Introduction Thinking is included in all ouractivities . It is the language of themind
Definition It is a mental activity whichdoes not depend directly uponsensory or motor contact withthe present circumstances .
Anatomical sitesconcerned with thinking1. Cerebral cortex .2. Limbic system .3. Reticular activating system .
Tools of thinking• Concepts• Combinations of concepts :rules ,laws and principles• Language symbols : vocal and written expressions• Diagrams• Images : a mental representation of visual information• Cognitive maps : a mental representation of familiar parts of the environment• Theories
?What is concept• A concept is a mental event used to represent a category ,class or group of actions or objects , not just individual cases .• It is to know the common properties and the rule that relate them.• It is one of the higher cognitive functions
Why do we need?concepts• Combination of conceptsCombined concepts guide thoughts and actions . Rules , laws, and principles combine so many concepts in certain relationships .
Knowledge of the commonproperties has great impact onhow we deal with the objectsaround us.
Concepts enable us to gobeyond the information weperceive . Having some visibleproperties of an object allow usto infer properties that are notvisible . This ability isfundamental to thought .
Concepts allow us to apply thecommon properties that wealready know to objects or peoplewe encounter for the first time .
Concepts of widely usedactivities such as eating ,abstract things such as truth orjustice or states as being oldallow us to communicate quicklyabout things that occur.frequently
If we had no way to organize or-classify our experiences , ourimpressions of our environmentand of ourselves would be .chaotic
Phases of concept:formation1. Generalization .2. Differentiation .3. Abstraction .
• GeneralizationInability to differentiatebetween familiar and non familiar objects .• DifferentiationDistinction between different items.• AbstractionInability to grasp the essentials of a whole and the hidden meaning .• It is tested by proverbs• Medical implication ( abstract and concrete thinking ) In certain forms of psychiatric and physical illnesses .
Factors playing a role inconcept formationAlthough our concepts , principles and beliefs mayguide our thinking , personal feelings and prejudicesmay falsify our ideas and lead to erroneousconclusions .Your own concept of a certain thing may not agree inall respects with the standard definition as your ownconcept consists of what you know or believe aboutthis thing and its interaction with your personality .practicing objective observations and straightthinking decrease such errors .
Types of concepts1. Inborn2. Acquired or1. Formal ( classical ) All the members have all attributes2. Natural ( real ) Often cannot be easily defined (fuzzy) , with ill defined attributes and rules
• PrototypeIt is the member of a concept that best typifies or represents that concept or properties to describe the best examplesIt is a way to help us better define natural concepts• CoreThe properties that are the most essential for being a member of the concept
:Types of thinking1. Autistic thinking .2. Purposive thinking. e.g problem solving. e.g logical thinking.3. Creative thinking .4. Concrete and abstract thinking
Autistic thinking• Does not go with the real world or its facts.• Not directed towards any purpose.• Passive , does not need any attention.• does not lead to any mental exhaustion .• Forms : imaginative play in children , daydreams and night dreams• Beneficial if it is moderate ( escape or gratification of certain desires .• Pathological if the whole thinking is directed through this unrealistic way as in schizophrenia.• It leads to withdrawal from reality and social isolation .• May use symbols with very personal meaning .
Purposive thinking• Controlled and goal directed• Uses concepts and its combinations of rules and principles• Uses vocal and written language symbols
Problem solving• It is the process of seeking and finding the ways and means to solve a problem .• It is an active process• It is a higher cognitive function .• problems are usually solved by a mixture of :• Trial and error• Insight learning• we may solve the problem by trial and error then gain insight retrospectively how it was solved
Trial and errorA rat in a mazeAfter many trials of exploration ,.the rat reaches the food boxThe rat learned the direction of thegoal in a situation with which ithas become familiar
Insight learningA chimpanzees and a .bunch of bananaInsight means planning thesolution on a mental level .beforehandinsight is affected by pastexperience and fullinformation about theproblem
Steps of problemsolving• Initiation phaseRecognition of the problem and definition of the goal• Information gatheringGathering relevant information to the problem• Solving stateUsing tools of thinkingPutting alternative solutionsElimination of the irrelevant solutionRevising previously solved similar problems• Evaluation stateAssessment of the resultSelf criticism
Problem solvingstrategies• DefinitionStrategy is a systematic plan for generating possible solutions that can be tested to see if they are correct.• Types of strategies1. Algorithms : evaluating all possible solutions2. Heuristics : evaluating probabilities that you think to be more reasonable .3. Reduction : dividing the problem into small sub - problems more easier to manage4. Finding analogue : finding the similarities between the current problems and previous problems .
Barriers for effective problem solving1) Indefinite goal2) Insufficient or irrelevant data3) Mental set : tendency to perceive orrespond in a particular way . DistractibilityLack of motivation .Failure to retrieve memory .Inability to control emotional factors .Attitude :inflexibility( 4Using incorrect strategies( 56) Insufficient tools of thinking orunclear concepts
Logical thinkingIt is to reach a conclusion which isaccepted by the thinker as certainor at least probable conclusion by .using relevant dataThe opposite is illogical or loosethinking ; using irrelevant data to reach unaccepted conclusion
Creative thinkingControlledGoal directedHappens in arts and inventiveproductionsHas 4 phases
Phases of creativethinkingPreparation phase.1Data collection and understanding all about the.problemIncubation phase.2It is a waiting period . Work is neglected consciously .but unconscious work is doneInspiration or illumination phase.3 . The solution comes suddenly out of the blueVerification phase.4Testing the solutionExperimental work to verify scientific hypothesis
Concrete and abstractthinkingConcrete thinkinginability to understand themeaning behind a word orstatement .Abstract thinkingAbility to understand theessentials and hidden meaningbehind a word or a statement
Disorders of thinkingDisorders of the stream( 1Disorders of the control( 2Disorders of the content( 3Disorders of the form( 4
Disorders of streamRapid thinking and flight ofideas : maniaSlow retarded thinking :depressionThought block : schizophrenia
Disorders of controlThought readingThought insertionThought broadcastingThought withdrawal
Disorders of contentPreoccupation with obsessions , fears ,and suicidal.thoughtsOvervalued ideasDelusionsIn schizophreniaBizarrePersecutoryDelusions of reference Delusions of infidelityIn depressionDelusions of nihilismDelusions of hypochondraisisSomatic delusionsIn maniaDelusions of grandiosity