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  3. 3. iii SUMMARY: Rajshree sugars and chemicals Ltd., was established by MR. Varadharaj in the year of 1989. Rajshree Sugars & Chemicals Limited (RSCL) is a public limited company listed on National Stock Exchange (NSE) and Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). The company has interests across integrated fields such as Sugar, Distillery, Power and Biotechnology. RSCL with its Corporate Office in Coimbatore has three modern sugarcane based integrated bio- refinery complexes located at Varadharaj Nagar in Theni District, Mundiampakkam in Villupuram District, Gingee in Thiruvannamalai District of Tamil Nadu and 1 unit at Zaheerabad in Medak District of Andhra Pradesh with easy access to Tuticorin, Chennai and Visakhapatnam ports. A corporation achieves a position of leadership only when its Vision is Steadfast and its spirit Unremitting Resolute. The Refinery Complex in Theni District is around 413acres with well reputed machineries and equipments. In that they have allocated 150 acres for Green build development and the remaining 263 acres for production process. The factory consists of 221 employees and 32 officers, in addition to this they also have indirect and contract labors. The factory activity is fully based on the norms provided by Government and also by CISMA (Sugar Industry Association). Production of factory is fully based upon Monsoon; therefore factory is simultaneously facing both RED (Low profit, High loss) and GREEN (High profit, Low loss) Period. Currently they are in the state of facing turnover period (2 to 3% of profit) and they are expecting a forward growth. The Factory has got ISO 9002 Certification and it is capable to produce sugar not only based on domestic level expectation but also based on consideration provided by ICUMSA (As per ICUMSA, if it is ICUMSA -100 means pure white sugar, ICUMSA -150 means which is less pure white sugar). Whenever the factory meets the condition to export sugar they started to follow ICUMSA norms for production and for Domestic Level distribution, the Factory has
  4. 4. iv Allocated certain team in Chennai and Coimbatore in order to acquire and retain their customers, Institutions (Pepsi & Coke) and Retailers. Rajshree sugars and chemicals Ltd.., not only involved in sugar production but also involved in power generation, ethanol production, Bio-organic from the wastage of distillation process. Thus the plant is very efficient to produce useful product from the wastage.
  6. 6. 6 1. INTRODUCTION: Rajshree Sugars and chemicals Ltd consist of 3 Units for their Production as Sugar and Power Production unit, Distillery unit, Fertilizer unit. It is a type of Stream and Electric drive plant. The capacity of the plant is rated at 2500 TCD. The plant works for 7 days a week and 24 hours a day and it is stopped for a day per month for cleaning and servicing purpose. The plant runs 8 months a year. One Sugar year from October to September .The Factory is operating with 3 Shifts as, 1. I Shift - 5:00 AM to 1:00 PM 2. II Shift - 1:00 PM to 9:00 PM 3. III Shift - 9:00 PM to 5:00 AM Some General Shifts as, 1. General Shift - 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM (for Factory Operation) 2. General Shift - 9:00 AM to 5:30 PM (for Administrative Operation) Production Details of factory as follows: Cane Crushed Per day - 3000 Tones (Average) Sugar Produced Per day - 3000 Bags (Average) 1 Bag - 100 Kg Size of Sugar - 600-900 Microns Grade of Sugar - S-30 Ethanol Produced Per day - 45 Kilolitres Power Produced Per day - 1, 00,000 Units
  7. 7. 7 The Power produced is being used for their captive consumption such as sugar production, cooling tower operation and distillery and fertilizer plant. There are 4 types of processes involved in plant as follows: 1. Process for Sugar Production 2. Process for Power generation and usage 3. Process for Ethanol Production 4. Process for Bio-composition 2. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS: 2.1PROCESS FLOW: The Government of India has considered a 2500 TCD plant as a minimum economical unit. In actual practice, economic viability or other wise of a plant is more related to other factors, such as the initial capital cost, the period of gestation, between the time of the project has been conceived and the time of its commission, the availability of cane within the economic distance and a steady crush during the working season with a minimum of 200 to 250 days. Since most of those factors are variable, there have been instances where plants of a lesser capacity have proved economically unviable while many 2500 TCD plants proved economical. Generally process adopted in the manufacture f sugar in a sugar mill is Double Sulphitation Process. Sugar factory consists of the following five main stations: 1. Mill House 2. Boiler House 3. Power House 4. Clarification and Evaporation House 5. Boiling and Curing House
  8. 8. 8 2.1.1 MILL HOUSE: It is a cane crushing unit which consists of cane carrier, cane cutter having and cutting knives, milling tandem (4 to 6 mills of 3 or 4 roller each) bagasse carrier and conveyor. The sugar factory of 2500 TCD crushing capacity per day has only four mills 33” x 66” size rollers. There are 4 rollers in each mill. Cane feeding to the cane carrier is done by mechanical unloading cranes. As the cane carrier moves, the cane kicker evens out the load in the cane carrier and then two sets of cane knives cut the cane into small pieces. This process of cane cutting is called ‘cane preparation’. These cane pieces, then, pass through different mills and juice is extracted. The mills are run by steam turbines, which are driven by the high pressure steam generated by the boilers. 2.1.2 BOILER HOUSE: There are 3 boilers in the factory, which generated steam by burning of baggase. The Steam is used in mill house for running mill turbine, power house, boiling house, curing house etc. In a sugar factory of 120 tons per hour crushing capacity have two boilers of 35 tons per hour steam generation each are used. The steam required by the Sulphitation process varies from 44 – 55% of the cane is crushed per hour. The steam that generated in the boiler is used directly by the mills where the heat energy is converted into mechanical energy and the exhaust steam is taken to the process for evaporating water in the juice. 2.1.3 POWER HOUSE: The major portion of the steam generated by the boilers is utilized for the production power by the turbo – alternators. This power is sufficient for the running of different electrical units of the sugar factory. Steam after converting its energy to electrical energy comes out from turbo-alternator as exhaust steam. This exhaust steam is utilized in heating and boiling the juice.
