he passed the exam, etc. Adj (PP/ VP/S)
  39. 39. Adv P: Adverb Phrase • head is adverb. He behaved __. Options: • well, carefully • very politely, very well, etc. PS Rule Adv P (AdvP) Adv
  40. 40. PP: Preposition Phrase • head is preposition. The squirrel ran right__. Options: • up the tree, • into the box, etc. PS Rule PP P NP
  41. 41. Grammar with Phrases • PS rules can generate infinite number of grammatical sentences. – Recursive application of PS rules • PS rules help us to identify hierarchical structures, and thus enable us to represent the structural ambiguities of sentences.
  42. 42. Phrase Representation • Labelled Bracketing [The woman] [went] [to the store]] • Tree Diagram (Phrase Marker) S NP Det VP N V PP P NP Det N
  43. 43. 3 Dimensions of Analysis The monkey scratched a boy on Monday. • Syntactic Categories [S [NP The monkey] [VP scratched [NP a boy] [PP on Monday]]]. • Grammatical Functions [S [SUBJ The monkey] [PRED scratched [OBJ a boy] [MOD on Monday]]]. • Semantic Roles [S [agt The monkey] [pred scratched [pat a boy] [loc on Monday]]].

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