Centre
Defence
Enterprise
for
Detection of airborne chemical hazards
CDE Innovation Network 22 July 2014
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
Contents
• Introduction
• Chemical hazards
• Military context
• In-service equipment
• Requirements for CDE competition
© ...
Gas! Gas! Quick, boys - An ecstasy of fumbling,
Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time;
But someone still was yelling out...
Chemical hazards
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
• Chemical warfare agents (CWA)
• Incapacitants and riot control...
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
Class Example Symptoms
CWA - Nerve
(organophosphate)
Sarin (GB)
VX
Lethal: miosis...
Chemical structures
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
P
R
XO
O
Organophosphate
ester
Nerve
Cl
C
Cl
O
Phosgene
Cl Cl...
Physical properties
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
Chemical Boiling Point (⁰C) Volatility (25⁰C)
(mg per m3)
Sta...
Physical properties
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
Deposited hazard
Vapour Aerosol
Airborne hazard
Liquid/solid
...
The military context
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
Everything we do is to support
that young soldier on point
Threat
• National Security Strategy
– Tier 1 – terrorist organisations
– Tier 2 – nation states
• Not Cold War but targete...
Who is today’s user?
• Most personnel are Chemical Biological
Radiological Nuclear (CBRN) generalists
– Royal Navy
– Briti...
What does the user want from
detectors?
• Survive so timely warning
• Operate so accurate information to inform the
comman...
Military factors
• Intuitive and easy to handle in IPE
• Easily understood alarms
• Clear info outputs for CBRN reports
• ...
In-service equipment
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
Detection concepts
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
Standoff
airborne/deposited
Vapour/
aerosol
Point airborne
Liq...
In-service capability
• Different sensors for different roles
– size – person worn, man portable, platform mounted
– selec...
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
Physical properties used for detection
• Mobility of ion in an electric field
– p...
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
Physical properties used for detection
• Mobility of ion in an electric field
• M...
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
Physical properties used for detection
• Mobility of ion in an electric field
• M...
Physical properties used for detection
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
• Spectral emission
– property used in fla...
Physical properties used for detection
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
• Spectral emission
• Chemical reaction
– ...
Physical properties used for detection
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
• Spectral emission
• Chemical reaction
• ...
Physical properties used for detection
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
• Spectral emission
• Chemical reaction
• ...
• Any others?
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
Physical properties used for detection
Requirements for this CDE
competition
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
• Innovative approaches to detect toxic chemicals in
vapour and/or aerosol form
© Crown copyright 2013 Dstl
23 July 2014
T...
How sensitive?
• Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL)*
• Used for a rare, typically accidental, exposure
– based on acut...
How sensitive?
• Must detect AEGL-3 (10 minutes): could
experience life-threatening health effects or
death (example – HCN...
How selective?
• Is a toxic material present or not?
• What class of agent?
• What is its molecular composition, ie can it...
Aerosol requirements
• Aim for size range of 0.1 to 10 µm diameter
• Discriminate chemical hazards from background
– gener...
Proposals on core technologies
• Proof-of-concept research proposals
invited
– potential for improving detection and
ident...
Future applications
• Proposal must address feasibility to meet these
aspirations in the future:
– fast response
– small s...
Phase-1 funding
• Projects will be 4 to 6 months in duration
• £500,000 total funding available
• Likely to fund higher nu...
Phase-2 exploitation routes
• Potential for successful projects to receive follow-on
funding (up to a total of £500,000) f...
Project assessments
• Proposals will be evaluated by a team of assessors
covering a range of specialisms
– US Department o...
What next?
• 29 July – webinar
• 11 September – competition closes (5pm)
– submit proposals through CDE portal
• 15 Octobe...
