<ul><li>Issues in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Karen Duffy  </li></ul>
Standard Q10 To have knowledge and understanding of a range of teaching, learning and behaviour management strategies and ...
Personalised learning <ul><li>In 2004 after many years of a single minded pressure for performance in schools, government ...
What is personalised learning ? <ul><li>Personalised learning is described by the DfES as  </li></ul><ul><li>“  A philosop...
A basic review of  learning theories <ul><li>Behaviorism / Social Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitivism / construc...
behaviourism <ul><li>Classical and operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Influential in 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards ...
Behaviourism - SLT <ul><li>Social learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Learning takes place through observation and sensorial...
SLT in the Classroom <ul><li>Collaborative learning and group work </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling responses and expectations <...
Constructivism <ul><li>Based on work of Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is stored cognitively as symbols </li></ul...
Schema <ul><li>We are all born Tabula Rasa ( apart from reflex skills) </li></ul><ul><li>Need to develop schema – files </...
Schemas for Xavier <ul><li>He is my son, named after where his dad and I met, Xaverian College  </li></ul><ul><li>He is 9 ...
Accomodation and assilimation <ul><li>Initial schema </li></ul><ul><li>New schema formed- assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>E...
In the real world  A child learns his father is called Daddy,  ( initial schema) Child in state of  equilibruim - knows al...
Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
  Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Sensori-motor   (Birth-2 yrs)  </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiates self from object...
Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Pre-operational   (2-7 years)  </li></ul><ul><li>Learns to use language and to rep...
Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Concrete operational </li></ul><ul><li>(7-11 years)  </li></ul><ul><li>Can think l...
Example of conservation tasks
Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Formal operational </li></ul><ul><li>(11 years and up)  </li></ul><ul><li>Can thin...
  Educational Implications <ul><li>The content of instruction needs to be consistent with the developmental level of the l...
Educational Implications <ul><li>Use familiar examples to facilitate learning more complex ideas.  </li></ul><ul><li>Prese...
Constructivism in the Classroom <ul><li>Inquiry-oriented projects </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for the testing of hypot...
Social Constructivism <ul><li>Grew out of and in response to Cognitivism / constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>More emphasis ...
Zone of proximal development <ul><li>The theory of the &quot;Zone of Proximal Development&quot; (ZPD), Vygotsky observed t...
“ The distance between a child's  actual   developmental level as determined by  independent problem solving and the  high...
MKO <ul><li>More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) is part of scaffolding idea </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to someone who has a bette...
Social Constructivism in the Classroom <ul><li>Journaling </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential activities </li></ul><ul><li>Pers...
Multiple Intelligences (MI) <ul><li>Grew out of Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>H. Gardner (1983 to present) </li></ul><u...
MI in the Classroom <ul><li>Delivery of instruction via multiple mediums </li></ul><ul><li>Student-centered classroom </li...
Examples of how you could use these intelligences in the classroom <ul><li>Logical – problem solving,  </li></ul><ul><li>M...
BBL in the Classroom <ul><li>Opportunities for group learning </li></ul><ul><li>Regular environmental changes </li></ul><u...
Left brain/ Right brain <ul><li>LEFT </li></ul><ul><li>Uses logic </li></ul><ul><li>Facts rule </li></ul><ul><li>Detail or...
 
Don’t forget <ul><li>Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Numeracy </li></ul><ul><li>Handling information  90% of what is taught </l...
