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Qc piping guide

QA/QC MATERIAL FOR FRESHERS

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Qc piping guide
Abbreviations
ASTM-American Society for Testing and Materials
ANSI - American National Standard Institute
API-American Petroleum Institute
ASME- American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
SAES – Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard.
SAMSS- Saudi Aramco Material System Specifications.
SAEP – Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure.
SATR – Saudi Aramco Test Report.
SAIC – Saudi Aramco Inspection Checklist.
DUTIES AND
RESPONSIBILITIES OF
PIPING INSPECTOR
The duty of a Piping Inspector is to ensure all
Piping activities are carried out including
Material Receiving Inspection, Fabrication,
Erection, Line Checking, Testing and Re-
Instatement in strict accordance with
SAUDI ARAMCO Specifications and
Procedures
GENERAL
INSPECTION
The QC Inspector will make sure that the
inspection is carried out as per,
• Schedule “Q”
• SAUDI ARAMCO Standard & Specifications
• Approved Procedure & ITP.
GENERAL
Piping construction works shall be carried out
according to the following drawings.
– Plot Plan
– Piping General arrangement drawings
– Standard Pipe Support
– Drawings for Typical Detail
– Piping Hook-up drawings for instrument and processes.
– Line Schedule
– Piping & Instrumentation diagram
– Isometric Drawings
– Approved spool drawings
1. MATERIAL RECEVING
INSPECTION

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Qc piping guide

  • 2. Abbreviations ASTM-American Society for Testing and Materials ANSI - American National Standard Institute API-American Petroleum Institute ASME- American Society of Mechanical Engineers. SAES – Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard. SAMSS- Saudi Aramco Material System Specifications. SAEP – Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure. SATR – Saudi Aramco Test Report. SAIC – Saudi Aramco Inspection Checklist.
  • 3. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF PIPING INSPECTOR The duty of a Piping Inspector is to ensure all Piping activities are carried out including Material Receiving Inspection, Fabrication, Erection, Line Checking, Testing and Re- Instatement in strict accordance with SAUDI ARAMCO Specifications and Procedures
  • 4. GENERAL INSPECTION The QC Inspector will make sure that the inspection is carried out as per, • Schedule “Q” • SAUDI ARAMCO Standard & Specifications • Approved Procedure & ITP.
  • 5. GENERAL Piping construction works shall be carried out according to the following drawings. – Plot Plan – Piping General arrangement drawings – Standard Pipe Support – Drawings for Typical Detail – Piping Hook-up drawings for instrument and processes. – Line Schedule – Piping & Instrumentation diagram – Isometric Drawings – Approved spool drawings
  • 7. DURING MATERIAL RECEIVING  QA/QC Inspector will verify that all material received shall meet the acceptance criteria specified in the Purchase Order for the respective materials.  All material shall conform to the relevant material standards. The Material Certificate shall verify the requirements as a minimum that all components are properly marked with the following information.  Material Specification / Identification / Heat No. / Material Grade / Item code number.  Wall thickness / Schedule / Diameter.  Color coding as per Project Specification.  Piping Inspector shall be responsible for all material issued to NSH and preparing Material Receiving Inspection Report for all Piping Materials.  If the materials are rejected during the Inspection, the material shall segregated and tagged with “ Rejected” mark and it will be reported in the Prescribed format ( Discrepancy Report) to the MC who shall notify TRG / YERP MC for corrective action or replacement.
  • 8. DURING MATERIAL RECEIVING  All pipe and fittings shall have the material specification and grade stamped, stencilled, or otherwise clearly marked with permanent marking method.  All pipes, fittings, flanges, valves and gaskets material shall be sourced from Company approved manufacturers and shall comply with the applicable Company and Industry Specifications. This should be confirmed through proper material identifications and certifications.  Material substitution shall not be made without prior approval from the engineering, PMT and Inspection agency. Material Engineering Specialist should be consulted as needed.  All the Documents and Record in connection with Materials shall be maintained for traceability.  Check and verify the Identification tags on the materials.
