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1. 1. Advances in MS-Excel Mohit Kumar M.Sc. Earth Science Int. 3rd yr Department of Geology, Centre for Advanced Studies ©MRKS 1
3. 3. MS EXCEL MS Excel is a spreadsheet program that enables us to store and manipulate data in a tabular form. Spreadsheet also called worksheets, which are made up of columns & rows. Rows are numbered numerically and columns are labelled alphabetically. ©MRKS 3
4. 4. MS EXCEL After Zth column, the column are labelled as AA, AB, AC,… and so on. Again after the AZth column, the columns are labelled as BA, BB, BC,… and so on. The intersection of rows & column is called a cell, which can store text, number data, and mathematical formulas. Each spreadsheet contains 10,48,576 rows & 16,384 column that make 1048576*16384 = 17179869184 cells in MS Excel 2013. MS Excel contains a group of worksheets, which is known as a workbook. ©MRKS 4
5. 5. Rows & Column in Various versions Versions of Excel up to 7.0 (1995 Excel for Windows 95) had a limitation in the size of their data sets of 16K (214 = 16384) rows. Versions 8.0 (1997 Excel 97) through 11.0 (Excel 2003) could handle 64K (216 = 65536) rows and 256 columns (28 as label 'IV'). Version 12.0 (Excel 2007) can handle 1M (220 = 1048576) rows, and 16384 (214 as label 'XFD') columns. Wikipedia ©MRKS 5
6. 6. Last column Last row ©MRKS 6
8. 8. Formatting the Data Number Alignment Font Border Fill Protection ©MRKS 8
26. 26. Importing Data Go to Data Menu Click on External Data group You can import data from any option From Access From Web From Text From Other Sources From Existing Connections ©MRKS 26
28. 28. Inserting a Table Go to Tables toolbar Select Table option Select Range for Rows & Column Table formed with column header You may rename the column header by double clicking on it. ©MRKS 28
32. 32. Charts & Graphs Charts and Graphs are visual representations of the data. Excel supports many kinds of charts and graphs to help you display data in ways that are meaningful to your audience. Charts Type Column Chart Surface Chart Bar Chart Line Chart Pivot Chart Area Chart Scatter Chart Pie Chart ©MRKS 32
33. 33. Charts Types Column Chart • Use this chart type to visually compare values across a few categories. Bar Chart • Use this chart type to visually compare values across a few categories when the chart shows duration or the category text is long. Line Chart • Use this chart type to show trend over time (years, months, and days) or categories. Pie Chart • Use this chart type to show proportions of a whole. Use it when the total of your numbers is 100%. Scatter Chart • Use this chart type to show the relationship between sets of values. Surface Chart • Use this chart type to show trends in values across two dimensions in a continuous curve. Area Chart • Use this chart type to show trends over time (years, months, and days) or categories. Use it to highlight the magnitude of change over time. Pivot Chart • Use Pivot Charts to graphically summarize data and explore complicated data. ©MRKS 33
34. 34. Create a Chart Select data range i.e., cell C3 to M11. On the Ribbon, Select the Insert tab Go to Charts toolbar Select Any type of Chart Column Chart Line Chart Bar Chart Pie Chart Area Chart Scatter Chart Once you create a chart a Chart Tools section will appear in the Ribbon and includes Design Format ©MRKS 34
41. 41. Sorting Select the data i.e., cell C3 to D11. From Data toolbar > click on Sort. A dialogue box will appear on screen in which, you can • You can add or delete more levels. • Sort by according to any column. • You may define order in which it sot the data. • In Option, you can change the order of sorting whether from top to bottom or left to right. ©MRKS 41
44. 44. Protecting your Work Create a password that only allows certain users to change the worksheet or the entire workbook. There are two types of protection: Cell Protection Worksheet Protection Workbook Protection ©MRKS 44
45. 45. Cell Protection ©MRKS 45
48. 48. Worksheet Protection It prevent unwanted changes from others by limiting their ability to edit. E.g., you can prevent people from editing locked cells or making formatting changes. Procedure: • On the Ribbon, select the Review tab • In the Changes group, click Protect Sheet • In the text box under Password to unprotect sheet:, type your password to lock that sheet • Now, your sheet is password protected. • Again you can Unprotect your Worksheet by same step ©MRKS 48
51. 51. Workbook Protection Keep others from making structural changes to your workbook, such as moving, deleting or adding sheets. Procedure: • On the Ribbon, select the Review tab • In the Changes group, click Protect Workbook. • Enter your password, it protect your workbook from structural changes. • Again, you can Unprotect your Workbook by same steps. ©MRKS 51
54. 54. Inserting a Picture You can insert pictures from your computer or from other computers that you’re connected to. Also you can find pictures from a variety of online sources. Procedure: • Go to Insert ribbon, select picture • A dialogue box will appear from where you can insert a picture. ©MRKS 54
56. 56. Functions With the help of a Function, you can easily pick functions to use and get help on how to fill out the input values. Procedure: • Go to Formulas Ribbon. • From Function Library group, you can use any function/formula as per your requirement. ©MRKS 56
57. 57. Financial Web Logical Compatibility Text Function Library Information Date & Time Lookup & Refrence Cube Math & Trignometry Engineering Statisical ©MRKS 57
58. 58. Use of Some Functions ©MRKS 58
