Dna vaccines


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All the basics about DNA Vaccones nd pathways of work. . .

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  • What is vaccine?Why vaccine?
  • Alzheimer Disease is the most common cause of age-related cognitive decline, affecting more than 12 million people in worldwide. The disease is characterized by progressive memory impairment, cognitive decline, altered behavior and language deficit.
  • Dna vaccines

    1. 1. Presented By Sumit Sharma Raunak Prakash Asopa Soarab Sharma Mriganka Mandal
    2. 2. Contents  Introduction  DNA based vaccines  History  Why DNA vaccines  How DNA vaccines made  Methods of delivery  Mechanism  Advantages and Disadvantages  Current clinical trials  Future prospects
    3. 3. Introduction    A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. It contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters.
    4. 4. DNA based vaccines    DNA vaccination is a technique for protecting an organism against disease by injecting it with genetically engineered DNA to produce an immunological response. Circular double stranded DNA molecule, referred to as a plasmid fabricated with DNA sequence containing genes encoding one or more proteins of a pathogen. As this DNA inserted into cells it is translated to form antigenic protein. As this protein is foreign to cells , so immune response raised against this protein.
    5. 5. History  DNA vaccines are third generation vaccines and are made up of a small, circular piece of bacterial DNA  In 1990, University of Wisconsin, Jon Wolff found that injection of DNA plasmids produce a protein response in mice.  In 1993, Merck Research Laboratories, Dr. Margaret Liu found that intramuscular injection of DNA from influenza virus into mice produced complete immune response.  In 1996, trials involving T-cell lymphoma, influenza & herpes simplex virus were started.
    6. 6. Why DNA vaccines?  Normal vaccines having a possible risk of the vaccine being fatal. But in DNA vaccines there is no need of using actual infectious organism.  Normal vaccines provide primarily Humoral immunity. On the other hand DNA vaccines provide both Humoral & Cell mediated immunity.
    7. 7. DNA vaccine is made Viral gene Recombinant DNA Technology Expression plasmid Plasmid with foreign gene
    8. 8. Transform in to bacteria Plasmid DNA get Amplified
    9. 9. Plasmid DNA isolated Stored in vials Ready for Apply
    10. 10. Methods of delivery  Injection: Large amount of DNA vaccines applied directly to the skeletal tissues.  Gene Gun: Small amount of vaccine applied through DNA coated gold beads to the abdominal skin.  Pneumatic Jet Injection: Very high amount of vaccine applied to the abdominal skin.
    11. 11. Mechanism BY TWO PATHWAYS  ENDOGENOUS :Antigenic Protein is presented by cell in which it is produced.  EXOGENOUS :Antigenic Protein is formed in one cell but presented by different cell.
    12. 12. How DNA vaccines work + Muscle Cells Plasmid DNA
    13. 13. Endogenous Pathway Nucleus Plasmid DNA MHC-I mRNA Antigenic Protein Antigenic Peptides
    14. 14. T- Helper Cell Memory T cells
    15. 15. Exogenous Pathway Antigenic Protein come outside
    16. 16. Antigen Presenting Cell Antigenic Peptides T- Helper Cell Memory Antibodies Cytokines Plasma B-Cell MHC-II Activated B-Cell Memory B-Cell
    17. 17. When Virus Enter in the Body Memory T-Cell Viral Protein Antibodies
    18. 18. Advantages  Vaccination with no risk for infection.  Antigen presentation by both MHC class I and class II Molecules.  Immune response focused only on antigen of interest.  Stability of vaccine for storage and shipping  Cost-effectiveness.  Long-term persistence of immunogen.
    19. 19. Disadvantages  Limited to protein immunogens.  Risk of affecting genes controlling cell growth.  Possibility of inducing antibody production against DNA.  Possibility of tolerance to the antigen (protein) produced.
    20. 20. Current clinical trials
    21. 21. Review Recent advance in immunotherapies for Alzheimer disease (1999)     DNA vaccination has been developed as a new therapy for Alzheimer Disease treatment. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. An Adeno-assosiated Viral vector developed by Zhang and his colleagues could express Aβ in in-vivo condition. They prepare DNA vaccine using this AAV genome and tested on AD model mice.
    22. 22. of Aβ burden in APP23 mice after DNA vaccination is shown in the diagram. Prophylactic administration of Fc-Aβ vaccine prevented the Aβ deposition to 10–30% of that in untreated animals before 12 months of age and to 40–50% after 15 months (closed triangles). The effects of therapeutic administration were almost same as those of prophylactic administration.  Reduction
    23. 23. Other clinical trials:  June 2006,DNA vaccine examined on horse. Horse acquired immunity against west nile viruses.  August 2007,DNA vaccination against Sclerosis was reported as being effective.  In multiple Oct. 2011 DNA Vaccines Show Promise in Preventing Dental Caries. DNA vaccine prepared using recombinant flagellin protein derived from Salmonella as mucosal adjuvant for anti-caries DNA vaccine.
    24. 24. Future prospects  Plasmid with multiple genes provide immunity against many diseases in one booster.  DNA vaccines against infectious diseases such as AIDS, Rabies, Malaria can be available.  In future DNA vaccines can be applied to boost up the immune system.
    25. 25. References     Grammatikos, Alexandros P.; (June 2009). "Meta-analyses on Pediatric Infections and Vaccines". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 23 (2): 431–57. Alarcon JB, Waine GW, McManus DP (1999). "DNA vaccines: technology and application as anti-parasite and anti-microbial agents". Adv. Parasitol. 42: 343–410. Tang DC, DeVit M, Johnston SA. (1992)“Genetic immunization is a simple method for eliciting an immune response”. Nature; 356:1524. Barry MA, Lai WC, Johnston SA.(1995) “Protection against mycoplasma infection using expression- library immunization”. Nature; 377:632-5.