  • 9. Types of Fasteners • Carbon Steel –ASTM A193-B7 • Stainless Steel –ASTM A-B8 • LTCS –ASTM A320-L7 • Alloy-ASTM A193-B16 • Hex. Bolt Structure Steel - ASTM 325 • Machine Bolt (RTRP) – ASTM A307 Grade A/B, ASTM 593 2H • Stud Bolt • U-Bolts • Anchor bolts • Hilty Bolts
  • 10. STUD BOLT HEXAGONAL BOLT ANCHOR FASTENER U-Bolt HILTY ANCHOR
  • 11. Types of Valves • Plug Valve • Gate Valve • Globe Valve • Ball Valve • Check Valve • Butterfly Valve • Needle Valve • Control Valve • Pressure Safety Valve • Breather Valve
  • 12. BALL VALVE GATE VALVE GLOBE VALVE CHECK VALVE
  • 13. BUTTERFLY VALVE NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL VALVE PLUG VALVE
  • 15. Pipe Schedules • 5s • 10s • 20 • STD • 30 • 40 • 40s • 60  Class 125  Class 150  Class 300  Class 600  Class 900  Class 1500  Class 2500 Ratings  80  XS  80S  100  120  140  160  XXS
  • 16. Types of Fittings  90 Degree Elbow  45 Degree Elbow  Concentric Reducer  Eccentric Reducer  Concentric Swage  Eccentric Swage  5D bend  Cap  Stub End  Equal Tee  Reducing Tee  Coupling  Lateral  Thredolet  Weldolet  Sockolet  Nippolet  Elbolet  Union  Plug  Strainer  Pipe Nipple  Expansion Bellow
  • 17. 90 DEG ELBOW 45 DEG ELBOW CONCENTRIC REDUCER ECCENTRIC REDUCER
  • 18. CONCENTRIC SWAGE ECCENTRIC SWAGE 5D BEND BUTT WELD CAP
  • 19. STUB END EQUAL TEE REDUCING TEE FULL COUPLING
  • 21. NIPPOLET ROUND PLUG Y- STAINER PIPE NIPPLE PLAIN BOTH END
  • 22. PIPE NIPPLE THREADED ONE END PIPE NIPPLE THREADED BOTH END EXPANSION BELLOW
  • 23. Types of Flanges  Weld neck  Slip-on  Lap-Joint  Orifice  Blind  Socket Weld  Spectacle Blind / Fig.8
  • 24. WELD NECK FLANGE LAP JOINT SOCKET WELD FLANGE ORIFICE FLANGE
  • 25. BLIND FLANGE SPECTACLE BLIND / Fig. 8
  • 26. Types of Gaskets Spiral wound O-Ring Rubber Neoprene Graphite Teflon
  • 27. SPIRAL WOUND GASKET O-RING NEOPRENE GASKET TEFLON GASKET
  • 29. 2. MATERIAL HANDLING & STORAGE
  • 30. MATERIAL HANDLING & STORAGE  Maximum care shall be taken during the transportation and handling of Pipes, Pipe Fittings, Valves, Gaskets and Piping specialities.  Pipe shall not be stored directly on the ground. Pipe shall be placed on wooden planks or sleepers minimum height of 100mm.  Stacking of pipes shall be made in a manner to avoid damage to pipes or coatings.  All materials shall be handled with care installation to prevent damage.  End protectors on pipes, flanges, weld bevels, threads, and socket ends shall be firmly attached to avoid foreign particles entry.  Pipe shall not be rolled or dropped off trucks.  End bevel protectors shall remain on pipes and fittings while in storage, protectors shall not damage internal or external coating.  Flange face and threads shall be protected from rust by applying suitable rust preventives.  After completion of pre-fabrication, the spool shall be cleaned and free from weld spatters, arc strikes and foreign materials on outside and inside of pipes.  Spool piece should be numbered with compatible material for painting system at least on one place of each spool.
  • 31. MATERIAL HANDLING & STORAGE  All spools shall be clearly marked to easily identify the following as a minimum:  Area Code  Line Number or Isometric No.  Spool Number, Painting system, Heat No., Line class, Material colour code.  When a length of pipe is cut from a longer joint of pipe, all vendor markings and other identifying information shall be transferred to each length of pipe.  All fasteners (bolts, nut, studs) found been rusted shall be preserved with suitable rust preventive coating.  Stainless steel, Alloy steel Pipes, Flanges and Fittings shall be handled, transported and Stored separately.  Extreme care will be taken to prevent contamination, damage and corrosion to surface of the Pipes, Fittings and Valves.  Nylon belts will be used for Lifting purpose of the Piping materials.  Small materials, Instruments and Special items shall be stored in a container and classified in accordance to Type, Material and Size Identification shall be attach in front of each Materials.  Unidentified Materials shall be kept on “HOLD” and segregated until it is undoubtedly verified and Identified. (PMI) shall be carried out as per YERP Procedure and Specification if required.
  • 32. 1. Piping Materials  A-Small tube to instrumentation Warehouse On rack  B- Fittings Open storage on pallets (8" and above)  C- Flanges Open storage on pallets (8" and above)  D- Manually operated valves Open storage on pallets (4" and above)  E- Automatic valves Warehouse On pallets  F- Bolts, Nuts and Washers Warehouse On rack / Oil drums  G- Gaskets Warehouse On rack  H- Spring hanger Warehouse On pallet  I- Welding rod / electrode Warehouse On rack Classification of Storage
  • 35. PIPING INSPECTOR Piping Inspector is responsible to inspect all the Piping materials and dimension check prior to fabrication. He inspects the beveled ends and giving clearance for fit-up. He is also responsible for Calibration of all Instruments / machines using for Piping works.
  • 38. FABRICATION CUTTING :  Before cutting any pipes, heat number / ident. Codes shall be transferred to cut piece for identification.  Cutting of non-galvanized carbon steel pipe shall be done by means of mechanical tools.  Cutting of austenitic stainless steel materials shall be done by mechanical tools, sawing, abrasive discs or plasma arc cutting. No flame cutting shall be used for this purpose. If SS is used for oxygen service plasma cutting is not allowed.  Cutting shall be performed perpendicularly to the piping component centerline unless otherwise indicated in the drawings.  All tools used for Stainless Steel shall be marked and care will be taken to prevent that tools used for CS shall not be used for Stainless Steel.