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22 July 2014: detection of airborne chemical hazards CDE themed competition

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22 July 2014: detection of airborne chemical hazards CDE themed competition

  1. 1. Centre Defence Enterprise for
  2. 2. Detection of airborne chemical hazards CDE Innovation Network 22 July 2014 © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  3. 3. Contents • Introduction • Chemical hazards • Military context • In-service equipment • Requirements for CDE competition © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  4. 4. Gas! Gas! Quick, boys - An ecstasy of fumbling, Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time; But someone still was yelling out and stumbling And flound'ring like a man in fire or lime... Dim, through the mist panes and thick green light, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning. Wilfred Owen (1893 – 1918) © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 WW I German soldiers advancing through a gas cloud Introduction
  5. 5. Chemical hazards © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 • Chemical warfare agents (CWA) • Incapacitants and riot control agents • Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) • Gross physiological effect on man – lethal, casualty producing, incapacitating • Specific physiological effect – symptoms (blisters, breathing, hallucination) • Physiochemical properties – persistent, non-persistent
  6. 6. © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 Class Example Symptoms CWA - Nerve (organophosphate) Sarin (GB) VX Lethal: miosis, salivation, convulsions, asphyxiation CWA - Choking Chlorine, phosgene Lethal: lung damage, irritation to eyes and respiratory tract CWA - Blood Hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen chloride Lethal: respiratory, circulatory and heart failure CWA - Blister agent Sulphur mustard, lewisite Damaging: skin blisters, eye damage, damage to respiratory tract Incapacitants Fentanyl, BZ Dose dependent: disorientation, hallucination, unconsciousness, death Riot control CS Temporary effect: sensory irritation, disabling physical effects Toxic industrial chemicals Chlorine, ammonia Lethal: coughing, irritation to eyes, nose and respiratory tract
  7. 7. Chemical structures © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 P R XO O Organophosphate ester Nerve Cl C Cl O Phosgene Cl Cl Chlorine Choking Cyanogen chloride N C Cl N C H Hydrogen cyanide Blood Cl S Cl Sulphur mustard Cl As Cl Cl Lewisite Blister
  8. 8. Physical properties © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 Chemical Boiling Point (⁰C) Volatility (25⁰C) (mg per m3) State (25⁰C) Phosgene 8 >1,000,000 Gas, non-persistent Water 100 ~150,000 Liquid GB (sarin) 158 22,000 Liquid Sulphur mustard 217 910 Liquid, intermediate Nitrogen mustard 257 110 Liquid VX ~300 9 Liquid, persistent Fentanyl n/a n/a Solids
  9. 9. Physical properties © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 Deposited hazard Vapour Aerosol Airborne hazard Liquid/solid Dissemination Meteorological conditions Physical properties Respiratory, eyes Skin Respiratory, eyes, skin
  10. 10. The military context © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 Everything we do is to support that young soldier on point
  11. 11. Threat • National Security Strategy – Tier 1 – terrorist organisations – Tier 2 – nation states • Not Cold War but targeted effects – disrupt tempo and morale – persistent agents deny ground and equipment © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  12. 12. Who is today’s user? • Most personnel are Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear (CBRN) generalists – Royal Navy – British Army – Royal Air Force • CBRN specialists – Recce and exploitation teams © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  13. 13. What does the user want from detectors? • Survive so timely warning • Operate so accurate information to inform the commander about what to do next: – what is it? • generalist = persistency, agent classification • specialist = identification, classification, quantification – where is it? • recce and survey - aim is to avoid • hazard management/verify successful decontamination © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  14. 14. Military factors • Intuitive and easy to handle in IPE • Easily understood alarms • Clear info outputs for CBRN reports • Interconnected • Low false-alarm rate • Size and weight • Low logistic and training burden • High availability © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 Is it easy to use by a tired soldier, wearing IPE, in the middle of nowhere, at 3am?
