Product PricePromotionand Placeare interconnected. Action in one affects decisions in another. The order of dealing with each can vary, i.e. place can occur before promotion, etc. But first, the target population must be defined and then the strategies are directed toward this target population (market).Give the example of Cake ….! Think of a CakeAll cakes need 4 things – flour, egg, sugar, milkHowever, you can play with the flavour of your cake by changing the ingredients slightlyExample: Sweeter cake – addmore sugar
the actually offering by the company to its targeted customers which also includes value added stuff. Product may be tangible (goods) or intangible (services).Market research (the systematic gathering, recording, analyzing, and presentation of information related to marketing goods and services based on needs assessment)
The 1st “p” of the marketing mix is product. This refers to any and all decisions make about what they are going to make or sell.This part of the marketing mix relates to the function of product/service management. Businesses make decisions about the design of the product, the name of the product, the level of quality of the product, how the product will be packaged and labeled – anything having to do with the physical product itself.Quality example : some people really wants quality so they buy farrari and some people will not bother about quality and buy suzuki …
In marketing, positioning is the process by which marketers try to create an image or identity in the minds of their target market for its product, brand, or organization.Re-positioning involves changing the identity of a product, relative to the identity of competing products.De-positioning involves attempting to change the identity of competing products, relative to the identity of your own product.Packaging if your selling a product what image will the packaging communicate?If a service – how will the appearance of your operation communicate an image about your businessRange of Products – what complimentary products may you offerIf service: Will you offer other products with your serviceExample: Moose Winooski’s – you can buy T-Shirts and HatsExample: Think of the range of products that apple has
Price is the process of determining what to charge for the product or service. It should reflect what the customers are willing and able to pay. It is assumed a profit is to be made. It includes determining the cost of production (time, labor, ingredients, packaging, advertising, etc), the state of supply and demand, and the amount of profit to be made. The end result is the price of the product or service.Lower prices throughout the store – Price
Competition – basing your prices on those of the competitionPenetration – making your price low while new just to get some businessBundle – putting the product/service with another item and bundling the pricesPsychological – making the price say something about the quality of your productMarkup vs market?Give it away (e.g. internet services)Forgo normal margins (e.g. Prius)Raise price to luxury levels (homes, boats)Offer Price protection (e.g. computer)Payment Plans (cell phones, cars, etc)What is the value of the product or service to the buyer?Are there established price points for products or services in this area?Is the customer price sensitive? Will a small decrease in price gain you extra market share? Or will a small increase be indiscernible, and so gain you extra profit margin? What discounts should be offered to trade customers, or to other specific segments of your market?How will your price compare with your competitors? Competition – basing your prices on those of the competitionPenetration – making your price low while new just to get some businessBundle – putting the product/service with another item and bundling the pricesPsychological – making the price say something about the quality of your product
The 2nd “p” of the marketing mix is place. We’re already used this term when learning about utility. Place relates to the marketing functions of distribution and selling.Place refers to decisions businesses make about where they are going to sell their products to make them available to their customers, how wide-spread is their distribution (intensity, which we will talk about later), how will the product be transferred and stored, and whether or not the product will be sold directly to the customers or through a middleman.We will talk more about this in our unit on distribution.
Where do buyers look for your product or service? If they look in a store, what kind? A specialist boutique or in a supermarket, or both? Or online? Or direct, via a catalogue? How can you access the right distribution channels? Do you need to use a sales force? Or attend trade fairs? Or make online submissions? Or send samples to catalogue companies?What do you competitors do, and how can you learn from that and/or differentiate?
Notice how car dealerships are always on the outskirts of town or close to a highway
Offer exclusivity (eg by region)Co-operative advertising ( different groups join together to form a group)Offer Price protection (e.g. computer)Re-stocking privilegesReturns policies
the actual marketing of the product or servicethe image portrayed. Advertising the product or making the customer aware of the product or serviceis involved in promotion. Advertising can be done through public relations, media, personal selling and various persuasive communication strategies.
Interdependent means related to each other
Marketing mix p’s of marketing
Marketing Mix P’s of Marketing
Malik Umair Amin-026
Muhammad Nauman Sharif-028
To effectively market a product or service there are
four things you need to get right: Product, Price,
Place and Promotion. The four elements should
be viewed as one unit and structured to support
each other; Otherwise a firm's marketing strategy
will be confusing and uncoordinated. This
presentation provides you with a quick introduction
to each element.
• The 4 P’s of Marketing are:
• The primary goal of marketing is to optimize the marketing mix, offering
the best possible combination of the four P's to maximize the
effectiveness of marketing efforts. The variables known as the four P's
of the marketing mix are as follows:
• and Promotion
• A mix of the four is necessary to sell a
• Product is
– The actually offerings
– Product may be
• tangible (goods)
• intangible (services)
• While formulating the marketing strategy, product include:
• Product Refers to:
– The questions related to the product such like:
• What need does the service/product fulfill
• What does the customer want from the product/service?
• What needs does it satisfy?
• What features does it have to meet these needs?
• Are you including costly features that the customer
won't actually use?
• How and where will the customer use it?
• What size(s), color(s), and so on, should it be?
• How is it branded?
• How is it differentiated versus your competitors?
• How will your product/service differ from the competition
Some Product Strategies
• Positioning compared with competitors
• Market (consumer) preferences
• Options and bundling
• Range of Products
Kotler suggested that a product should be viewed in
• Level 1: Core Product. What is the core benefit
your product offers?.
• Level 2 Actual Product: All cameras capture
memories. The aim is to ensure that your potential
customers purchase your one.
• Level 3: Augmented product: What additional
non-tangible benefits can you offer?
• Price is the process of determining that
– What to charge for the product or service.
– The customers are willing and able to pay.
– Cost of production
(time, labor, ingredients, packaging, advertisin
– Demand and Supply
• The end result is the price of the product
• Price include:
– Price sensitivity
– Value of goods
– Price Compare with Competitors
– Forgo normal margins
– Payment Plans
• Place Refers to:
– how & where you are going to sell the product
to the consumer
• There are two types of distribution:
– Direct Distribution
• Selling your product directly to the consumer
– Amazon.com, Ebay.com , ISPs
– Indirect Distribution
• sold through a 3rd party
– Example: Cold Drinks producing companies
• Control issues
• Place of displaying
• Place of distribution
• Place is where you are
– going to locate in order to best reach your
• Example: Car Dealers
• Promotion is
– the actual marketing of the product or service
– the image portrayed.
– Advertising the product or
– making the customer aware of the product or
– is involved in promotion.
• Advertising can be done through
– public relations
– personal selling
Other Promotion Mediums
• Public-relations is free promotion
generated by media coverage
• Personal selling – personal contact with
• Telemarketing– Inexpensive, but new
laws restrict unsolicited phone calls
Some Promotion Strategies
• These are
– Co-operative advertising
– Branding – define & build the brand(brand
– Internet presence
– Follow-Up readiness
– Celebrity Promotion
• 4 P’s are interdependent
• 4 P’s constitute your “Marketing Strategy”
• You can control these (independent