  • 40. FIT-UP :  Check drawings are Approved (IFC) before Fit-Up and they are of correct revision.  Check Welding procedure specification and welder approval.  Bevelled end shall be grinded to bright metal with a minimum metal removal of 2mm to ensure complete removal of surface contamination.  Oil, moisture, rust, scale, sand, paint metallic coatings (e.g., zinc), or other foreign matter shall be removed from the weld surface and at least 25 mm (1 in) of adjacent base metal prior to welding, including any such coatings on temporary attachments or supports.  All tack welds shall be made by qualified welders.  All tacks or temporary welds shall be performed with the same care, materials, electrodes, minimum preheat, and procedures that are used for permanent welds.
  • 42.  Tack welds shall be of sufficient size to maintain joint alignment. The recommended tack thickness is 3.2-4.8mm and length is 12.5–25.4mm. the minimum number of tack welds are: a) Pipe diameter of 101.6mm or less: three equally spaced tacks. b) Pipe diameter above 101.6mm: minimum of four equally spaced tacks. The designated inspector should determine if more tacks are needed.  Tack welds that are to be incorporated into the final weld shall be thoroughly cleaned, prepared at each end, and inspected for cracks. any cracked tacks shall be removed before welding the joint.  Bridge tacks (located above the root area) are acceptable but such tacks must be made completely within the weld groove and shall be completely removed prior to completion of the weld.  Any temporary welded attachments or temporary tack welds shall be ground off. Attachments may be cut off no closer than 3 mm to the base metal surface, prior to the required grinding.
  • 43. FABRICATION  SPOOL FABRICATION:  Marking shall be done according to drawing requirement and the same shall be checked by concerned supervisor prior to cutting.  The cutting shall be generally done as follows: Carbon Steel pipes - By gas cutting & grinding. Alloy Steel pipes - By grinding or flammable cutting. Stainless Steel Pipes - By grinding or plasma cutting (Except Oxygen Service).  Before cutting the pipe Heat Number shall be transferred to the cut pieces by low stress dye stamping, Paint marking or Tagging.  End preparation and fit-up shall be done at shop as per the approved YERP Specification (SAES and approved WPS.  Care shall be taken to make sure that longitudinal seams on the joining pipes will not come in one line in a butt joint. Seams will be staggered at least 100mm apart and also will clear the branch connections. Care shall be taken to make sure that longitudinal seams are not resting on the steel structure and pipe support.  Pipes and Fittings for fit-up will be placed on temporary pipe bed and will make sure that supports are secured properly.  Welding of the joint will be done after getting NSH QC fit-up Inspection clearance and the same shall be offered for TRG inspection randomly as per approved ITP. All flange connected to equipment shall be tack welded only.
  • 45. FABRICATION Line No, Component Heat No., Joint No., Fit-up inspection signature, Welder No., Visual inspection signature and date of welding will be marked near to the joint with metal paint marker.  Spool No. will be marked with paint marker and aluminum tag will be tied to the spool. Fabrication completed spools will be shifted from shop to lay down area.  NDT shall be performed as required by YERP specification. After NDT clearance, spools shall be released for erection / painting with release notice.  NDT rejected spools will be identified and kept in separate location with yellow & black tag and the repair will be done immediately and NDT will be executed on repaired weld areas as required. After painting, field inspection shall be offered for TRG QC and the same shall be QC recorded in the prescribed format of approved procedure.  After painting inspection, the spool shall be released for erection.  Stainless Steel fabrication will be done in the shop with an isolated area from carbon steel and alloy steel.  No tools, tackles, equipment will be used for SS which has been used for CS. All tools and equipment dedicated to SS work shall be clearly marked "For Stainless Steel" only.  For Stainless steel materials, stainless steels tools will be used for grinding, brushing and clamping etc.  Pre heating and PWHT will be done at shop and field as per specification requirements and approved WPS.  All flanged raised faces of completed spools will be fitted with plywood blinds for protection and spool ends shall be fitted with proper caps.
  • 46. FABRICATION PIPE SUPPORT FABRICATION:  All supports, anchors, guides and other support attachments shall be fabricated in accordance with details indicated in the pipe support drawings, isometric drawings and manufacturer requirements, etc.  Fit-up & welding shall be done at shop as per the approved SAUDI ARAMCO Specification and approved WPS.  Separate storage facility shall be made to store fabricated supports in area wise and material wise,  Fabricated CS, AS and SS supports shall be placed separately with proper identification like type of support, sequence No etc. with legible marking.  After painting inspection, the support shall be released for erection.