  15. 15. In-service equipment © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  16. 16. Detection concepts © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 Standoff airborne/deposited Vapour/ aerosol Point airborne Liquid/solid Sample
  17. 17. In-service capability • Different sensors for different roles – size – person worn, man portable, platform mounted – selectivity – classification vs identification © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  18. 18. © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 Physical properties used for detection • Mobility of ion in an electric field – property used in ion mobility spectrometry – difference in time taken for ions to differentially migrate down an electric field gradient to a collector electric field Faraday plate drift gas in drift gas out sample in ionisation source Drift A B Abundance Time A B + + + + + + + + + + + ++ + + + + + + +
  19. 19. © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 Physical properties used for detection • Mobility of ion in an electric field • Mass to charge of ion – property used by mass spectrometry m/z
  20. 20. © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 Physical properties used for detection • Mobility of ion in an electric field • Mass to charge of ion – property used by mass spectrometry • Dye solvation – property used in detector paper
  21. 21. Physical properties used for detection © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 • Spectral emission – property used in flame photometric devices, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy E1 E2 hυ
  22. 22. Physical properties used for detection © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 • Spectral emission • Chemical reaction – colorimetric response Residual vapour detector
  23. 23. Physical properties used for detection © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 • Spectral emission • Chemical reaction • Molecular recognition
  24. 24. Physical properties used for detection © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 • Spectral emission • Chemical reaction • Molecular recognition • Optical spectroscopy – Infrared (passive or active), Raman 4000cm-1 3000cm-1 2000cm-1 1000cm-1 X-H attached to hetroatoms C-H C≡C C ≡N Single bonds Double bonds
  25. 25. • Any others? © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 Physical properties used for detection
  26. 26. Requirements for this CDE competition © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  27. 27. • Innovative approaches to detect toxic chemicals in vapour and/or aerosol form © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 Technical requirement Vapour Aerosol ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? High sensitivity High selectivity High sensitivity Range of materials
  28. 28. How sensitive? • Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL)* • Used for a rare, typically accidental, exposure – based on acute exposure, not appropriate for frequent exposure • Threshold exposure limits for a given exposure time • Categorised by degree of severity of toxic effects © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014 * http://www.epa.gov/oppt/aegl/index.htm
  29. 29. How sensitive? • Must detect AEGL-3 (10 minutes): could experience life-threatening health effects or death (example – HCN 27 ppm) • Preferably detect AEGL-1 (10 minutes): could cause notable discomfort, effects not disabling, are transient and reversible on cessation of exposure (example – HCN 2.5 ppm) © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  30. 30. How selective? • Is a toxic material present or not? • What class of agent? • What is its molecular composition, ie can it be identified? • How many materials are likely to produce a false alarm? © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  31. 31. Aerosol requirements • Aim for size range of 0.1 to 10 µm diameter • Discriminate chemical hazards from background – generic information such as size and shape alone is insufficient – need classification/identification © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  32. 32. Proposals on core technologies • Proof-of-concept research proposals invited – potential for improving detection and identification of airborne chemical hazards (point or standoff) – novel ideas that could become the core technologies in future sensors • Low technology readiness level (TRL 2-3) © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  33. 33. Future applications • Proposal must address feasibility to meet these aspirations in the future: – fast response – small size – low weight – low consumable burden – wide dynamic range – low false alarm rates © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  34. 34. Phase-1 funding • Projects will be 4 to 6 months in duration • £500,000 total funding available • Likely to fund higher number of lower-value proposals £30,000 to £80,000 • Include payment schedule in proposal – must include at least 1 interim or the final payment before end of March 2015 © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  35. 35. Phase-2 exploitation routes • Potential for successful projects to receive follow-on funding (up to a total of £500,000) from MOD – develop the concept to a higher TRL • Stakeholder day will be held – each project team will be invited to present outcomes and review exploitation routes © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  36. 36. Project assessments • Proposals will be evaluated by a team of assessors covering a range of specialisms – US Department of Defence secondee (under non-disclosure agreement) – unless a request is made in the proposal for the review to be carried out only by UK MOD (indicate in innovation description) • Project must provide a practical demonstration of the concept/technique © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014
  37. 37. What next? • 29 July – webinar • 11 September – competition closes (5pm) – submit proposals through CDE portal • 15 October – decision conference – contracting complete a few weeks later • CDE portal questions: cde@dstl.gov.uk • Technical questions: cbrcde@dstl.gov.uk © Crown copyright 2013 Dstl 23 July 2014

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