OBESITY - WHAT IS IT? Presence of excess body fat Determined by body mass index (BMI) BMI = weight (kg) / height (m) 2 BMI of 25 to 29.9 = Overweight BMI of over 30 = Obese Being overweight is associated with a higher risk of disease, particularly if the body fat is concentrated around the abdomen.
CAUSES OF OBESITY Obesity is a complex disorder with multiple interactive causes Obesity occurs when a person consumes more kilojoules (energy) than he or she burns (through physical activity) The cause of the imbalance between kilojoules input and output may differ from person to person
CAUSES OF OBESITY - BIOLOGICAL FACTORS Gender; women carry more fat, but men carry more fat around stomach, therefore greater risk CVD Age; maintenance of body weight becomes more difficult with age Genetics; including inheritance of specific body type
CAUSES OF OBESITY - BIOLOGICAL FACTORS Hormonal factors; BMR; basal metabolic rate - Your basal metabolic rate, or BMR, is the minimum calorific requirement needed to sustain life in a resting individual. It can be looked at as being the amount of energy (measured in calories) expended by the body to remain in bed asleep all day! - Thyroxin (hormone produced by the thyroid gland) is a key BMR-regulator which speeds up the metabolic activity of the body. The more thyroxin produced, the higher the BMR.
CAUSES OF OBESITY - BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS Eating behaviour; food choices, cultural influences, emotions, eating habits, attitudes Lack of Physical activity; the amount and intensity of exercise
CAUSES OF OBESITY - ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Technology; has increased time being sedentary (not active), computers, remote controls etc Industrialisation; increased availability of high fat, sugar and energy dense foods Urbanisation; people living environment that promotes sedentary lifestyles eg. Take away food outlet convenience
OBESITY - A RISK FACTOR FOR… Life threatening chronic illness; CVD, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke, cancers Non-fatal debilitating conditions; reduce quality of life, gall bladder disease, respiratory difficulties, infertility and osteoarthritis Psychological problems; depression, low self esteem
ROLE OF NUTRITION AS A PROTECTIVE FACTORFOR DISEASE An individuals nutrient and food intake can have both short-term and long-term consequences on their health. Food choices can act as a protective factor against certain diseases. Some commonly consumed foods are energy dense, rather than supplying a range of nutrients Regular consumption of these foods decreases the quality of nutrient intake.
CONTINUED The associated level of protection foods offer, is very closely linked with other factors such as;- Physical activity- Biological influences- Genetics (includinggender)