  • 48. ERECTION  Prior to erection, the interior of all piping components shall be thoroughly cleaned of loose scale, sand blasting grits or sand and all other foreign matter by air blowing.  The piping ends shall be covered after inspection to prevent unauthorized removal of the end cover prior to making the joint to the succeeding section of piping.  Orifice plates, strainer, rupture discs, Insulation, thermo wells, pressure gauges, in line instruments, check valves, etc. shall not be installed until the pressure test is completed.  Piping shall be installed in such a manner that the resultant force on the equipment shall be kept to a minimum. Proper care shall be taken at connection joint to pump, compressor and other mechanical equipment. Flange alignment check shall be performed and witnessed.  Piping spools placed in location must be well supported with wooden planks.  Special care shall be taken to avoid corrosion and damages of machined flange face to enable proper alignment of connections.  Field weld joint shall be inspected by Welding Inspector. If the result of inspection is unacceptable, the joint shall be repaired and re-inspected in accordance with welding procedure specification. All NDE activities shall be recorded in the Line History Sheet.  Piping will be disconnected / insulated from rotating equipment until all welding is complete.  Special care shall be taken while handling Safety relief valves, control valves, etc.
  • 49. Piping Works on the Pipe Rack  Straight run pipe shall not be pulled through the pipe racks unless a roller is used or the steel/precast face is covered with carpet to avoid paint damage.  Position of lines shall be marked on the sleeper / pipe rack beams according to coordinates on Isometrics.  Spool shall be lifted on the rack / sleepers on their designated position by using chain pulley block or crane.  After lifting it shall be inserted into the pipe rack & placed in a required location, where the welding is going to be carried out.  Piping being welded shall be grounded on pipe and not to steel structure and shall not go through valves or bolted flanges.  After placing the pipes, joint fit-up shall be made from scaffolding platform which is made below the joint location between two grids.
  • 50.  If tie-in alignment with outside pipe rack piping is required, coordination of pipe installing between working teams shall be done for ensuring proper alignment.  For installation of slop lines, check levels of tie-in points (both high and low) shall be checked. The line slope shall be given between these two points. Slope is obtained by different shoe height and shim plates.  For installation of branch, header shall be installed and aligned before commencement of branch installation.  During lifting and fit-up by chain block, care shall be taken to avoid any damage on components of structure. By distributing load to strong components of structure, bending or twist of structure shall be avoided. Structure shall be protected to avoid damage to the galvanized surface.
  • 51. ERECTION  Other piping Erection Requirements The following activities shall be carried out as per approved Quality Procedure for AG Piping fabrication.  Cutting and Marking;  Buttering or Weld Build up on joints;  Weld Cleaning; Welding  Tack welds;  Back purging;  Seal Welding;  Weld encroachment and minimum distance between welds;  Orifice Flange Internal Requirements;  Welding of Special Corrosion resistance materials (High Temperature Applications and Corrosive Services)
  • 52. ERECTION  INSTALLATION OF BRANCH CONNECTION  For new construction of metallic piping branch connection selection shall be made in according with chart 1 in SAES-L- 110  Branch connection such as those for drain and vent connection on tees, elbows and reducers are not permitted. When not avoidable piping design shall be approved by company.  Branch connections with reinforcement pad size pad shall be as per applicable code.  Branch connections with reinforcement shall not cover girth welds.  Reinforcement pad material shall be of the same pipe material unless otherwise approved by Company.
  • 53. ERECTION  PIPING AROUND ROTATING EQUIPMENT (PUMP, COMPRESSOR)  Pump and compressor piping shall be installed up to a break point between the nearest pipe support and the equipment.  No welding will be performed on piping while connected to rotating equipment.  Temporary / Permanent support shall be given to the piping all the time to avoid load on equipment nozzles.  All bolting will remain loose at rotating equipment until final pipe stress.  Final tie-in weld for alignment with equipment nozzle shall be done after initial alignment of equipment.  Align equipment nozzle flange and spool flange within acceptable tolerance by checking gap by dial gauge or filler gauge in minimum 4 points in circle of raised faces. Tie-in weld shall be done during welding.  Flange gap shall be checked with filler gauge after welding.  Final bolt up to rotating equipment will be performed under the supervision.
  • 54. INSTALLATION  INSTALLATION OF FLANGE AND STUD BOLT TIGHTENING  Prior to flange connection, following points shall be verified to get the good condition of flange joint.  Flange faces shall be aligned horizontally and verified.  Flange faces shall be protected from damage like scratch, dent, rust etc.  All bolts, nuts and gaskets shall be checked and be free from damage, corrosion and correct size.  Flange faces shall be cleaned to ensure a good seal. Flange face shall be protected during all stages of construction, including during installation. End protector for flanges shall be provided.  Gasket identification for permanent and temporary application shall be as per approved procedure.  An insulating kit such as PIKOTEC gaskets with isolating bolt sleeves and washers shall be used for isolating dissimilar metal flanged joints. Insulating gasket not required for the following services.  -Hydrocarbon gas services.  -Dry gas services temperature is above the limitation of non-metallic gasket application.  -When internal liquid media is not an electrolyte.  -When the mass ration of SS compared to CS is very low where galvanic corrosion in CS is insignificant.  Apply lubricants to stud threads over length and nut engagement and to face of nut which contacts flange. Ensure that the nuts run freely down the thread of the stud. (Refer table SAES-351-01)  Install all studs and nuts hand tight; ensure that studs pass freely through the flange holes. Position the nut on one end of the stud such that only the crown of the stud projects beyond the face of the nut. The excess stud length should project beyond the nut on the other side.  Number each stud according to its position in the flange as shown in figure.