  9. 9. 9 2.1.4 CLARIFICATION AND EVAPORATION HOUSE: The juice extracted by the mills is weighed by juice weighing scale and thereafter it is heated in juice heaters to final juice temperature of 105 degree Celsius in different temperature stages depending upon the clarification process. Juice is heated in juice heaters by the exhaust steam coming out of the turbo-alternator, mill turbines and by the steam vapors collected from the different bodies of the evaporators. Clarification is carried out in the following ways: Juice is first heated to a temperature of 65-70 degree Celsius and the required lime and sulphur dioxide gas is added to it. The treated juice is passed through clarifier, where in clear juice and mud is separated. Mud is taken to vacuum filter in which filter cake is separated and sent out side. The filtered juice from vacuum filter is taken back to mixed juice. Clear juice from clarifier is taken to evaporator for evaporating its water content. The evaporators-set consists of five bodies. V’th body is kept under 25”vacuum. First body is heated by exhaust steam, and other bodies by the vapors of the previous body. The total water evaporated in the evaporator is 75-80%. The juice after evaporation is called syrup. This syrup is normally of 60 brix. The syrup is then sulphited in syrup Sulphitation tower. 2.1.5 BOILING AND CURING HOUSE: Sulphited syrup is kept at the pan floor in the storage tanks. There are five pans of 60 tons capacity each in sugar factory of 2500 tons crushing capacity. The syrup in these pans is boiled under vacuum. Three massecuites boiling systems is normally adopted, in which A, B and C massecuites are formed. A- Massecuite after boiling is dropped into crystallizers and then from crystallizers, it is taken to A-centrifugal machines for curing, where A-sugar, A-heavy and A-light molasses are separated. ‘A’ sugar is bagged after drying and A- light and A-heavy molasses are pumped to pan floor and are used for making A-Massecuite and B-Massecuite respectively. B-Massecuite boiled in B pans is dropped into B- Crystallizers and it then cured in B- Centrifugal machines. B-heavy molasses and B- single cured sugar are separately obtained. B- single cured used for seed. B-heavy molasses are pumped to pan floor and are use in making C- Massecuite in C- pans. C-Massecuite is dropped into C-Crystallizers where it is cooled for around 20-24 hours. From C- Crystallizers, C-Massecuite is then taken to C-fore worker
  10. 10. 10 centrifugal machines for curing. Final molasses and C- single cured sugar are obtained. ‘C’ single cured sugar is again cured in another centrifugal machine in which C-double cured sugar and C-light molasses are separated. C-light molasses are taken to pan floor and are used in making C-Massecuite. C-double cured sugar is melted and is using in making ‘A’ Massecuite. 2.2 DRIER HOUSE: Sugar discharged from ‘A’ machine dropped on to grass hopper conveyors. By letting hot air in hoppers the sugar is dried and taken to grader in which different grades of sugars are separated and bagged as per grains size. 2.3 UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCT : The three principal by-product of a sugar industry are bagasse, molasses and press cake. These three by - product alone consists about 40% of the weight of the total cane crushed. Bagasse itself accounts for about one-third of the weight of the cane crushed. Proper and economic utilization of these by – Product cans reduced the cost of production of sugar to some extent. Besides bagasse, molasses are used in the production of industrial alcohol and potable spirits. Almost 80% of the total quantity of molasses produced is utilized for this purpose and the balance 20 % are utilized for cattle feed and other purpose. The Filter cake is used as manure in agricultural lands.
  11. 11. 11 3. PLANT PREOCESS DESIGN: Fig 3 Process Structure  Services  Manufacturing  Layout Customer Involvement  Low involvement  High involvement Resource Flexibility  Specialized  Enlarged Capital Intensity  Low automation  High automation Strategy for change  Process reengineering  Process improvement Effective Process design
  12. 12. 12 3.1 TYPES OF PROCESS DESIGN: Designing of a plant is the important activity of a plant. The effective process design could be obtained with the help of four factors as Process structure, Customer involvement, Resource flexibility and Capital intensity. The plant follows 2 types of process design as:  Product focused  Process focused 3.1.1 PRODUCT FOCUSED: In Product focused, the processes are arranged based on the sequence of operations which is required to produce a product. In this plant, in order to get a final product (Sugar) they are focused to arrange the process based on sequence as Weighing and Sampling , Preparation, Milling, Clarification, Evaporation, Crystallization , Centrifugal Separation and Drying . 3.1.2 PROCESS FOCUSED: In Process focused, Processes are arranged based on the type of process which means that jobs move from department to department based on the particular job’s processing requirements. In this plant, in order to maintain the equipments efficiently to get the effective product, the machineries have been maintained by using the concept called process focused. In this, the equipments have been moving from process department to other department which include both mechanical and electrical for effective maintenance.
