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Lit terms


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Lit terms
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Lit terms

  1. 1. LITERARY TERMS Intro to Fiction
  2. 2. We will be using these literary terms throughout the unit as well as throughout the semester as they apply. You will need to understand and be able to identify these terms as used. SPOTLIGHT: LITERARY TERMS
  3. 3. WE WILL USE THE FOLLOWING TERMS: Character Antagonist Protagonist Diction Denotation Connotation Imagery Mood Plot Conflict Oxymoron Alliteration Foreshadowing Suspense Irony Point of View Setting Style Theme Tone Figures of Speech Metaphor Simile Personification
  4. 4. CHARACTER A character is a person or an animal that takes part in the action of a literary work.
  5. 5. PROTAGONIST The Protagonist is the main character in a literary work
  6. 6. ANTAGONIST The Antagonist is a character or force in conflict with a main character (or protagonist).
  7. 7. DO YOU KNOW YOUR ANTAGONISTS??? On your paper take a few minutes to write down some Antagonists that you can recall from movies, television shows, and video games Remember the Antagonist is in conflict with the Protagonist or main character! Helpful hint – you should now know why people use the saying “Don’t antagonize me!”
  8. 8. CHARACTERS: STATIC VS. DYNAMIC Static – stereotype, only one or two characteristics that never change (ex. wicked stepmother) Dynamic – many personalities that change, for better or worse by the end of the story (ex. Shrek)
  9. 9. CHARACTERIZATION: WAYS IN WHICH A CHARACTER IS REVEALED His/her physical appearance What he/she says, thinks, feels and dreams What he/she does or does not do What others say about him/her and how others react to him/her
  10. 10. SETTING The setting of a literary work is the time and place of the action. The setting includes all the details of a place and time – the year, the time of day, even the weather. The place may be a specific country, state, region, community, neighborhood, building, institution, or home. Details such as dialect, clothing, customs, and modes of transportation are often used to establish setting. In most stories, the setting serves as a backdrop – a context in which the characters interact. The setting of a story often helps to create a particular mood,
  11. 11. PLOT Plot is the sequence of events. The first event causes the second, the second causes the third, and so forth. In most novels, dramas, short stories, and narrative poems, the plot involves both characters and a central conflict.
  12. 12. CONFLICT Conflict is the struggle between opposing forces in a story or play. There are several types of conflict that exist in literature. (See next slides for
  13. 13. INTERNAL CONFLICT: MAN VS. SELF Internal conflict exists within the mind of a character who is torn between different courses of action. The leading character struggles with himself/herself; with his/her own soul, ideas of right or wrong, physical limitations, choices, etc.
  14. 14. EXTERNAL CONFLICT External conflict exists when a character struggles against some outside force, such as another character, nature, society, or fate. Man vs. Man (physical) – The leading character struggles with his physical strength against other men, forces of nature, or animals. Man vs. Circumstances (classical) – The leading character struggles against fate, or the circumstances of life facing him/her. Man vs. Society (social) – The leading character struggles against ideas, practices, or customs of other people.
  15. 15. THEME The theme of a literary work is its central message, concern, or purpose. A theme can usually be expressed as a generalization, or general statement, about people or life. The theme may be stated directly by the writer although it is more often presented indirectly. When the theme is stated indirectly, the reader must figure out the theme by looking carefully at what the work reveals about the people or about life.
  16. 16. POINT OF VIEWPoint of View is the perspective, or vantage point, from which a story is told. It is the relationship of the narrator to the story. First-person is told by a character who uses the first-person pronoun “I”. Third-person limited point of view is the point of view where the narrator uses third-person pronouns such as “he” and “she” to refer to the characters. Third person omniscient The author can narrate the story using the omniscient point of view. He can move from character to character, event to event, having free access to the thoughts, feelings and motivations of his characters and he introduces information where and when he chooses.
  17. 17. IRONYSituational irony – contrast between what the reader expects to have happen and what actually happens in the story. (In Finding Nemo, you wouldn’t expect that sharks would be in a “fish are friends, not food” support group.) Dramatic Irony – the reader knows something that a character does not. (i.e. The audience knows that Clark Kent is Superman, though characters in the story do not.) Verbal Irony – saying one thing and meaning another. (Sarcasm is a form of verbal irony.)
  18. 18. IMAGERY Imagery is words or phrases that appeal to one or more of the five senses. Writers use imagery to describe how their subjects look, sound, feel, taste, and smell.
  19. 19. SUSPENSE Suspense is the growing interest and excitement readers experience while awaiting a climax or resolution in a work of literature. It is a feeling of anxious uncertainty about the outcome of events. Writers create suspense by raising questions in the minds of their readers.
  20. 20. TONE Tone is a reflection of a writer’s or speaker’s attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or other literary work. Tone may be communicated through words and details that express particular emotions and that evoke and emotional response from the reader. For example, word choice or phrasing may seem to convey respect, anger, light- heartedness, or sarcasm.
  21. 21. MOOD Mood, or atmosphere, is the feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage. Writer’s use many devices to create mood, including images, dialogue, setting, and plot. Often, a writer creates a mood at the beginning of a work and then sustains the mood throughout. Sometimes, however, the mood of the work changes dramatically.
  22. 22. TONE VS. MOOD In short, TONE is how the AUTHOR feels & MOOD is how the piece of literature makes THE READER feel
  23. 23. STYLE Style is the distinctive way in which an author uses language. Word choice, phrasing, sentence length, tone, dialogue, purpose, and attitude toward the audience and subject can all contribute to an author’s writing style.
  24. 24. FORESHADOWING Foreshadowing is the author’s use of clues to hint at what might happen later in the story. Writers use foreshadowing to build their readers’ expectations and to create suspense. This is used to help readers prepare for what is to come.
  25. 25. FIGURES OF SPEECH A figure of speech is a specific device or kind of figurative language, such as hyperbole, metaphor, personification, simile, or understatement. Figurative language is used for descriptive effect, often to imply ideas indirectly. It is not meant to be taken literally. Figurative language is used to state ideas in vivid and imaginative ways.
  26. 26. METAPHOR A Metaphor is a type of speech that compares two or more unlike things. A metaphor does NOT use like or as.
  27. 27. SIMILE A Simile is another figure of speech that compares seemingly unlike things. Simile’s DO use the words like or as.
  28. 28. OXYMORON An Oxymoron is a figure of speech that is a combination of seemingly contradictory words. Examples: Same difference Pretty ugly Roaring silence
  29. 29. PERSONIFICATION Personification is a figure of speech in which an animal, object, force of nature, or idea is given human qualities or characteristics.
  30. 30. ALLITERATION Alliteration is the repetition of sounds, most often consonant sounds, at the beginning of words. Alliteration gives emphasis to words.
  31. 31. IMAGE CREDITS Mario: Superman: Katniss: Harry Potter: Dr. Evil: Darth Vader: Scar: Voldemort: Evil Queen: Shrek: Stewie Characterization: Setting: Conflict: Internal Conflict:; External Conflict:;; Irony:;; Imagery: Style:; Foreshadowing: Metaphor:; Simile:; Oxymoron:; Personification: Alliteration:;