  • 56. INSTALLATION  For inserting gaskets enough gap (1/2” of gap is recommended) should be available between flange faces to avoid any damage to seals during inserting the gaskets, if due to any reasons, seals are damaged, change the seal before installing gaskets.  Matting flange faces and the gaskets should be dry free from grease, oil or water.  Tighten studs per the Stud Bolt Tightening Sequence, for 4 to 32 bolts use Figure SAES-351-01 and for 36 to 68 bolts see Figure SAES-351-02 for bolts numbering and then follow the tightening sequence of Table SAES-351-04. An appropriate tool should be used such as a Torque wrench or equivalent.  Tighten the stud bolts in stages to obtain the final required torque from the appropriate torque Table-SAES-351-02. The first stage should not be more the 30% of the final torque. The final torque shall be within ±5% of the required torque value.  The sequence of bolt tightening shall be as follows using the cross technique and shall be as per approved procedure.  Align flanges and gasket. Forced tightening is not allowed to overcome non acceptable alignment tolerances. Clamp securely in place.  Apply the torque evenly to each stud following the stud bolt tightening sequence.
  • 57. INSTALLATION FLANGE FIT-UPAND TOLERANCES  The maximum tolerance for axial dimensions, face-to-face, center-to-face and location of attachments shall be ± 3mm.  Lateral transition of branches and connections from the centreline of the run shall not exceed ± 1.5 mm.  Flange bolt holes shall be oriented as follows, unless otherwise indicated on the construction drawings: • Flange face vertical – bolt holes to straddle vertical centrelines. • Flange face horizontal – bolt holes to straddle horizontal centrelines. • Rotation of flanges, measured as the offset between elevations of bolt holes on opposite sides of a flange centreline, shall not exceed ± 2.4 mm. • The tilt of a flange measured at the periphery across any diameter shall not exceed 1.6 mm from the square position.  For piping over 3-inch NPS and connected to machinery/equipment, flange alignment shall be within the following limits unless piping analysis per SAES-L-120 shows that loads and moments are within the manufacture’s limits for the machinery/equipment nozzle: • Vertical bolt hole offset: ± 2.4 mm • Horizontal bolt hole offset: ± 2.4 mm
  • 58. INSTALLATION • Rotational offset: ± 2.4 mm • Flange face tilt across diameter : 0.025mm per 25mm (0.001 inch per inch) of flange outside diameter up to a maximum of 0.672 mm (0.030 inch), and 0.254mm (0.010 inch) for all flanges with an outside diameter less than 10 inches. • Flange face separation, gasket thickness : ± 1.6 mm • Combination of vertical, horizontal and rotational offset: ± 3.2 mm  In the case where a spectacle plate is installed between two flanges, these tolerances can be increased by 30% except for tolerances for flanges face tilt across diameter and flange face separation.  When a piping flange a aligned to a machinery flange, the machinery alignment should be within the equipment vender specified tolerances, after the stud bolts of the connecting flanges are removed following the completion of piping assembly.
  • 59. INSTALLATION INSTALLATION OF VALVES  Value shall be installed as shown on the Isometric drawing. The value shall be installed in accordance with value manual.  Prior to installation of values, tag number and flow direction will be verify with Isometric drawing / P&ID and installed accordingly.  Values will be correctly handled to prevent damage of value body, handle and flange surface.  Value will be installed in the position as indicated on the isometric drawing.  Welding between pipe and value will be performed with value open as per manufacture’s instruction.  All the internals of Bud Weld / Socket Weld values will be checked before welding and removed if welding will damage internals (Follow value manufacture’s recommendations for welding & PWHT)  Values shall be checked for correct operation before installed and spindle threads will be preserved to assure good value operation. (No greasing of spindles used in oxygen service).  Check value in vertical position shall be avoided. In case not avoidable the type of check value shall be of a kind that it shall not stuck in open position subject to prior approval of company.  New values designated for isolation purpose(On-Off) shall be field tested as per approved procedure.  The testing includes a high pressure hydrostatic shell test and a high pressure hydrostatic closure test. Values shall be separated in to inspection lots based on the criteria mentioned SAES-L-150.
  • 60. INSTALLATION  INSTALLATION OF PIPING SPECIALITIES AND INSTRUMENTS  All supports, anchors, guides and other support attachments shall be installed in accordance with details indicated in the pipe support drawing, isometric drawings and manufacturer requirements, etc.  Separate storage facility shall be made to store fabricated supports in area wise and material wise.  Fabricated CS, AS, and SS supports shall be placed separately with proper identification like type of support, sequence No etc. With legible marking.  Attachments, such as supports Bracing, lugs and T-bars shall be installed in the field.  Installation of supports shall be performed in accordance with construction specification for piping construction works.  If pipe thickness is very less (below 5 mm), welding activities to be controlled specially for distortion. The use of U Clamp between pipe & support to be maximized as allowed by Engineering and project specification.  A 6mm weep hole shall b drilled for all dummy supports. The weep hole shall be located near the base plate for all vertical dummy supports and near the run pipe at 6 o’clock for all horizontal supports.  The spring support shall be in full engagement with pipe. All springs shall be in compression.  Rod hangers shall be avoided wherever possible. Rod hangers shall not be used for lines 12” NPS and larger in liquid or multi phase flow. All hangers shall be provided with means for vertical adjustments.
