By Mokhtar Elareshi, Ph.D. StudentMedia & Communication Dept16 April 2010Presented at theJourney Across Media 2010 ConferenceThe Audience Spectacular: Who’s Watching and How? Ideas of Audience in Screen Media and Performance
Libyan Media Development Research Questions Theoretical Framework Methodology Findings Conclusion
Region: North Africa Capital: Tripoli Population: 6,173,579 m Median age: 23 years Growth rate: 5.8% Language: Arabic, English, Italian, French and others Tuareg and Berber Area:1,759,540Km2 (1,093,327sq.mi) Political: Independence 1951(The United Kingdom of Libya) Revolution: 1969 by Al-Gadhafi Economy: In 1957 oil was found.
Television Channels from 1968 to 2005 Al-Jamahiriya TV Al-Jamahiriya TV Satellite Channel Al-Manawa TV Satellite Channel Al-Nadi TV Satellite Channel Television Channels After 2005 Al-Jamahiriya Sport 1 TV Al-Hedaya TV9 9 99 TV Satellite Channel Africa Satellite Channel Al-Badeel TV Satellite Satellite Channel Satellite Channel ChannelAl-Jamahiriya Sport2 Al-Tawasul TV Libya Educational 1 TV Libya Educational 2 TV Libya Educational 4 TVTV Satellite Channel Satellite Channel Satellite Channel Satellite Channel Satellite Channel Libya Al-Shababiya TV Al-Manara TV Satellite Channel Allibiya TV Satellite Channel
RQ1: How the news topics are defined? And which news topics are most interested? RQ2: What uses do young adults make of news and what gratifications do they derive from it? RQ3: Which news sources do young Libyan adults consume? RQ4: Which news supplies are the most popular with young Libyans? RQ5: Which news services – from the four chosen– are offering Libyan students information that can gratify their needs for news?
Uses and Gratifications Paradigm Motivation for news consumption * News consumption * Motivations for news * News media use among students
Survey Research *Questionnaire : 32 questions *The Sample: 400 undergraduate students *Type of Sample: Stratified sampling *Time: From 14 Dec 2009 to 08 Jan 2010 *Place: Al-Fateh University, Tripoli, Libya Ethics and Confidentiality Issues
Al-Jazeera TV Al-Arabiya TV Al-Jamahiriya TV Al-Jamahiriya 2 TVNews 18:00 News 18:00 News 21:30 News 20:00 Popularity, Al-Jazeera and Al-Arabiya are the most well-known in the Arab world Al-Jazeera and Al-Arabiya are professional at providing up-to-date newscasts Locally, there is a kind of competition between the two local TV for gaining Libyans’ attention They also provide news programmes
Composition of Respondents by Demographic Variables (400 undergraduate students) Number PercentageGender Male 180 (42%) Female 220 (58%)Median age 21 years oldNumber of faculties 14Religion Islam 400 (100%)Ethnicity Arab 400 (100%)
Libya-wide politics 80.2 92.8 Current events in Libya 82.8 90.8 Current events in the Arab world 78.2 89.8World-wide politics and current events 73.2 89.5 Current local events where I live 81.2 87.5 Politics in the Arab world 73 86.2 Weather news 76.2 85 City, business and financial issues 59.2 RQ1: % Most Interested 84.8 Human interest stories 70.2 RQ1: % Important News 84.7 Crime news 77.7 82.2 Entertainment 64.8 65.2 Sports news 52.6 58.4 Travel news 45.9 55.5 Celebrity behaviour 47 44.2 Others 10.5 14.8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 To know what’s going on across the country 97.5 2.5For information about daily life e.g. travel, health, education 91.7 8.3 To know what’s going on in the world 89.2 10.8 To join in conversations with friends, family, or colleagues 83.3 16.7 To acquire knowledge relevant to my studies or business 83.2 16.8 For personal interest 79 21 To be able to form my own opinions about issues 77.7 22.3 Knowing what is happening in the world makes me feel 72.8 27.2 As a duty or responsibility to keep up-to-date 66.2 33.8 To get a perspective from another country/countries 60.2 39.8 For entertainment 31.3 68.7 Through habit 27.5 72.5 I don’t follow the news 16 84 For other reasons 6 94 Very interested Not interested
100908070 61.2%60 51% 50.8%50 43.2%40 28.2%30 25.2% 22.8%2010 0 Arabic TV Internet Radio Libyan TV Newspapers News Non-Arabic TV channels channels magazines channels % of daily & most days
% Daily or most days 18.7 32.1 22.1 27.1Al-Jamahiriya TV Al-Jamahiriya2 TVAl-Arabiya TV Al-Jazeera TV
Al-Jamahiriya Al-Jamahiriya 2 Al-Arabiya TV Al-Jazeera TV TV TV Parasocial Interpersonal General info Opinion interaction 43% 73% seeking 86% leadership 82% Surveillance General info Opinion Interpersonal 30% seeking 68% leadership 83% 82% Opinion Opinion Interpersonal General info leadership 28% leadership 64% 82% seeking 81% Interpersonal Parasocial Surveillance 23% Surveillance interaction 60% 73% 74% General info Parasocial seeking 20% Surveillance Parasocial interaction 70% 60% interaction 63% % saying agree or strongly agree
News consumption ! *Regional TV vs. local TV *New TV vs. old TV Motivations ! *Information =>the country/life/ the world *Conversation=> talk to friends/ family Gratifications ! * Locally=> parasocial/ interpersonal * Regionally=> general info seeking/ opinion leadership
Mokhtar H. Elareshime94@le.ac.ukMedia and Communication DepartmentUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterLE2 7RH This thesis is supervised by Prof Barrie Gunter and sponsored by Libyan Embassy.