Computer harware

999 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
999
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
57
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Computer harware

  1. 1. Computer Hardware
  2. 3. Overview of Computer Systems <ul><li>Computer – device that performs stored instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Program – instructions for computers to perform tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer system – consist of computers and other peripheral devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware – physical components of a computer system </li></ul><ul><li>Software - programs </li></ul>
  3. 4. Basic Model of Computer System CPU RAM ROM INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES STORAGE DEVICES ALU Control Unit
  4. 5. Performance variables of IT <ul><li>Functional capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Maintainability </li></ul>
  5. 6. Measuring functional capabilities <ul><li>Amounts of data </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of data transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Internal clock speed & transmission frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of executing instructions </li></ul>
  6. 7. Machine representation of data <ul><li>On = 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Off = 0 </li></ul>
  7. 8. Number systems <ul><li>Decimal system </li></ul><ul><li>Binary system </li></ul><ul><li>Hexadecimal system </li></ul><ul><li>Octal system </li></ul>
  8. 9. Coding data for computer processing <ul><li>Binary representation of numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. 7 = 111 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binary representation of text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Letter “A” is 01000001 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Measuring amounts of data <ul><li>Bit - a binary digit </li></ul><ul><li>Byte = 8 bits </li></ul><ul><li>Kilobyte = 1024 bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Megabyte = 1024 Kilobytes </li></ul><ul><li>Gigabyte = 1024 Megabytes </li></ul><ul><li>Terabyte = 1024 Gigabytes </li></ul>
  10. 11. Measuring time <ul><li>Millisecond = 10 -3 second </li></ul><ul><li>Microsecond = 10 -6 second </li></ul><ul><li>Nanosecond = 10 -9 second </li></ul><ul><li>Picosecond = 10 -12 second </li></ul>
  11. 12. Measuring rate of data transfer <ul><li>Bps – Bit/sec </li></ul><ul><li>Kbps – Kilobit/sec </li></ul><ul><li>Mbps – Megabit/sec </li></ul><ul><li>Gbps – Gigabit/sec </li></ul>
  12. 13. Measuring clock speed <ul><li>Hz – Hertz </li></ul><ul><li>KHz – Kilohertz </li></ul><ul><li>MHz – Megahertz </li></ul><ul><li>GHz - Gigahertz </li></ul>
  13. 14. Measuring speed of executing instructions <ul><li>MIPS – Millions of instructions per second </li></ul><ul><li>FLOPS – Floating point operations per second </li></ul>
  14. 15. Ease of use <ul><li>Related to size, weight, portability, user interface, ergonomics </li></ul>
  15. 16. Compatibility <ul><li>Conformance to standards </li></ul><ul><li>Usability in combination or as substitute to other similar technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Interchangeability </li></ul>
  16. 17. Maintainability <ul><li>Keeping the technology running </li></ul><ul><li>Related to modularity </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of upgrading </li></ul>
  17. 18. Types of Computers <ul><li>Mainframe </li></ul><ul><li>Midrange computer </li></ul><ul><li>Personal computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptop/Notebook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supercomputer </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded computer </li></ul>
  18. 19. Computer System Architecture <ul><li>Centralized computing </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed computing </li></ul><ul><li>Personal computing </li></ul><ul><li>Network computing </li></ul><ul><li>Client-Server computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick client vs. Thin client </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Centralized computing
  20. 21. Distributed computing
  21. 22. Personal computing
  22. 23. Network computing
  23. 24. Approaches for increasing computer performance <ul><li>Faster and more powerful processors </li></ul><ul><li>Improved instruction set </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized processors </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel processing </li></ul>
  24. 25. Input Devices <ul><li>Keyboards and pointing devices </li></ul><ul><li>OCR / MICR </li></ul><ul><li>Voice recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Digital camera </li></ul>
  25. 26. Storage Devices <ul><li>Paper and micrographics </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic tapes and disks </li></ul><ul><li>Optical disks </li></ul><ul><li>Flash memory </li></ul>
  26. 27. Output Devices <ul><li>Screen outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Paper outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Audio outputs </li></ul>

×