59. 59. Some Basic Function SUM Automatically add it up. Your total will appear after the selected cells. AVERAGE Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of its arguments, which can be number or references that contain numbers. COUNT Counts the number of cells in a range that contain numbers. MEDIAN Returns the median, or the number in the middle of the set of given numbers. ©MRKS 59
60. 60. Some Basic Function MAX Returns the largest value in a set of values. Ignores logical values and text. MIN Returns the smallest value in a set of values. Ignore logical values and text. MODE Returns the most frequency occurring, or repetitive, value in an array or range of data. IF Check whether a condition is met, and returns one value if TRUE, and another value if FALSE. ©MRKS 60
61. 61. Some Basic Function VAR Estimates variance based on a sample (ignore logical values and text in the sample). VARP Calculates variance based on the entire population (ignores logical values and text in the population). STDEV Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample (ignores logical values and text in the sample). STDEVP Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments (ignore logical values and text). ©MRKS 61
63. 63. Inserting a function There are two ways to insert a function. 1. Select a cell,     Go to Formulas Ribbon, Select function categories from Function Library Insert the function Select the range inside the parentheses. 2. Select a cell  Insert a function manually after ‘=‘.  Select range inside the parentheses. Note: In case 2, you have to know the abbreviations used for functions. ©MRKS 63
64. 64. E.g., Inserting a T-Test function Returns the probability associated with a Student’s tTest. Procedure: Select the cell. Insert the ttest function after the ‘=‘ inside the (). Give the range for array1 & array2 separating by (,) Input the tail value i.e., 1 or 2. Input the type i.e., 1, 2, or 3. Lastly close the function inside the parenthesis. ©MRKS 64
66. 66. E.g., Inserting a Correlation function Return the correlation coefficient between two data sets. Procedure: Select a cell. Insert correl function after ‘=‘ inside the (). Give the range for array1 & array2 separating by (,). Lastly close the function inside the parenthesis. ©MRKS 66
68. 68. Data Analysis Tools for financial and scientific data analysis. Data Analysis Tool contains:  Anova  Anova: Single-Factor  Anova: Two-Factor with Replication  Anova: Two-Factor without Replication  Correlation  Covariance  Descriptive Statistics  Exponential Smoothing  F-Test Two-Sample for Variance ©MRKS 68
69. 69. Data Analysis  Fourier Analysis  Histogram  Moving Average  Random Number Generation  Rank and Percentile  Regression  Sampling  t-test  t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means  t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances  t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances  z-Test  VBA functions for the Analysis ToolPak ©MRKS 69
70. 70. Data Analysis In Initial, this feature isn’t available in Office. Load and Activate the Analysis ToolPak: Click the File tab, click Options, and then click the AddIns category. In the Manage box, select Excel Add-ins and then click Go. In the Add-Ins dialog box, select the Analysis ToolPak check box, and then click OK. If Analysis ToolPak is not listed in the Add-Ins available box, click Browse to locate it. If you are prompted that the Analysis ToolPak is not currently installed on your computer, click Yes to install it. ©MRKS 70
71. 71. Inserting Functions from Data Analysis ©MRKS 71
72. 72. Correlation The CORREL functions calculate the correlation coefficient between two measurement variables when measurements on each variable are observed for each of N subjects. It provides an output table, a correlation matrix, that shows the value of CORREL applied to each possible pair of measurement variables. ©MRKS 72
73. 73. Correlation Procedure: Click the File tab, click Data Analysis Tool. A dialogue box will appear tha contain names of some functions. Select Correlation from the box, then OK. Another dialogue box appear. Give Input range & Output range as well as specify the matrix inserted row-wise or column wise. ©MRKS 73
79. 79. t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances This analysis tool performs a two-sample student's t-Test. This t-Test form assumes that the two data sets came from distributions with unequal variances. It is referred to as a heteroscedastic t-Test ©MRKS 79
80. 80. t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances Procedure: Click the File tab, click Data Analysis Tool. A dialogue box will appear tha contain names of some functions. Select t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances from the box, then OK. Another dialogue box appear. Give Input range i.e., variable1 and variable2 & Output range. Then, click OK. ©MRKS 80
85. 85. Show Formulas Displays the formula in each cell instead of the resulting value. Procedure: Click Formulas Tab, Click Show Formulas. It automatically shows the formulae used in whole worksheet. Again, clicking on Show Formulas, you can hide the formulae used in cells. ©MRKS 85
88. 88. Some Applications of MS Excel Used for data analysis as it has financial and statistical function. Storing data in systematic way. Like one Excel file for each day. Making invoices, timesheet, Trackers etc. Creating charts for presentation which further can be moved to presentation software like Power Point. Used for cleaning data like removing duplicate reports, filtering out specific records etc. Also used for coding, we can create a formulated sheet through which we can get automatically results. ©MRKS 88
89. 89. My Formulated Sheet ©MRKS 89
90. 90. Before Inserting the Data ©MRKS 90