  • 62.  Check the Pipe rooting as per latest Isometric revision drawing P&ID or Plat Plan.  Check the Pipe Materials and Fittings are as per Isometric Drawings and Specification.  Check the Installed Gasket size , Class, Rating and Color Coding as per Installation of approved Quality Procedure.  Check all joints (flange, threaded, welded or mechanical seals) are left exposed for visual leak detection during the hydrotest.  Check all permanent flange joints were inspected, gasket mat'l verified & properly torqued.  Check the Drains shall be provided at all low points of the piping system.  Check the vents and drain valves, both temporary and permanent, conforms with the piping class or rating.  Check the Arc strikes, gouges, and other indications of careless workmanship (such as surface porosity, uneven weld profiles, and undercut) shall be removed by grinding and inspected by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method.  Check the Temporary welded attachments to the pipe were ground off and inspected by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method.  Check all threaded joints and faying surfaces shall be seal welded by a continuous fillet weld (required weep holes shall be left unwelded).  Check all in line valves that are not used as test isolation valves are in open position.
  • 63.  Check During filling, permanent vent & drain valves are in open position. Plugging is only AFTER WATER FILL & EFFICIENT AIR VENTING.  Disc of check valve is removed, unless check valve has by-pass.  Check the Spare taps of orifice flanges are plugged and seal welded.  Check the Process instruments and equipment that may be damaged during Hydrotest shall be removed.  Check the Paddle or spectacle blinds shall be used to isolate test sections. Safety of test "implements" has been checked.  Check All pressure containing components of pipeline, except instruments that may be damaged by the test pressure, were physically verified to be included in test using P&ID, ISOs (Pressure Test Diagram).  Check the Flange to Flange alignment or Flange alignment to equipment are acceptable.  Check the Bolt Specification, Materials, Length, Size and Type used as per Isometric Drawing.  Check the correct stud and extends through nut and two to three thread minimum outside and properly lubricated.  Check the flow direction of Check Valve / Control valve / Orifice Plate / Stream Trap and Strainer are as per Isometric Drawing or P&ID.  Check the Documents of Internal Root Flushing of Orifice Flanges and the Orientation.  Check the Tapping or Seal welded .  Check the Vent and Drain at Correct Location as per Isometric Drawing.  Check the Piping straightness, Plumbness, Slope and Level as per Isometric Drawing.  Check the all Shoe Supports and Trunnion Supports are fully Welded.
  • 65.  Test Package Documents  Subcontractor shall provide the marked up P&ID showing the test limit with corresponding list of lines included in the test. Subcontractor shall prepare test packages with respect to the marked up P&ID and list of lines and it shall be submitted to Contractor/Company for approval of the test packages in accordance with approved ITP.  Subcontractor shall indicate on test packages fill point, venting point, pressure gauge location, temporary spools and blinds/spectacle plates and Thrust Block location, if applicable.  The test package shall be formed containing, but not limited to the following documents. a) Table of contents b) Safety Instruction sheet for critical services c) Flow Chart of Test Packages d) Pre-Test Punch List Test Procedure & Pressure Test Diagram Related P&ID and Isometric Drawings Line List Pre·Test PunchList Checklist I Form
  • 66. e) QA/QC Documentation of the system to be tested.  Weld Inspection Summary Sheet  Weld Map  NDE Record/s  As-Built drawings  Isolation valve Test Certificates  Flange Joint Inspection Report  Internal Cleanliness I Flushing Report f) Pressure Testing  Verification of Temporary gaskets  Verification of Test blind rating  Checklist for Verification of system readiness for Testing  Calibration certificates for Pressure gauge & PSV  Calibration certificates for Pressure & Temperature recorders  Test manifold Certificate  Water Analysis (test medium)  Pressure Test Report Form  System Lay-Up Certificate  Re-Instatement or Final Assembly Inspection (Final Punch List)
  • 67. TEST PREPARATION Equipment Excluded from Pressure Test:  Following components shall be removed, replaced with temporary piece or isolated from pipe work, according to the test package.  Analyzers.  Flow instruments  Pressure regulators and switches  All restrictions to flow such as orifice plates  Sight glasses & Venturies  Control valves  Pressure gauge (Permanent)  In-Line instruments (If piping have been flushed prior to testing, on/off valve may be remained in line, but valve shall be kept open during test and flushing.)  Thermo wells, strainers, filter elements,  Rotating machinery, such as pumps, turbines and compressors.  Pressure relieving devices, such as rupture disks and pressure relief valves.  Locally mounted indicating pressure gauges, where the test pressure will exceed their scale range.  Equipment that cannot be drained.