  13. 13. 13 3.2 MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING PROCESS DESIGN OF A PLANT: There are 5 major factors which affect the plant designing process as,  Nature of Product/Service demand  Degree of vertical integration  Production flexibility  Degree of automation  Product/Service quality 3.2.1 NATURE OF PRODUCT/SERVICE DEMAND: Production process must have adequate capacity to produce the volume of product that customers need. Provisions must be made for expanding or contracting capacity to keep pace with demand patterns. Some types of processes are more easily expanded and contracted than others. Product price affects demand, so pricing decisions and the choice of processes must be synchronized. In this production process, the raw material is completely depends upon the nature/ monsoon. So, the demand for the raw material is also based upon the monsoon but the demand for the product is always open because it’s a consumable one .Therefore the demand for the product is always high on the other hand the price for the product decreases (as per economy) . The plant which is also based on production of ethanol ; therefore this plant faces either double profit or double loss which means that there is a price increment in ethanol that automatically leads to increase the price of sugar and vice-versa. 3.2.2 DEGREE OF VERTICAL INTEGRATION: Vertical integration is the amount of production and distribution chain that is brought under the ownership of the company. This determines how many production processes need to be planned and designed. Decision of the integration is based on cost, availability of capital, quality, technological capability and more. Strategic outsourcing
  14. 14. 14 (lower degree of integration) is the outsourcing of processes in order to react quicker to changes in customer needs, competitor actions, and technology. 3.2.3 PRODUCTION FLEXIBILITY: Product flexibility is ability of the production system to quickly change from producing one product to another. Volume flexibility is the ability to quickly increase or reduce the volume of product produced. In this plant, both the product and volume flexibility are maintained effectively. They have machineries which are capable to produce maximum 8Lakh tons of sugar and minimum to lower level. Their machines are very capable to adjust both their product and volume flexibility. So that, they can maintain their production flexibility in an efficient manner. 3.2.4 DEGREE OF AUTOMATION: Automation refers to the process of using automatic equipment in manufacturing. It have both advantages and disadvantages .Automation helps the manufacturing unit to improve their product quality, improves product flexibility and it also reduces labor and related costs. It also lead to give some disadvantage as equipment can be very expensive, integration into existing operations can be difficult. In this plant, they are using semi-automated technique because of huge investment is required for automation and they also wish to give employment opportunities to the people who are in the rural side. These are the major reasons for this plant to use semi-automated technique. 3.2.5 PRODUCT QUALITY: Old view point of product quality is that high quality products must be made in small quantities by expert craftsmen and the new view point is that high quality products can be mass produced using automated machinery. Automated machinery can produce products of incredible uniformity. The choice of design of production process is affected by the need for superior quality.
  15. 15. 15 In this plant, the quality of sugar has been tested based on color, size, sulphur & lime content, black and dust particles as follows: Table 3.2.5 If the produced sugar has achieved the specified quality then it will undergo for packing and storing, if not the production will be re-generated to get the appropriate product. These are the five major factors which affecting the process designing of a plant but the plant managers has involved in curious prediction and analysis to overcome these factors; that help them to overcome those factors and also help them for an efficient plant design . Content Contains Color Less than or equal to 150 Size 720 micron Sulphur content 30ppm Lime content 50ppm Non-Sugar 0.1 Black & Dust particles Avoiding this by using Magnet
  16. 16. 16 4. PLANT PROCESSES: Rajshree sugars and Chemicals Limited (RSCL) involved in 5 major process as follows: 1. Process for Sugar Production 2. Process for Power generation and usage 3. Process for Ethanol Production 4. Process for Bio-Composition 5. Process for Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) Process for sugar production is the primary process and the other 4 process could be considered as a dependent process because wastage from each production acts as an initiator for further process, represented in the form of fig as follows; Sugar cane (1)Sugar production Bagasse Filter cake Molasses (MP) (BP) (BP) (BP) Extra Vapor (2) Power Generation (BP) (MP) (3)Ethyl Alcohol Spent wash (MP) (BP) (5) Effluent Treatment Process (4)Organic manure production Fig 4 Whereas, MP-Main Product BP-By Product
  17. 17. 17 4.1 PLANT PROCESS FOR SUGAR PRODUCTION: Cane Baggase Mixed Juice Mud’s Filtercake Clarified Juice Filtrate Water Syrup Water Massecuite First andSecondMolasses Final Molasses Raw Sugar Fig 4.1 WEIGHING AND SAMPLING PREPARATION MILLING CLARIFICATION FILTRATION EVAPORATION CRYSTALLIZATION CENTRIFUGAL SEPARARTION DRYING
  18. 18. 18 The flow sheet is arranged so that the sugar follows a vertical line in the figure, while the various unwanted constituents are eliminated as shown by the horizontal branches. Thus in the milling process, the juice is separated from the fiber or insoluble portion of the cane, which forms the baggase. The clarification process removes suspended and some of the colloidal and soluble material; the evaporation process removes most of the water from the juice. At the vacuum pans, further water is removed and the sucrose is allowed to crystallize from solution under controlled conditions; the overall result of the pan stage and centrifugal operations is thus the separation of crystal sugar from the remaining soluble impurities, which are eliminated as final molasses. The raw sugar so separated contains approximately 98-99% of sucrose and is refined generally in a separate refinery. 4.1.1 FIXED RATES IN SUAGR PRODUCTION: Crushing capacity - 2500TCD Days of operation - 200-250 days Total crushing of cane (Tons) - 6 to 8 lakhs Press mud produced (3.5%) - 21,000 to 28,000 MT Molasses produced (4.5%) - 27,000 to 36,000 MT Moisture content of press mud - 70% 4.1.2 MACHINERY MAINTENANCE: The maintenance of machinery is based on 4 types as shutdown, annual, preventive and running maintenance. The shutdown maintenance will be taken place either weekly once or monthly once. The Annual maintenance will be taken place at
  19. 19. 19 the end of the year. The Preventive and the Running maintenance will be taken place often manner. In this plant, the Repair and Maintenance could be occurring; they could overcome this with the help of stock and the knowledge of people; it could be done by internal manpower itself. But in the case of capital maintenance; it could be done by external manpower, which could happen rarely to this plant. The Machinery cost is less than Rs.1,00,000 means the plant can overcome it with the help of GM, if the money exceed than that means for further processing they have to wait for the approval from the top level management (from head office). They are also maintaining an alarm system to indicate an occurrence of danger. In this way, they are maintaining the machinery in an efficient manner. 4.1.3 QUALITY TESTING OF CANE: While the plant is in the time of shut down, they are undergoing the process called quality testing of cane. In this, they are collecting the sample of different types of sugar cane for testing their quality. They are measuring the length, width and height of the cane; after that they involve in the process of crushing to get the juice and the juice is undergoing for testing process; through the taste and also the particles present in the juice they are predicting the nature of the sugar. If the prediction satisfies them; then they insist the farmers to grow the same kind of sugarcane for their production. If not they again undergoes certain testing procedures to predict the lacking things based on that they are providing advice to the farmers to grow the cane by providing the required soil, required manure, required fertilizers etc… In this way they are not only keeping the friendly relationship to the farmers for their earnings but also getting a qualified cane for their sugar production.
