Living Beings


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Living Beings

  2. 2. <ul><li>What living beings do you know? </li></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  3. 3. <ul><li>Plants  Example </li></ul><ul><li>Animals  Example </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi  Example </li></ul><ul><li>Microorganisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria (example in foods, diseases, floor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeast (type of fungi) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some can been seen with the naked eye while others require a microscope! </li></ul></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  4. 4. Vinagrera ( Rumex lunaria ) (Timanfaya National Park, “coastal plant”) Plant: Grape vine White orchid PLANTS Barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) Above and Below: Cactus LIVING BEINGS
  5. 5. ANIMALS BENGAL TIGER (Asia, India) ( Panthera tigris ) WHITE RHINOCEROS (African Rhino) ( Ceratotherium simum ) - 5 species (3 in Asia, 2 in Africa) - In danger due to poaching for its horns. - Herbivore. <ul><li>- Skin is sold & commercialized. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Chinese medicine utilizes </li></ul><ul><li>different tiger parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, they lack adecuate food and space </li></ul><ul><li>to live. </li></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  6. 6. FUNGI <ul><li>MATAMOSCAS ( Amanita muscaria ) </li></ul><ul><li>Most commonly found in beech, pine, </li></ul><ul><li>black, and birch forests. </li></ul><ul><li>Poisonous </li></ul><ul><li>BOLETO ( Boletus edulis) </li></ul><ul><li>Edible mushroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Found most frequently in pine </li></ul><ul><li>forests. </li></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  7. 7. MICROORGANISMS Yogurt with bacteria. LIVING BEINGS Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Bacteria that is used to produce yogurt. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Colonies of bacteria in a petri dish.
  8. 8. MICROORGANISMS Yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Type of microscopic fungi. <ul><li>Yeast helps bread dough to rise because it produces CO 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Is used to produce wine </li></ul><ul><li>and beer. </li></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  9. 9. <ul><li>What is a living being? </li></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  10. 10. <ul><li>Common characteristics that define living beings. </li></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  11. 11. <ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>- Processes in order to: </li></ul><ul><li>* Obtain energy </li></ul><ul><li> * To produce their own matter </li></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>- Classification of Living Beings (by nutrition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophs  synthesize organic substances from simple inorganic substances (H 2 0, CO 2 , mineral salts), which they take from the ground and atmosphere. Also use energy from the sun for Photosynthesis . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PLANTS, ALGAES, and SOME BACTERIA. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs  Ingest organic material already formed from other living beings or from the remains of living beings. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANIMALS, FUNGI, and MOST MICROORGANISMS. </li></ul></ul></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  13. 13. <ul><li>Interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living beings with one another & with the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help with the development of the other functions (nutrition, reproduction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example  Herbivore mammals have many intestinal bacteria that decompose the cellulose of plants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STIMULI: Color of petals of a flower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REACTION: The insect sees the color and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>approaches the flower. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INTERACTION: The insect eats (nutrition of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the insect) and pollinates (reproduction of the plant). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  14. 14. <ul><li>Reproduction: The process that living beings use to generate new organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Asexual  1 individual produces its own offspring. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Star fish (A starfish that breaks in half will eventually regenerate into a new starfish) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Strawberries reproduces asexually from their creeping stalk. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual  2 individuals interact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals are of different genders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each one supplies a different gamete, which are joined and result in a zygote. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygote develops into a new individual. </li></ul></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  15. 15. <ul><li>2. Chemical Composition of </li></ul><ul><li>Living Beings </li></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  16. 16. <ul><li>Carbohydrates : Living beings use them to obtain energy and to form structures. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples : glucose & celulose. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lipids: Stored as reserve energy and form structures. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: fatty acids (in the adipose tissue), cholesterol (in the animal cell). </li></ul></ul>ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Celulose Grapes (with glucose) Blood (with glucose) Adipose tissue (contains lipids) LIVING BEINGS
  17. 17. <ul><li>Proteins: Regulate vital functions, transport substances, defend against infections, form structures . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Hemoglobin, which transports oxygen. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids: Contain the hereditary information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the information in order to produce proteins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: DNA (spiral ladder). </li></ul></ul>ORGANIC COMPOUNDS LIVING BEINGS