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  • Grew in response to Behaviorism in an effort to better understand the mental processes behind learning
  • Staged scaffolding: not based on ability or experience…based on developmental stage (age most predominantly)
  • Knowledge is actively constructed by individuals in light of and in relation to our past experiences, the context of learning, personal motivation, and our beliefs/attitudes/prior knowledge Think of the lab…instead of just watching it being done, the student acts as the active agent conducting the lab, with expert support leading them to the edge of their knowledge and beyond. Dialogic: central focus is on written &amp; spoken dialogue Recursive: new learning is built upon prior learning…scaffolding
  • Metacognition – simply put is learning about learning, but more realistically, it’s about kn owing who you are as a learner, and developing the capacity to leverage your strengths to your advantage while purposefully addressing your weaknesses
  • Issues In Learning Presentation

    1. 1. <ul><li>Issues in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Karen Duffy </li></ul>
    2. 2. Standard Q10 To have knowledge and understanding of a range of teaching, learning and behaviour management strategies and how to use and adapt them , including how to personalise learning and provide opportunities for all learners to achieve their potential ( TDA, Professional standards for Teachers in England 2007)
    3. 3. Personalised learning <ul><li>In 2004 after many years of a single minded pressure for performance in schools, government decided to focus future policy on personalised learning as a new concept for educational provision. </li></ul><ul><li>It is part of the primary strategy ( DfEs :2003) and underlines the Strategy for children and learners ( DfEs 2006) </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is personalised learning ? <ul><li>Personalised learning is described by the DfES as </li></ul><ul><li>“ A philosophy- It is an approach to teaching and learning which builds on the needs and interests of the child. It recognises that the quality of the learning is shaped by the learner’s experiences, character, interests and aspirations” </li></ul>
    5. 5. A basic review of learning theories <ul><li>Behaviorism / Social Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitivism / constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Social Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Intelligences </li></ul><ul><li>Brain-Based Learning </li></ul>
    6. 6. behaviourism <ul><li>Classical and operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Influential in 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards and punishments </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility for student learning rests squarely with the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture-based, highly structured </li></ul>
    7. 7. Behaviourism - SLT <ul><li>Social learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Learning takes place through observation and sensorial experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery </li></ul><ul><li>SLT is the basis of the movement against violence in media & video games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bobo Doll Experiment </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. SLT in the Classroom <ul><li>Collaborative learning and group work </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling responses and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to observe experts in action </li></ul>
    9. 9. Constructivism <ul><li>Based on work of Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is stored cognitively as symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is the process of connecting symbols in a meaningful & memorable way </li></ul><ul><li>Studies focused on the mental processes that facilitate symbol connection </li></ul>
    10. 10. Schema <ul><li>We are all born Tabula Rasa ( apart from reflex skills) </li></ul><ul><li>Need to develop schema – files </li></ul><ul><li>What was your schema for teaching prior to the course ? </li></ul><ul><li>How has that changed now – what more is there in your filing cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>What will your teaching schema be after block B ? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Schemas for Xavier <ul><li>He is my son, named after where his dad and I met, Xaverian College </li></ul><ul><li>He is 9 months old </li></ul><ul><li>He likes to eat ‘organic carrot sticks’ ( basically posh wotsits) </li></ul><ul><li>He can say 4 words, mama, baba, bye bye and bang bang’ </li></ul><ul><li>His favourite toy is a Quality street tin and a spoon- hence ‘bang bang’ </li></ul>
    12. 12. Accomodation and assilimation <ul><li>Initial schema </li></ul><ul><li>New schema formed- assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>New information comes in- disequilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Accomodation ( additional elemnts added to already formed information) </li></ul><ul><li>New schema formed </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium </li></ul>
    13. 13. In the real world A child learns his father is called Daddy, ( initial schema) Child in state of equilibruim - knows all tall things with dark hair and glasses are Daddy so he calls another male ( the priest ) Daddy - Assimilation Mother has heart attack at this outburst and child is quickly told that the other man is not Daddy, he is Father O’Brien – disequilibrium   The schema for Daddy is modified ( note to self: Daddy doesn’t wear a white collar) and a new schema for Priests developed - accommodation Child develops new schemas – equilibrum Until he meets a Bishop or the Pope and the whole process starts again
    14. 14. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
    15. 15. Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Sensori-motor  (Birth-2 yrs)  </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiates self from objects  Recognises self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise  </li></ul><ul><li>Achieves object permanence: realises that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense    </li></ul>
    16. 16. Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Pre-operational   (2-7 years)  </li></ul><ul><li>Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words  </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others  </li></ul><ul><li>Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour   </li></ul>
    17. 17. Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Concrete operational </li></ul><ul><li>(7-11 years)  </li></ul><ul><li>Can think logically about objects and events  Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9)  </li></ul><ul><li>Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size . </li></ul>
    18. 18. Example of conservation tasks
    19. 19. Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Formal operational </li></ul><ul><li>(11 years and up)  </li></ul><ul><li>Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systemtically  </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems </li></ul><ul><li>Can think in abstracts such as who is God ? What is Love </li></ul>