  20. 20. 20 4.2 PLANT PROCESS FOR POWER GENERATION: Rajshree Sugars and chemicals Ltd .., also involved in power generation process from bagasse. The plant have a capability to produce 10MW power; in that, they are using only 4MW for their production as well as consumption purpose and the remaining 6MW could be sent to TNEB Gird. Plant Crushing Capacity per day - 2500 tons Plant Crushing Capacity per hour - 105 tons 105 tons of cane can produce - 28.5 tons of baggase 1 ton bagasse can produce - 2 tons of streams Therefore, 28.5 tons of bagasse can produce - 57 tons of streams 1 ton stream can produce - 317 units of electricity Therefore, 57 tons of streams can produce - 18,069 units of electricity This indicates that the plant has a capability to produce 18KW power per hour. Therefore the plant is producing 432KW power per day. The overall flow of process for power generation in this plant as follows, Sugarcane Milling Bagasse Steam Generation Power Generation Power to sugar unit Power to TNEB Grid Fig 4.2.1 From the above process we could say that the bagasse could be used for stream generation but not in a direct manner; it undergo some process as, first the bagasse will be sent to boiler, from the boiler the stream will be generated, in that 95% steam could be sent to turbine (from this turbine, the condensed water could be sent to boiler) and the remaining 5% could be sent to process (which involve in the conversion of juice into syrup & the remaining vapor could be condensed). This condensed vapor again sent to boiler. The boiler requires make up water only at the time of startup stage else it will automatically use condensed water for its process. The way, boiler helps the plant to generate electricity as follows; Sugar ProductionProcess
  21. 21. 21 Condensed Water Condensed Water Sugarcane Milling Baggase Su 5% 95% Back Pressure Back Pressure Exhaust Pressure Exhaust Pressure Turbine 1 Turbine 2 Extreme Pressure Extreme Pressure Fig 4.2.2 Makeup Water Water Tank Boiler 3Boiler 2Boiler 1 Sugar Preparation Process Steam Generation (100%) Condense
  22. 22. 22 Sugarcane undergoes first process called Milling, from this the juice and bagasse will be get separated. The obtained bagasse will be sent to 3 boilers, the capacity of first 2 boilers is 32 tons/hr and the capacity of the third boiler is 55 tons/hr. From these boilers, the boiled water goes into steam header often called Steam Generator. Steam Generator can convert cent percent of water into steam. After this conversion, 95% steam will be sent to Turbines and the remaining 5% will be sent to Sugar Production process. Therefore, the turbines have got 95% steam from the steam generator and now the process of turbines will be take place. There are 2 Turbines as Backpressure come extraction and Condensing come extraction. Both turbines contain 3 kinds of pressure as Inlet pressure, Extraction pressure and Exhaust Pressure. The capacity details as follows: Table 4.2 From Turbine 1 both the extreme and the exhaust pressure will be sent to sugar production process and from Turbine 2 only the extreme pressure will be sent to sugar production process and the exhaust pressure will be get condensed as water. This water will be passed to the water tank. The Water tank collects water from Turbine 2 condensation, Sugar production process condensation and also getting water from the makeup sources. This water again sent to the boilers for further processing. In this way they are generating power to the plant. Type of Turbines Backpressure come extraction Condensing come extraction Requirement of power and capacity 6MW 46 tons/hr 6MW 30 tons/hr Inlet pressure 5.5MW 4.9MW Extraction pressure 7Kg/cm^2 1.5Kg/cm^2 Exhaust pressure 1.5Kg/cm^2 -
  23. 23. 23 4.2.1 POWER ALLOCATION: The plant is generating 10MW power but they are only 4MW and the remaining 6MW will be sent to TNEB grid. From this 4MW, they are allocating 22 units/ton of cane which leads as; 1 ton of cane requires - 22 units 3000 tons of cane requires - 66,000 units Therefore for single production they require 6KW power for cane production. For distillery process, they are allocating 120-150 units/KL of alcohol which leads as; 1 KL of alcohol requires - 120-150 units 45 KL of alcohol requires - 5,400 - 6,750 units Therefore for single production they require 5-6KW power for alcohol production. And the remaining power could be used for general consumption purpose. 4.2.2 POWER MAINTENANCE: The electricity maintenance is also based on 4 types as shutdown, annual, preventive and running maintenance. The shutdown maintenance will be taken place either weekly once or monthly once. The Annual maintenance will be taken place at the end of the year. The Preventive and the Running maintenance will be taken place often manner. In this plant, the Repair and Maintenance could be occurring; they could overcome this with the help of stock and the knowledge of people; it could be done by internal manpower itself. But in the case of capital maintenance; it could be done by external manpower, which could happen rarely to this plant. The electricity cost could be less than Rs.50,000 means the plant can overcome it with the help of GM, if the money exceed than that means for further processing they have to wait for the approval from the top level management (from head office). They are also maintaining an alarm system to indicate an occurrence of danger. In this way, they are maintaining the electricity in an efficient manner.