  • 68.  All internal parts and in-line Items removed for the duration of pressure testing shall be labeled and the component to which they belong or the position in the line from which they were removed shall also be labeled to ensure correct replacement of components following the testing.  ISOLATION OF TEST SECTIONS  Paddle blinds or spectacle blinds shall be used to isolate the test sections. They shall be the same class rating of the system or may be fabricated based on appropriate calculations.  When a block valve is used for isolating test sections, the differential pressure across the valve seat shall not exceed the seat test pressure during pressure testing and shall not exceed the rated seat pressure during tightness test. Both sides of this valve shall be protected by relief valves during the test.  Flanged joints that are broken for pressure test purposes shall have a new gasket installed after pressure testing is completed prior to commissioning.  VENTS AND DRAINS  Vents shall be provided at all high points in the tested system as needed.  Excluding scrapable and buried pipelines. Drains shall be provided at all low points in the system and immediately above check valves in vertical lines.
  • 69. TEST MEDIUM  All test water shall be analyzed and the certificates shall be available in the test package.  Test the hydrostatic test water entering the system and verify the maximum allowable chloride concentration is 50 ppm.  The test medium used for pneumatic test shall be air or inert gas, as indicated in the isometric diagram. CLEANING AND FLUSHING  Spools are visually inspected for internal cleanliness (no presence of loose particles/flakes or debris) prior to welding/bolting to the preceding and/or succeeding spools.  During assembly and erection Construction shall ensure that no foreign materials (such as welding consumables, lumbers, gloves, etc.) are left inside the piping system.  After assembly and installation, the piping shall be cleaned inside to remove all loose material.  The interior of the piping for the following specific services shall be cleaned after hydrostatic pressure testing to remove oil, grease, preservatives and rust.  Lines to be chemically cleaned shall be identified on the P&ID's and Line Index. The systems to be cleaned shall have high and low point vents and drains installed.
  • 70. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS:  All equipment, tools and instruments necessary to conduct satisfactory testing of piping system will be provided.  Test equipment includes but not limited to the following.  Mechanized pump unit(s) for hydro testing with suitable test capacity & rating.  Manually operated pump(s) for low pressure/low volume test  Air Compressor & Nitrogen cylinders for pneumatic testing (if required)  Suitably rated high-pressure test hoses or temporary test piping.  Test manifolds with permanent calibration tag and certificate.  Blinds, Plugs (Round head plugs)  Water Source  Calibrated pressure gauges & Pressure relief valves with calibration sticker & Certificate  Calibrated Thermometers with calibration sticker & Certificate  Air dryer  Calibrated Pressure & Temperature Recorders (if required)  Warning sign barriers.
  • 71. HYDROTEST  GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.  All newly constructed plant piping, shall be subjected to a hydrostatic strength test in accordance with the requirements of SAES-L-150 and ASME B31.3 or ASME B31.1as applicable.  New piping systems shall be cleaned in accordance with SAES-L-350.  Soft seated valves and control valves shall not be installed until alter the lines have been thoroughly flushed.  Pressure gauges and pressure recorders shall be calibrated before the tests.  The calibration interval shall not exceed one (1) month. Calibration certificates shall be made available to Inspection personnel prior to commencement of the pressure test. Stickers shall be applied indicating the latest calibration date.  All gauges shall have a range such that the test pressure is within 30 to 80% of the full range.  A minimum of two pressure gauges are required for the test system. One pressure gauge shall be on the test manifold and the other(s) on the test system. Their accuracy shall be within 5% of one another.  When large systems are tested, Inspection personnel will determine the need for additional gauges.  Recording gauges shall be used where it is necessary to keep a permanent record, e.g., when the test duration exceeds four hours, or otherwise as required by this standard.
  • 72. HYDROTEST REQUIREMENTS FOR TEST MANIFOLDS  Test manifold for new construction shall be revalidated for each new project and every 60 months for operating facilities. (Refer SAES-A-004, 5.5.4.3)  Test manifold shall have 100% NDE for all Joints.  An isolation valve shall be provided between the pressure testing manifold and the system being tested. The isolation valve shall be rated for the manifold test pressure when in the closed position.  Before employing the pressure testing manifold in the actual system pressure test, it shall be separately pressure tested to at least 1.2 times the system test pressure but not less than the discharge pressure of the pump used for the pressure testing.  Test fluid shall be filled by using the manifold, temporary piping / Hose at lowest point of the system and vented of the highest point of the system to minimize the entrapped air as far as possible. All vent valves shall be opened during filling till system is free from air, verified by water spouting from the vent.  The pressure shall be built-up gradually. To ensure the applied pressure inside the test package never exceeds the desired pressure, a calibrated safety relief valve shall be provided in the manifold.  In the event of leakage, the manifold will be depressurized. Repair will be executed and the test will be repeated until no leakage is observed.  Each hydrotest manifold shall be uniquely identified by means of either die stamping or stenciling.
