Intelligence ()الذكاء Professor Tarek A. Okasha Professor of Psychiatry Okasha Institute of PsychiatryFaculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University Secretary for Scientific Meetings World Psychiatric Association
DefinitionIntelligence:Is the general ability to solveintellectual problems on the basisof past learning and present graspof essentials
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) معدل الذكاء Mental Age________________________ X 100 Chronological Age
Growth of Intelligence نمو الذكاءIncreases steadily and progressively toage of 13 or 15 then more slowly to theage of 16 or 18Constancy Intelligence ثبات الذكاءIQ is constant with fluctuations of 5–10pointsIntelligence between Environmentand HeredityEnvironment can enrich IQ up to 20-30points
Distribution of IntelligenceGenius Over 140Superior IQ 120 - 140Above average IQ 110 - 120Average IQ 90 - 110Below average IQ 80 - 90Borderline IQ 70 - 80
Distribution of Intelligence60% of the population 90 -11015% of the population 110 -12015% of the population 80 -905% of the population > 1205% of the population < 80
Above Superior Borderline Below Average IQ IQ Average Average IntelligenceMR Genius 70 80 90 100 110 120 140 5% 15% 60% 15% 5%
Composition of Intelligence1. Verbal comprehension2. Word fluency3. Numbers4. Perceptual5. Reasoning6. Rote memory7. Spatial comprehension
Intelligence tests For children1. Stanford Binet Scale (2-18 years)2. Wechsler Pre-school intelligence scale (up to 5 years)3. Wechsler Intelligence scale for children (5-15 years)4. The coloured progressive matrices5. Goodenough draw a man test6. Portus Mazes
Group differences in intelligence Men Vs Women Black Vs White Vs Yellow City Vs Village children Occupation of the father
Uses of Intelligence testsEducational purposesVocational guidanceLevel of intellectual deteriorationIntellectual improvementSocial and intellectual harmonybetween spouses
Reliability الثبات Consistency of measurement.(test gives similar results with same person at different times) Validity الصدق Positive correlation of the test with its purpose.(actually measures what is needed to be measured)
Mental Retardation“Generalized Learning Disability” Represents nearly 5% of the population Mortality rate is high Many co-morbid physical illnesses Better called “Generalized Learning Disability”
Mental Retardation“Generalized Learning Disability” Type % IQ Prognosis Idiot 5 Below 25 Non educable المعتوه Non trainable Imbecile 20 25 - 50 Trainable اللبله Moran 70 50 - 80 Trainable الوهوك EducableBorderline 5 80 - 90 Life in simple البين لبينى environment
IQ and school successIQ and occupation Role of Compensatory education?Is National Intelligence Declining?
Abilities القدراتAchievement النجازThe actual ability and can be measured directlyby the use of testsAptitude القدرةThe predictable ability and can be measured byspecially devised tests.Capacity الستعدادThe potential ability and can be known indirectlyfrom the unequal achievement of individualswho have equal intensive experience andtraining.