  24. 24. 24 4.3 PLANT PROCESS FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION: In the sugar preparation process, they are getting final product sugar as well as some waste in the form of molasses. This molasses could be send to distillery process which involves fermentation and distillation for the production of either alcohol or ethanol. Fermentation is the process of conversion of sucrose in molasses into alcohol and Distillation is the process by which they are separating alcohol from it. The maximum capacity of distillery is to produce 45KL/day. It could produce 5 kinds of products as,  Rectified spirit  Neutral spirit  Absolute alcohol  Impure spirit  Spent wash Rectified Spirit (RS) Absolute Alcohol (AA) Impure Spirit Neutral Spirit (NS) NS AA Spent Wash (waste) Flow chart 4.3 Sugar ProductionProcess Molasses(ByProduct)Sugar (MainProduct) Fermentation DistillationProcess Organic manure
  25. 25. 25 Rectified spirit is the primary distillation product which consists of 95% alcohol and 5% water and also includes lots of impurities as aldehyde, ketones etc…which is highly acidified one. From the rectified spirit 10KL neutral spirit has been recovered by doing further distillation process. This neutral spirit consist of same percent of alcohol and water with less impurities, this could be apt for drinking purpose. Absolute alcohol is the dehydration process which is obtained directly by dehydrating the obtained molasses, it contains 99.4% alcohol and this could be called as ethanol. Impure spirit is nothing but the last part of distillery product, which is full of impurities. 1 ton cane can produce 45kg of molasses which means it have the capability to convert 2500 tons of cane to 112, 500 kg of molasses. Therefore 1 ton molasses can produce 240L yield of alcohol. 4.3.1RECTIFIED SPIRIT: The schizosaccharomyces pombe yeast is initially propagated in the propagation vessels and then transferred to the fermenter. Molasses diluted with water to the desired concentration is metered continuously in to a single tank fermenter. During fermentation process, yeast cells convert sugar in to alcohol. Fermentation is an exothermic reaction heat is evolved during this fermentation and it is removed by continuous cooling through plate type heat exchanger. Temperature is maintained between 32-35 degree Celsius. Small quantities of urea and DAP are added in the fermenter as nutrients to the yeast cells. Viable cell population of 300 – 400 million cells/ml is maintained in the fermenter by continuous aeration and yeast recycling. The fermented wash passes through series of hydro cyclones, which removes grit, iron fillings and heavy particulate matter. The material settled at the bottom of the hydro cyclone is fed to the bottom of the analyzer column to strip the alcohol present in it. The overflow from the hydro cyclone is fed to the yeast separators to separate the yeast and de-yeasted wash. Yeast cells separated by the separators are re-cycled back to the fermenter to maintain the yeast cell population. De-yeasted wash is stored in prop III vessels. The wash is preheated to 85 – 90 degree Celsius in the beer heater, plate type mash heater and spent wash cooler and it is fed to top of the degasifying column. Steam is applied to the analyzer through re-boiler to maintain the analyzer column bottom temperature at 107 -108 degree Celsius.
  26. 26. 26 The de-yeasted wash is heated in each plate of analyzer column and the enriched alcohol vapor goes up. Due to difference in specific gravity and boiling point the spent liquor is collected at the bottom of the analyzer column and it is let out as spent wash to the storage lagoon. Small quantity of a vapor with impure gases is separated from the top of the degasifying column and fed to the degasifying condenser. The reflex is diluted with water and fed to the aldehyde column. The steam is applied directly to the bottom of the head spirit column to maintain the temperature at 92 – 95 degree Celsius. The condensate is returned back as reflux to the top of the head spirit column. The enriched head spirit is tapped from the top of the column. It is then cooled in cooler and sent to storage tank as “Impure Spirit”. The major portion of vapors are collected at the top of the analyzer column at 96 to 98 degree Celsius and fed to rectification column for further concentration. Fusel oil is separated at 88 to 92 degree Celsius at the fusel oil separating trays and cooled in the decanter. The alcohol vapor is then condensed in beer heater and principle condenser. The condensate is recycled back to the top of the rectification column. The alcohol content gets enriched in the top of the column. It is then tapped and cooled in cooler and sent to the storage tanks as “Rectified spirit”. The liquid obtained from the bottom portion is fed to exhaust column for further concentration. In the exhaust column liquid, which is fed from head spirit column and rectification column, are concentrated. Then this concentrated alcohol vapor is fed to the rectification column for further purification. The water from the bottom of the exhaust column is drained as spent less. Direct steam is applied to maintain the bottom temperature at 105 degree Celsius. The spent less is reused as inhibition water during sugar manufacturing process. The final product is known as Rectified spirit and it contains above 95% alcohol. 4.3.2 ANHYDROUS ALCOHOL: Production of anhydrous alcohol from rectified spirit with the molecular sieve dehydration utilizing pre concentration column: The rectified spirit, before sending in for dehydration process, it is heated and water is stripped in the pre concentration column through a pre-heater. The mixture of alcohol and little water is sent to molecular sieve in the form of vapor.