  • 73. HYDROTEST PROTECTION FROM OVER PRESSURE  All systems (piping and equipment) while being pressure tested shall be protected from being over-pressured by the following:  Relief valve(s) of adequate capacity set to relieve at 5% above the test pressure shall be installed unless the test pressure is less than 85% SMYS (specified minimum yield strength) at which time it can be set at 10% above the test pressure. Sizing of these relief valves used for testing shall follow the requirements of API RP 520, Part 1. The relief valve(s) shall be tested, dated, and tagged within one week prior to the pressure test for new construction projects, and within one month maintenance operations.  In addition to the pressure relieving device, a bleed valve shall be provided to protect the piping and equipment from overpressure. The bleed valve shall be readily  Accessible in case immediate depressurization is required.  Piping such as drains, vents and piping downstream of pressure relieving devices that discharge directly to the atmosphere with a maximum internal pressure not exceeding, 69 kPa (10 psig) can be excluded from in-situ pressure testing.  All Punch-List "A" Items shall be cleared prior to Pressure Test.  Safe access any required temporary supports will be provided for inspection of all joints and appurtenances prior to walk down and maintained until the satisfactory completion of the test.
  • 74. HYDROTEST HYDROSTATIC TEST Filling the Water Filling and pressurizing shall be done on the upstream side of check valves in the system. The test fluid shall be injected at the lowest point in the system to minimize entrapped air. All vents shall be opened during filling and closed when entrapped air has been vented. When filling at the lowest point is not practical, the Company inspector shall be consulted. Filling should be done as explained by the. Flow Diagram for filling and dewatering for Hydrotest.
  • 75. APPLICATION OF PRESSURE AND INSPECTION  At 50% of strength test pressure, pressurization shall be stopped to check for leak.  If any leakage is found the system shall be depressurized and then dewatered. For flange bolted joints, stoppage of any dripping can be achieved by just depressurizing the piping system, without dewatering, and re-torquing the stud bolts to maximum allowed torque value.  After satisfactory preliminary check for leaks at 50% of test pressure, the pressure shall be increased in steps not greater than one-fifth of the strength test pressure with at least 10 minutes hold at each step to permit inspection for leakage.  If no leaks are discovered during these stages, pressurization shall be continued up to the required test pressure. After the test pressure is reached and before commencement of Inspection of the system, the isolation valve between the temporary test manifold/piping and the piping/equipment under pressure test shall be closed and the test pump disconnected.  For lines above-ground, the test pressure shall be maintained for a sufficient time, but shall not be less than 30 minutes, to determine that there are no leaks.
  • 76. PNEUMATIC TEST Pressurization for Pneumatic Strength Test.  Metal temperature shall be at least 30ºF above minimum design metal temperature (ASME SEC VIII, Div1, UG-100 c).  The pressure in the piping system shall be gradually increased until a gauge pressure which is the lesser of one-half the test pressure or 175 kPa (25 psig) is attained, at which time a preliminary leak test shall be performed to detect and eliminate gross leaks and/or weakness in the joints under examination.  When leakage is observed, the position of the leak(s) shall be marked. The system will be depressurized gradually and safety released.  Thereafter, the pressure shall be gradually increased in steps no greater than 1/10 of the strength test pressure, until the required final test pressure is reached. Each step of pressure rise shall be held for at least 10 minutes to equalize piping strains.  The strength test pressure is specified by the Hydrostatic Test Diagram and Circuit List and in accordance with Para. 345.5, of ASME B31.3.  Strength test pressure holding time shall not be less than 30 minutes as per SAES- L-150, Para. 7.2.  Throughout the testing period, the pressure shall be closely monitored to ensure that over pressurizing due to the thermal expansion does not occur.
  • 78. EMPTYING THE SYSTEM  Depressurization is done slowly and safety after completion of test.  After completion of the hydrostatic test, vents and drains shall be opened to remove all the water in the Item. Air may be used to force evacuation. No heat shall be applied for drying.  Dewatering shall be done as explained in marked up P&ID for filling and Dewatering of Hydrotest water. Reinstatement  All items removed for the test shall be reinstalled. Items, such as instrument air tubing, check valve discs which were disconnected before testing shall be re- connected. The reinstallation of piping component internals shall be carefully controlled to ensure that they are reinstalled in the correct place.  Inspect the line/system to ensure that all fittings and appurtenances are returned to their required position as detailed in the P&ID's.  Flanged joints opened for those purposes shall be re-made with new gaskets.  Reinstatement activities shall be performed as per ITP.  All temporary items installed for testing purpose (e.g. manifold, valves, blinds, spacers, supports) shall be removed.  Vent and drain used only for the pressure test shall be plugged & seal welded.  Isolation valves closed for the test purposes and that are required to be in the open position for process reasons shall be opened. If the valve cavity has a drain, the cavity shall be drained. All valves shall be lubricated after the test.
  • 79.  All permanent flange joints were inspected, gasket mat'l verified & properly torqued.  Vents and drain valves, both temporary and permanent, conforms with the piping class or rating.  Supports are installed. Additional temporary support may be installed as required.  Expansion joints and spring hangers or spring supports are provided with temporary restraints.  Arc strikes, gouges, and other indications of careless workmanship (such as surface porosity, uneven weld profiles, and undercut) shall be removed by grinding and inspected by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method.  All threaded joints and faying surfaces shall be seal welded by a continuous fillet weld (required weep holes shall be left unwelded).  Isolation valves are verified to have been body and seat tested prior to installation through verification of field test certificates. *******************************