Overview ofChildDevelopmentDr. Osama RefaatDirector of Training Department
Child Development Definition: C hange in the child that occurs over time. C hanges follow an orderly pattern that moves toward greater complexity and enhances survival. Periods of development: Prenatal: from conception to birth Infancy and toddlerhood: birth to 2 years Early childhood: 2-6 years old Middle childhood: 6-12 years old Adolescence: 12-19 years old
Domains of Development Development is described in three domains, but growth in one domain influences the other domains. Physical Domain: body size, body proportions, appearance, motor development, coordination, perception capacities, physical health. C ognitive Domain: thought processes and intellectual abilities including attention, memory, problem solving, imagination, creativity, academic and everyday knowledge, and language. Social/Emotional Domain: self-knowledge (self-esteem, sexual identity, ethnic identity), moral reasoning, understanding and expression of emotions, self-regulation, temperament, understanding others, interpersonal skills, and friendships.
Psychoanalytical TheoriesB e lie fs fo c us o n the fo rmatio n o f pe rs o nality . A c c o rdingto this appro ac h, c hildre n mo v e thro ug h v ario us s tag e s ,c o nfro nting conflicts be tw e e n bio lo g ic al driv es ands o c ial expectations .
Sigmund Freud Psychosexual Theory Was based on his therapy with troubled adults. He emphasized that a childs personality is formed by the ways which his parents managed his sexual and aggressive drives.
Erik Erikson Psychosocial Theory Expanded on Freuds theories. Believed that development is life-long. Emphasized that at each stage, the child acquires attitudes and skills resulting from the successful negotiation of the psychological conflict. Identified 8 stages: Basic trust vs mistrust (birth - 1 year) Autonomy vs shame and doubt (ages 1-3) Initiative vs guilt (ages 3-6) Industry vs inferiority (ages 6-11) Identity vs identity confusion (adolescence) Intimacy vs isolation (young adulthood) Generativity vs stagnation (middle adulthood) Integrity vs despair (the elderly)
Behavioral and Social Learning TheoriesB e lie fs that de s c ribe the impo rtanc e o f thee nv iro nme nt and nurturing in the g ro w th o f ac hild.
Behaviorism Developed as a response to psychoanalytical theories. Behaviorism became the dominant view from the 1920s to 1960s.
John Watson Early 20th century, " Father of American Behaviorist theory.” Based his work on Pavlovs experiments on the digestive system of dogs. Researched classical conditioning C hildren are passive beings who can be molded by controlling the stimulus-response associations.
Skinner Proposed that children " operate" on their environment, operational conditioning. Believed that learning could be broken down into smaller tasks, and that offering immediate rewards for accomplishments would stimulate further learning.
Social Learning TheoryAlbert Bandura Stressed how children learn by observation and imitation. Believed that children gradually become more selective in what they imitate.
Biological TheoriesB e lie f that he re dity and innate bio lo g ic alpro c e s s e s g o v e rn g ro w th.
Ethology Examines how behavior is determined by a species need for survival. Has its roots in Charles Darwins research. Describes a " critical period" or " sensitive period,” for learning
Konrad Lorenz Ethologist, known for his research on imprinting.
Attachment Theory John Bowlby Attachment between an infant and her caregiver can insure the infant’s survival. Stranger’s anxiety Separation anxiety
Cognitive TheoriesB e lie fs that de s c ribe ho w c hildre n le arn
Cognitive developmentJean Piaget theory C hildren " construct" their understanding of the world through their active involvement and interactions. Studied his 3 children to focus not on what they knew but how they knew it. Described childrens understanding as their " schemas” and how they use: Assimilation Accommodation.
Piaget’s Cognitive Development Stages Sensori-motor Ages birth - 2: the infant uses his senses and motor abilities to understand the world Preoperation Ages 2-7: the child uses metal representations of objects and is able to use symbolic thought and language C oncrete operations Ages 7-11; the child uses logical operations or principles when solving problems Formal operations Ages 12 up; the use of logical operations in a systematic fashion and with the ability to use abstractions
Lev Vygotsky Socio-Cultural Theory Agreed that children are active learners, but their knowledge is socially constructed. C ultural values and customs dictate what is important to learn. C hildren learn from more expert members of the society. ced.ncsc.edu/hyy/devtheories.htm Vygotsky described the " zone of proximal development" , where learning occurs.
Information Processing Theory Uses the model of the computer to describe how the brain works. Focuses on how information is perceived, how information is stored in memory, how memories are retrieved and then used to solve problems.