  27. 27. 27 The molecular sieves are hard granular substances, cylindrical extrudates manufactures from classy like silica gel material such as potassium alumino silicates. They are graded according to the nominal diameter of the myriad of internal pores, which make up the interstitial passageways is 3 Angstroms. Thus, the passageways in the structure have a diameter that is of molecular scale. The water molecule has a mean diameter less than 3A, while the ethanol molecule has a mean diameter greater than 3A. In addition, the water molecules can be absorbed on the internal surfaces offered by the passageways within the molecular sieve structure. It is the physical property of the sieves, which make them useful for the separation of mixture of ethanol and water. Water molecules can invade the inner structure of the molecular sieve bends and be absorbed thereon, while the ethanol molecules are too large and pass out of the vessel leaving the water behind. Thus, dehydration of ethanol takes place in the molecular sieve technology. In this technology, the re-generation of beads is done by one bed under vacuum; while the other bed is producing anhydrous ethanol vapor under pressure with an automated operation, the feed of vapor to the molecular sieve system can be taken directly from the pre concentration column passing through a super heater. The pre-concentrated column is operated at a pressure sufficient to economically operate a re-boiler. The re-covered ethanol and water from the re-generation phase is fed back to the pre-concentration column for recovery. Thus, there is no generation of effluent except the condensate water from steam is cooled and then taken back for process. 4.3.3 SPENT WASH: The spent wash is the waste which is obtained in this process. Based on extensive research work carried out on treatment of distillery spent wash in many parts of the world, it has been learnt that spent wash is a valuable by-product generated from distilleries. It is essentially a plant extract derived from sugarcane containing microbial residues. Spent wash is also a rich sucrose of organic matter and nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and sulphur. In addition to this, spent wash contains micronutrients such as iron, zinc, manganese, boron and molybdenum. In contrary to the general belief, distillery spent wash does not contain any toxic heavy metals and hazardous constituents. After realizing the value of the distillery spent wash and its
  28. 28. 28 importance as organic input for sustainable agriculture, a commercial scale viable “Biocomposting Technology” has been developed. This technique uses the principles of solid- state fermentation for treating distillery spent wash comprehensively and economically. Also this technology achieves zero pollution and returns to earth those elements that are absorbed by sugarcane during its growth. In this plant, they have introduced this aerobic solid state fermentation technology for distillery effluent treatment. Their Biocomposting production unit is the first and only ISO 9002 certified unit in India for adopting a quality system for organic manure production from distillery spent wash. The characteristics of spent wash as follows; PARAMETERS VALUES pH 4-4.5 Total solids 2,20,000-2,30,000 mg/l Nitrogen 500-700 mg/l Phosphates 2,000-5,000 mg/l Potassium 20,000-25,000 mg/l Sulphates 11,000-15,000 mg/l Chlorides 11,000-14,000 mg/l Spentwashquantity 6-7 L/L of alcohol Table 4.3.3
  29. 29. 29 In this way, the plant is producing 8% alcohol and 6-7 Liters of spent wash from every wastage of cane (molasses). Finally the plant sends 10KL of neutral spirit only for bottling unit, also sends absolute alcohol to petroleum units as IOC, BBC, HP and they also sends the impure spirit to the rubber and paint industries. 4.3.4 SOIL TESTING: The plant also involved in the process of soil testing. They are focusing towards their farmers who provide cane to them. They undergo 10 analyses as Electrolytic Conductivity (EC) – below 1, Power of Hydrogen (PH) - 6.5to8.5, Organic carbon - 0.8, Nitrogen - 180kg/acre, Phosphorous - 5kg/acre, Potassium - 115kg/acre, Iron - 10ppm, Manganese - 5ppm, Zinc - 1ppm, calcium carbonate - 3ppm. If any of these is missing or lower or higher than the optimum level then they undertaking certain process to overcome that in a good manner. They are also involved in doing some mapping technique for predicting the future condition of the soil. In this way they are maintaining their soil efficiency in an effective manner.
  30. 30. 30 4.4. PLANT PROCESS FOR BIOCOMPOSITION: The compost yard of RSCL; the ground at the site is hard and compact. The entire 9 acres of compost yard has been lined with 150 micron thick LDPE sheets and provided with 6 inched thick Reinforced concrete cement (RCC) platform to avoid ground water pollution. The compost yard has s gentle slope towards the centre and the leachates are collected at one end in the collection tanks In this process, a mixed population of micro-organisms in a moist aerobic environment decomposes the organic matter present in the sugar industry press mud and distillery spent wash. This biotechnological process has two unique features distinguishing it from other conventional composting processes. One is the use of a specially developed microbial consortium containing organic matter decomposing bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi that rapidly degrades spent wash. The other is the use of a machine called “Aero tiller”. This machine agitates, aerates and shreds the composting mass and spreads the microbial inoculums uniformly over the entire length of windows. In this process, press mud heaps are formed into windows, which are triangular in shape with 1.5 meter height and 3.5 meter width at the bottom. These windows are sprayed with a measured quantity of spent wash where the press mud act as a solid matrix. The ration of spent wash to press mud in the composting mixture varies according to the amount of spent wash being produced, but it is usually around 2 to 3:1. Windows are inoculated with the microbial starter culture and the application of pent wash over the press mud windows is carried out at specific intervals for 8 to 9 weeks. The aerotiller machine turns the windows at least thrice a week followed by trimming and spent wash application. Because of the aero tilling operation, lumps of press mud are shredded to uniform fine particles thereby increasing the surface area of the press mud for the spent wash absorption. The mixing also provides air for prosper growth of micro organisms. During aerotiller operation, the gases evolved due to the microbial metabolism are also vented. The machine also facilitates the contract of substrate and microbes. The entire composting process requires 12-13 weeks duration depending on ambient condition.