  18. 18. <ul><li>VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are lipids and others are proteins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be integrated in the diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Vitamin A from fish. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partial deficiency (illness) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total deficiency (can lead to death). </li></ul></ul></ul>ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Oranges (vitamin C) Fish (vitamin A) LIVING BEINGS
  19. 19. <ul><li>3. Cellular Composition of </li></ul><ul><li>Living beings </li></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  20. 20. <ul><li>The Cellular Theory of M. J. Schleiden and T. Schwann : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living beings are formed of one or more cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cell is the smallest living unit with the ability to feed itself, interact, and reproduce . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All cells come from the division of other cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells are the structural and functional units of all living beings. </li></ul></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic Cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic material is dispersed in the cytoplasm. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These cells do not have a nucleus. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generally more simple and smaller than other cells. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example : Bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  22. 22. 4. Animal and Plant Cells ( Eukaryotic Cells) LIVING BEINGS
  23. 23. LIVING BEINGS Animal Cell Plant Cell Cell membrane Nucleus Cytoplasm Vacuoles Mitochondria Cell Wall Cell membrane Chloroplasts Eukaryotic Cells
  24. 24. 5. Unicellular and Pluricellular Organisms LIVING BEINGS
  25. 25. <ul><li>Unicellular: 1 cell that performs all functions. </li></ul><ul><li>They can form colonies in which each cell continues carrying out all cell functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Bacteria & green algae ( Volvoz sp.) </li></ul>LIVING BEINGS <ul><ul><li>Pluricellular: Many cells form these beings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each cell performs a certain function. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Together, all cells work so that the organism can carry out its functions in order to live. </li></ul></ul>Jellyfish Sparrow
  26. 26. <ul><li>Levels of Organization </li></ul><ul><li>- Pluricellular organisms are organized into distinct levels of organization. </li></ul><ul><li>- A level of organization represents one organic structure. Thus, a higher level of organization is more complex </li></ul><ul><li>tissues < organs < systems < aparatos </li></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  27. 27. <ul><li>Tissues: A set/mass of various cells that carry out the same function. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Muscle tissue consists of muscle cells. the function of the tissue is to contract and relax. </li></ul>LIVING BEINGS <ul><li>Organs: A group/mass of various tissues that act together. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: A muscle is an organ that contains muscle tissue, nervous tissue, connective tissue, and blood tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems: Formed by various organs (with the same tissues). </li></ul><ul><li>Example: the muscular system spans all of the muscles of the body (various organs) and the tissue is always muscular. Other systems? </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>6. Classification of Living Beings </li></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  29. 29. <ul><li>CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING BEINGS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity of Living Beings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size, shape, manner of eating, reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of diversity means indentifying, grouping, & organizing living beings: classifying them! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The science of classifiation is called TAXONOMY: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It establishes a classification hierarchy that places living beings in groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each group includes smaller subgroups. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each group or subgroup is called a TAXON or a TAXONOMIC CATEGORY </li></ul></ul></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  30. 30. <ul><li>Most expansive taxon or group = KINGDOM </li></ul><ul><li>Subgroups of a Kingdom = PHYLUM </li></ul><ul><li>Each phylum includes CLASSES </li></ul><ul><li>Each class consists of various ORDERS </li></ul><ul><li>Each order can house various FAMILIES </li></ul><ul><li>Each family contains various GENUSES </li></ul><ul><li>Each genus can contain various SPECIES </li></ul><ul><li>KINGDOM >PHYLUM > CLASS > ORDER > FAMILY > GENUS > SPECIES </li></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  31. 31. LIVING BEINGS <ul><li>Example of the classification system according to C. von Linneo: </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Kingdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chordate Phylum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mammals Class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feline Family </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Panthera Genus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Pantheras pardus L. species </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>7. The FIVE KINGOMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living beings can be classified into 5 kingdoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protoctista </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></ul></ul>LIVING BEINGS
  33. 33. Kingdom Moneras Protoctistas Fungi Plants Animals Number of cells Type of Cell Tissues Nutrition Organ-isms
  34. 34. Kingdom Moneras Protoctistas Fungi Plants Animals Number of cells Unicellular Unicellular/ pluricellular Unicellular/ pluricellular Pluricellular Pluricellular Type of Cell Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Tissues Without Without Without With With Nutrition Auto/hete-rotroph Auto/hete-rotroph Heterotroph Autotroph Heterotroph Organ-isms Bacteria Algae/ Protozoa Yeast/ Mold/ Fungi that form mushrooms Moss/ Ferns/ Plants with flowers Invertebrates and Vertebrates