Cognitive Development Piaget Main concepts: Schema: Mental patterns (thought/action) Assimilation: Adapting new information into existing schemata Accommodation: Modify existing schemes for new information
Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development 1-The Sensori-motor Stage 2-The Preoperational Stage 3-The Concrete Operational Stage 4-The Formal Operational Stage23
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Piaget’s Stages of CognitiveDevelopment Development Formal Operations (adolescence to adult) Concrete Operations (~ 7-12 yrs) Preoperational Period (~2 to 6 yrs) Sensorimotor Period (~Birth to 2 yrs) Inborn Reflexes
The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2years) Coordinate sensory inputs and motor skills Transition from being reflexive to reflective Adualism Development of Problem-Solving Abilities Development of Object Permanence Objects continue to exist when they are no longer visible/detectable Appears by 8-12 months of age A-not-B error: search in the last place found, not where it was last seen Complete by 18-24 months
The Preoperational Stage (2-7years) Symbolic function / representational insight One thing represents another Language Pretend (symbolic) play – developmentally a positive activity Deficits in preoperational thinking: Animism Attribute life-like qualities to inanimate objects Egocentrism View world from own perspective, trouble recognizing other’s point of view 3 mountain problem
Deficits in preoperational thinking Centration: the tendency to focus on a single, perceptually striking feature of an object or event Appearance/reality distinction Cannot distinguish between the two Lack of conservation Do not realize properties of objects do not change just because appearance does Lack of reversibility Mentally undo an action
Some Dimensions of Conservation: Number, Matter, and Length Type of conservation Number Matter Length Initial presentation Two identical Two identical Two sticks are rows of objects balls of clay aligned in shown to child shown to child front of child Manipulation One row is Experimenter Experimenter spaced changes shape moves one of one ball stick to rightPreoperational “No, the onechild’s answer to “No, the longer “No, the longer on top is“Are they still row has more” one has more” longer”the same?”
The Concrete Operational Stage(7-11 years) Cognitive operations Internal mental activity to modify symbols to reach a logical conclusion (concrete) Conservation of matter Decentering: They can appreciate the perspective of another viewer They can think about two concepts at the same time Reversibility Appreciate causality Thinking systematically remains difficult
The Formal Operational Stage (12+) Hypothetico-deductive reasoning Ability to generate hypotheses and use deductive reasoning (general to specific) Inductive reasoning Going from specific observations to generalizations Individuals can imagine alternative worlds and reason systematically about all possible outcomes of a situation Work in probabilities and possibilities Abstract concepts (Equality, Patriotism) Piaget believed that the attainment of the formal operations stage, in contrast to the other stages, is not universal
Moral Development Development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people.. The process by which children acquire societys standards of what is right and wrong.
Moral perspectives: Psychoanalytic theory emphasizes feelings of anxiety and guilt Children identify with parents to reduce anxiety and avoid punishment Superego: moral element of personality Other, more positive emotions contribute to child’s moral development Example: empathy, which involves perspective- taking Cognitive theory: Kohlberg We MUST understand right from wrong if we are to be expected to act in right or wrong ways.
Is morality a topic of concern forchildren? Regression (playing games): taking turns, following a set of rules Home: Questions such as “why cant I stay up as late as you?? You always get to watch what you want to watch. ” School: So in everyday situations, children are confronted by some rules, they have some sense of “right” and “wrong”
Exercise Heinz stole a bottle of expensive drug from the pharmacy to save his mother’s life Do you agree with that or not ? Why ?
Not strictly linked to age Not everyone reaches the highest level
Preconventional1-Punishment Orientation Goodness or badness of an act are based on its consequences. Child will defer to authority figure and obey their commands in order to avoid punishment (BUT there is no true conception of rules--> it is only bad if you get caught).
Preconventional2-Reward Orientation: person conforms to rules in order to gain rewards or to satisfy personal needs doing things for others is “right” if the actor will benefit in the long run
Conventional3- Bad boy Orientation Behavior is guided by fear of being condemned by others.
Conventional4- Good boy Orientation Moral behavior is that which pleases, helps, or is approved by others. One objective is to be thought of as a “nice” person
Postconventional5) Social contract and rules flexibility begins in moral reasoning moral actions are those that express the will of the majority of individuals a sense of having to live up to the law, but an understanding that laws can be wrong.
Postconventional6) Conscience & ethical values “highest” stage of moral reasoning right and wrong defined on a personal belief or self-chosen ethics belief in abstract principles which override all others (life, liberty, equality)