  31. 31. 31 During the compositing process, pH, Temperature and Carbon to Nitrogen ratio are monitored. Due to exothermic decomposition reactions, the temperature of windows rises up to 70 degree Celsius and it is maintained between 50 -70 degree Celsius for a period of 7 weeks. The rate of rise in temperature and the duration for which it hovers between 50 -70 degree Celsius is a good index of compositing activity. There is a sharp decrease absorbed in the C: N ratio of the press mud windows during the compositing process. The moisture content in the windows is always maintained between 50% and 60% through periodic spraying of spent wash. After 9 weeks water is applied instead of spent wash to cure the compost. The stable compost material is obtained after 12 weeks duration.
  32. 32. 32 4.5 PLANT PROCESS FOR EFFLUENT TREATMENT PROCESS (ETP): ETP is the final process of RSCL. It involves the process of collecting the wastage water from the sugar plant and the collected water gets stored in 2 Collection Tank. From the collected tank the water could be sent to the Oil Catcher; in this, oil which is contained in the wastage water gets removed with the help of manpower. Now, the oil free water could be sent to the Flaculator; here they equal the level of water (Flowing power of water) and also maintain the water pH level by adding alum and lime. This water could be sent to Flash Mixer; here the water is stirred properly to equalize the content of lime and alum in the water. The stirred water could be sent to the Settling Tank; here the primary sludge gets settled and from that the water will be removed; the settled sludge could be passed to the sludge settling tank. Now the water will be passed to the aeration tank; they are preparing the aerated tank by settling the cow dunk, sand and some micro organisms, the tank also gets air from 2 tanks, therefore the combination of all will help the micro organisms to grow and help them to clean the sludge from the water. Now, the final water with limited sludge will be passed to clarifier; it contains the blades which is in the rotating motion; the rotating blades also helps the water to settling down the sludge; from this the pure water will be passed to the farm, garden and further plants around the plant; remaining sludge will be passed to sludge settling tank. Sludge 2 Sludge settling tank Sludge 1 Collection Tank Oil Catcher Flaculator Flash Mixer Settling Tank From Sugar Plant Clarifier Aeration Purified Water Farm Fig 4.5
  33. 33. 33 The sludge settling tank consists of 16 sludge drying beds. The beds which receive sludge from primary settling tank and clarifier. The collected sludge will be get dried while drying, they are filtering the little amount of water presented in the sludge and then they are passing the filtered water again to the clarifier and to the settling tank; and from the settling tank the same process will be carried out to get the purified water. The process could occur in a cyclic manner. 4.5.1 ETP MAINTENANCE: The plant is maintaining an ETP in the way as shutdown, annual, preventive and running maintenance. In all maintenance they involve in the common process of cleaning the tank by drying out the sludge and removing it. After removal they involve in the process of cleaning it with water; after that they involve in painting all tanks in order to prevent the corrosion of air blowers and blades in settling tank and clarifier. The remaining tank requires painting into to prevent the formation of algae. The head office also involve in maintaining ETP by setting online water measuring system; in that they are measuring, how many amount of water from the wastage has been coming to ETP and from that how many liters they are purifying; like that all kind of details are measured by them in a simultaneous manner. They did this by setting the online measuring meter at the inflow and at the outflow of ETP. In this way, the plant is measuring ETP maintenance in an efficient manner. These are the five major processes which are being running and maintaining by RSCL not only in an efficient but also in an effective via in all their 4 branches.
  34. 34. 34 5. EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY IN PLANT: 5.1 WORK MEASUREMENT AND LABOR STANDARDS: Work Measurement refers to the process of estimating the amount of worker time required to produce one unit of output. A goal of work measurement is to develop labor standards that can be used for planning and controlling operations. In this plant, the work measurement of an employee is depending upon the raw material and the machineries. Here, they are fixing 36 hours for production as constant; therefore if there is a surplus in raw material both the workers and the machineries could be operate in a rapid manner else both could operate either at a moderate speed or at a slow speed; in-order to cover the fixed working hours. A Labor standard is the number of worker-minutes required to complete an element, operation or product under ordinary operating conditions. Labor standards are used for cost estimation, pricing of product and services, incentive pay system, capacity planning, production scheduling. A Labor standard can be determined by using one or more of the following approaches as Time study, work sampling, predetermined time standards and subjective method. In this plant, they are estimating the labor standard by using time study and work sampling methods. The plant prefers time study when they need to produce large quantity of output. This directly represents the seasonal time of cane. The plant also prefers work sampling; when the job required producing relatively small quantities of output. This directly represents the time of non- season.