    20. 20. Educational Implications <ul><li>The content of instruction needs to be consistent with the developmental level of the learner- may need to adapt </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher's role is to facilitate learning by providing a variety of experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Discovery learning&quot; provides opportunities for learners to explore and experiment, thereby encouraging new understandings. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities that allow students of differing cognitive levels to work together often encourage less mature students to advance to a more mature understanding. ( social scontructivism) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide concrete props and visual aids, such as models </li></ul>
    21. 21. Educational Implications <ul><li>Use familiar examples to facilitate learning more complex ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Present problems that require logical analytic thinking; the use of tools such as &quot;brain teasers&quot; is encouraged. </li></ul><ul><li>Huitt and Hummel (1998) assert that &quot;only 35% of high school graduates in industrialized countries obtain formal operations; many people do not think formally during adulthood&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>This is significant in terms of developing instruction and performance support tools for students who are chronologically adults, but may be limited in their understanding of abstract concepts. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Constructivism in the Classroom <ul><li>Inquiry-oriented projects </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for the testing of hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity encouraged </li></ul>
    23. 23. Social Constructivism <ul><li>Grew out of and in response to Cognitivism / constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>More emphasis on learner needing to be social and working with others to gain information </li></ul><ul><li>Lev Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Zone of proximal development <ul><li>The theory of the &quot;Zone of Proximal Development&quot; (ZPD), Vygotsky observed that when children were tested on tasks on their own, they rarely did as well as when they were working in collaboration with an adult. </li></ul><ul><li>It was not that the adult was teaching them how to perform the task, but that the process of engagement with the adult enabled them to refine their thinking or their performance to make it more effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, for him, the development of language and articulation of ideas was central to learning and development. </li></ul><ul><li>  The common-sense idea which fits most closely with this model is that of &quot;stretching&quot; learners. </li></ul><ul><li>It is common in constructing skills check-lists to have columns for &quot;cannot yet do&quot;, &quot;can do with help&quot;, and &quot;can do alone&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>The ZPD is about &quot;can do with help&quot;, not as a permanent state but as a stage towards being able to do something on your own. The key to &quot;stretching&quot; the learner is to know what is in that person's ZPD—what comes next, for them. </li></ul>
    25. 25. “ The distance between a child's actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the higher level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers&quot; (Vygotsky) The Zone of Proximal Development
    26. 26. MKO <ul><li>More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) is part of scaffolding idea </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to someone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the implication is that the MKO is a teacher or an older adult, this is not necessarily the case. Many times, a child's peers or an adult's children may be the individuals with more knowledge or experience. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, the MKO need not be a person at all. Some companies, to support employees in their learning process, are now using electronic performance support systems. Electronic tutors have also been used in educational settings to facilitate and guide students through the learning process. The key to MKOs is that they must have (or be programmed with) more knowledge about the topic being learned than the learner does </li></ul>
    27. 27. Social Constructivism in the Classroom <ul><li>Journaling </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential activities </li></ul><ul><li>Personal focus </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative & cooperative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>Look at TEEP and Kagan training </li></ul>
    28. 28. Multiple Intelligences (MI) <ul><li>Grew out of Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>H. Gardner (1983 to present) </li></ul><ul><li>All people are born with eight intelligences: </li></ul><ul><li>Enables students to leverage their strengths and purposefully target and develop their weaknesses </li></ul>1. Verbal-Linguistic 5. Musical 2. Visual-Spatial 6. Naturalist 3. Logical-Mathematical 7. Interpersonal 4. Kinesthetic 8. Intrapersonal
    29. 29. MI in the Classroom <ul><li>Delivery of instruction via multiple mediums </li></ul><ul><li>Student-centered classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Self-directed learning </li></ul>
    30. 30. Examples of how you could use these intelligences in the classroom <ul><li>Logical – problem solving, </li></ul><ul><li>Musical – learning information to music. Playing music in background </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal- poetry, word searches, pictonary </li></ul><ul><li>Visual/spatial – presenting using photographs, 3 dimentional objects </li></ul><ul><li>Body – drama/ role play </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal – working together towards a common goal, debating </li></ul><ul><li>Intra- personal –teaching using ‘feelings’ </li></ul>
    31. 31. BBL in the Classroom <ul><li>Opportunities for group learning </li></ul><ul><li>Regular environmental changes </li></ul><ul><li>A multi-sensory environment </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in right and left brain thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for self-expression and making personal connections to content </li></ul>
    32. 32. Left brain/ Right brain <ul><li>LEFT </li></ul><ul><li>Uses logic </li></ul><ul><li>Facts rule </li></ul><ul><li>Detail oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Good at science and maths </li></ul><ul><li>Practical </li></ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern and order </li></ul><ul><li>RIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>Uses feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Sees the big picture </li></ul><ul><li>Has spatial perception </li></ul><ul><li>Risk takers </li></ul><ul><li>Impetuous </li></ul><ul><li>Believes </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols and images </li></ul><ul><li>Imagination rules </li></ul>
    33. 34. Don’t forget <ul><li>Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Numeracy </li></ul><ul><li>Handling information 90% of what is taught </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of facts </li></ul><ul><li>Joy of discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional intelligence 10% of what is taught </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Dream building </li></ul><ul><li>Awe and wonder </li></ul><ul><li>20% of talking in a classroom is done by the students and of that </li></ul><ul><li>90% is “ can I go to the toilet?” </li></ul><ul><li>60% of writing in schools is copying from the board </li></ul>

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