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08 statistics

  1. 1. Statistics & researchmethods for clinicians Ramez Reda Moustafa
  2. 2. ObjectivesIntroduce statistical and research methodscommonly used in the medical sciencesBreak the psychological barrierIntroduce the basics of scientific writingand publishing in medicine
  3. 3. What this course is notA comprehensive course on statisticsA series of lectures
  4. 4. What I am notA statistician
  5. 5. TYPES OF DATACategorical - Nominal Yes/No Male/Female Red/White/BlackOrdinal mild/moderate/severe Low/normal/high
  6. 6. TYPES OF DATAContinuous (quantitative, numerical) Age Blood pressure ESR
  7. 7. What type?Glasgow coma scaleModified Rankin scaleHbSplenomegalyFeverDysphasia
  8. 8. SamplesRelated or independent, that is thequestion.
  9. 9.     Ordinal or Non-Normal  Categorical Normal Continuous Continuous   One sample Chi-squared test Kolmogorov-Smirnov test one sample t-test Chi-squared or Fishers exact Two samples independent Mann-Whitney U test Student t-test test paired McNemars test Wlcoxon Signed Rank test Paired t-testMultiple samples  independent Chi-squared test Kruskal-Wallis test ANOVA(k>2) related Cochran-Q test Friedman test repeated measures ANOVA
  10. 10. VarianceN=1 studies100% studiesCISDSEM
  11. 11. Sample sizeThe “N”Pilot studies
  12. 12. Summarizing dataThe MeanThe MedianFrequency/proportion
  13. 13. Answering questions1. Asking the question2. What is my data3. The method4. Hypothesis testing or not
  14. 14. Collecting dataLab bookformsSource dataComputer Excel SPSSThe table(s)Master sheet? What master sheet?
  15. 15. Collecting dataToo many variablesToo few variables
  16. 16. Looking through your dataTablesGraphsDescriptive stats

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