  35. 35. 35 5.2 LEARNING CURVE: Learning curve is the process of calculating the learning capacity of an employee as we know that at the starting stage workers are unfamiliar with their jobs so the time takes to produce first few unit is high as if the worker started to learn their jobs then their output per day increases up to a point then their output level off to a rather constant rate. This plant is analyzing the workers learning situation with the help of learning curve. Through this they are estimating an average, total and an exact number of labor–hours required per unit for N-units in a production run. The learning curve analysis has been undertaken in a hierarchy manner as section head, management head and unit head. Through this the plant could easily finding capacity of an employee in an active manner and further proceedings has been undertaken by them to make them more effective. 5.3 PRODUCTIVITY: Productivity means amount of products produced with the resources used. Productivity varies with the amount of production relative to the amount of resources used. Higher productivity leads to higher standard of living that is why the plant is carrying more about productivity. Productivity = Quantity of product produced Amount of resources used The plant is producing cent percent productivity because they are converting the whole raw materials into the complete product as they required. For e.g.: if the plant is getting 18 tons of sugar cane means the plant could exactly able to produce 18 tons of sugar. So here there is no need for improvement in productivity. Cost plays one of the major roles in productivity. When the cost of the resource increases and the profit is to remain the same, some combination of the following must occur: output is increased, resource usage is decreased and price of output is increased. In this plant, they are facing the conventional cost as Rs.30 based on sulphur requirement, lime requirement etc...
  36. 36. 36 5.3.1 LABOR PRODUCTIVITY: For some firms, production labor represents very small part of the firm’s total costs. For other firms like this plant, direct labor cost remains a significant cost and the need to improve labor productivity is still a serious concern. This plant considering the major variables which affecting labor productivity is physical work environment, product quality, employee job performance. 5.4 EMPOWERING WORKERS: It is the employees who have the control of, and know the most about, the details of production. In this plant, they are getting employees to accept this responsibility by conveying authority from managers to workers. They are maintaining a better employee relationship management. This could be considering as a huge and important power for this plant.
  37. 37. 37 6. STOCK AND INVENTORY MAINTENANCE OF A PLANT: 6.1 STOCK MAINTENANCE: The plant is maintaining stock only for the materials which is being used for daily purpose and also the cost of those materials should be under Rs.10, 000 if it above that this; then that will be gets under the control of head office which is in Chennai. This indicates that the plant can purchase the things without getting permission from the head office if it is below 10,000 else they have to get permission from them to buy the required material. As per the norms provided by head office, the plant is maintaining stock for certain items as follows:  Consumables  Electricals  Packing Materials  Tools  Bearings  Ferrous  Civil  Fuel  Lubricants  Chemicals  Automobile units  Spares They are maintaining the stock items only by using Numeric system. Maximum limit for them to place order is from 15 - 20 Lakhs. They are undertaking some procedure for placing an order as purchase requisition  AGM  GM Stock purchase order to stock handler  placing an order in the areas like Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai and Theni. In this via, 2 days once they are placing an order for their requirement. They are maintaining this stock in an efficient manner as receiving order  checking order as that of requirement  if it is excess then they will resend it, if it is less then they will hold on the bill and the stock till complete arrival. Each bill consist of several items; if any of those has been
  38. 38. 38 not yet received that particular bill cannot not be updated till an arrival of an item. Therefore updating the bill in computer representing the order has been placed successfully. After the arrival of an items then they will undergo the process of checking in-order to find any defects, if there is no defects then that will undergo for the next stage if not it could be resend. After checking, the items could be sent to dispatching and assemble process. Then the updated bill could be sent to accounting department for further process. 6.2 INVENTORY MAINTENANCE: The plant is maintaining inventory for finished goods, which is essential in produce-to-stock positioning strategies, necessary in level aggregate capacity plans, and with the help of this they are displaying their products to their customers. We could also say that the factory is maintaining independent demand inventory system, which means demand for an item carried in inventory is independent of the demand for any other item in inventory. The plant consists of Bin system. They are classifying the bin based upon rupee as 50 and 100. The system will work as per that of settings provided by them, if they set it as for Rs.50 means the system automatically started to allocate the sugar in that manner to the inventory and for Rs.100 same as that of Rs.50. They considered the size of bin as 1 Bin=1000 quintal. This plant consists of 4 allocations for inventory and their maximum potential for each inventory is 12,000 lots. For the first two inventories their allocated capacity is 1, 40, 000 quintals and for the last two inventories their capacity is 1, 65, 000 quintals which was approved by government. They are allocating the lot based on either 2 cross 3 or 3 cross 5. Fifty is the maximum height capacity for their inventory. As per the First In First Out (FIFO) they are dispatching it as per customer requirements. In this way, the plant is maintaining their stock and inventory system in an effective manner.
  39. 39. 39 7.CONCLUSION: It was a complete useful experience working at Rajshree Sugars and Chemicals Limited. The friendly welcoming employees and the space they have created for a trainee allowed me with full opportunities to know and learn myself as a worker. This experience brought out my strength and also the areas I needed to make up. It added more confidence to my Professional approach built a stronger attitude and taught me how to work in team as a player. The primary objective of an internship is to gather a real life working experience to work and put their theoretical knowledge in practice. This was my first real experience to work in major factory. During my 1 month of training, I have developed a lot of confidence and courage in this industry. My experience at the factory was highly educative one. I went to different departments of the factory and got a lot of varied experience. In all departments I get to learn many things which will be helpful for me in my future. I also learned values and importance of this industry and experienced that this is much superior field than most of the other field. Now I have more confident and more likely to do any work now. During my training, I thoroughly enjoyed the challenges that came along every single day. I learned that this is just the beginning of the road and I have to travel a long distance to be a successful person in this filed but I must say that this experience will prove an objective in my carrier in the sugar industry.