Pear tree – PRODUCER Aphids – Live off the pear tree eating leaves – HERBIVORES – Primary Consumer Ladybird – Eats the aphids, another living thing – what is it ? CARNIVORE – Secondary consumer Sparrow – Eats ladybirds – Carnivore – tertiary consumer – PREDATOR and PREY Hawk – Eats sparrow – CARNVORE – PREDATOR
Cultural + Linguistic Diversity in Practice Carol Hrynyk Abraham Moss High School, Manchester
Cultural + Linguistic Diversity in Practice <ul><li>Aims: </li></ul><ul><li>To provide a snapshot of pupil diversity at Abraham Moss High School in Manchester </li></ul><ul><li>To highlight some of the issues that this creates </li></ul><ul><li>To look at some practical strategies for addressing these issues </li></ul>
Social Deprivation Cheetham Hill is an area of significant social disadvantage. The Cheetham ward is in the top 10% for poverty. 45% of pupils at Abraham Moss have free school meals. National average? January 2010 FSM = 15.4%
Pupil Mobility <ul><li>Cheetham Hill has been an arrival point for families moving into the city for 200 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Pupil mobility in school is high: 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Around 60 pupils join the school from outside the UK every year. </li></ul>
Cultural Diversity <ul><li>≈ 90% of pupils are from an ethnic minority background. </li></ul><ul><li>Pupils or their families have come from around 60 different countries. </li></ul><ul><li>51% of pupils are Pakistani heritage. </li></ul><ul><li>≈ 10% of pupils are White British or White Irish. </li></ul><ul><li>We have ≈ 1200 pupils. </li></ul>UK? Manchester? <10% <25%
Linguistic Diversity <ul><li>There are more than 50 different languages spoken in the school. </li></ul><ul><li>≈ 75% of pupils have English as an additional language – EAL. </li></ul><ul><li>≈ 40% of pupils are not fluent users of academic or standard English. </li></ul><ul><li>90+ EAL beginners. </li></ul>
A Typical Pupil with EAL… ? Pupils with EAL are all different. These 3 pupils are in Y10: Ahmed is Libyan. His parents are university students. He is well-educated and literate in Arabic but new to English. He’s returning to Libya in a few years. Sara is an asylum seeker from rural Afghanistan. She has had interrupted schooling and is not literate. She is very quiet, sits alone and sometimes refuses to work. Farhaan was born in Manchester. He speaks English with friends and Punjabi at home. His written and spoken English is colloquial and lacks technical accuracy.
The Secondary Curriculum The Inclusion Statement : “ Planning an inclusive curriculum means… shaping the curriculum to match the needs and interests of the full range of learners.” “ Pupils will also bring to school a range of cultural perspectives and experiences, which can be reflected in the curriculum...”
The Secondary Curriculum “ An inclusive curriculum is one where: <ul><li>different groups of pupils are all able to see the relevance of the curriculum... </li></ul><ul><li>all pupils… have sufficient opportunities to succeed… </li></ul>… a useful starting point to planning for inclusion could be… the data available on pupils from various groups.”
At Abraham Moss this means… … providing an inclusive curriculum for: Do you know what it means for your school? <ul><ul><li>in-year admissions, including Y11 and EAL beginners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>asylum-seeking + refugee pupils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>later-stage EAL learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pupils from different cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and many others… (eg: more boys than girls, pupils with physical disabilities or SEN…) </li></ul></ul>
It is best to place EAL beginners in low ability sets when they first arrive because they need time to concentrate on learning English. EAL beginners make faster progress in school if they practise speaking English at home as much as possible. EAL learners who are literate in their first language usually find it easier to acquire good literacy skills in other languages. FALSE FALSE TRUE True or False?
A Very Quick Look at EAL Theory: The Cummins Framework
High Cognitive Demand Low Cognitive Demand Context Embedded Context Reduced Link to Cummins The Parrot Colouring, copying, repeating… The Jigsaw Puzzler Matching, transferring, sequencing… The Manipulator Comparing, solving, planning… The Academic Analysing, interpreting, evaluating… X
Inclusive Strategies: Visual or Bilingual Resources isosceles VISUAL or BILINGUAL resources and displays
Re-enacting Model making Inclusive Strategies: Practical Activities
A key visual represents conceptual relationships between objects, events or situations. Inclusive Strategies: Key Visuals/Graphic Organisers Link to Key Visuals Info
Stručný popis oběhu vody <ul><li>Oběh vody sice nemá počátek, ale oceány jsou příhodné místo, kde lze začít s jeho popisem. Slunce, které je strůjcem oběhu vody, ohřívá vodu v oceánech, a ta se vypařuje ve formě vodní páry do vzduchu. Stoupající vzdušné proudy unášejí vodní páru výše do atmosféry, kde nižší teplota poté způsobí kondenzaci vodní páry a její přeměnu do formy oblaků. Vzdušné proudy dále ženou oblaka nad zemí, a částice vody tvořící oblaky se srážejí, rostou a poté vypadávají z oblohy jako srážky. Některé srážky padají jako sníh a mohou se hromadit jako ledové čepice a příkrovy či ledovce. V teplejším klimatu sníh s příchodem jara většinou taje a voda vytváří celoplošný odtok z tajícího sněhu. Většina srážek padá zpět do oceánů nebo na pevninu, odkud díky zemské tíži jako povrchová voda odtéká.Část odteklé vody napájí řeky, které poté odvádějí vodu do oceánů. </li></ul>Inclusive Strategies: Key Visuals
Physical changes True or false? Discuss with your partner. A solute is like coffee granules when you put them into hot water. A solvent is used to dissolve a solute . (Try and think of an example!) Insoluble means the substance will dissolve; soluble means the substance will not dissolve. When you put salt into water, it vanishes (disappears). Inclusive Strategies: Collaborative Learning www.collaborativelearning.org Learning through problem-solving + purposeful talk
Inclusive Strategies: Working with Text DARTS Directed Activities Related to Texts Link to DARTS info Gap-filling (Cloze) Cut-up text (Sequencing) What next? (Prediction) Tops+Tails (Making sentences) They be used in any subject area Darts can make texts easier to read Pupils can work at different levels on the same text.
<ul><li>Our experiment was to find out_____________ </li></ul><ul><li>____________________. </li></ul><ul><li>We discovered that ______________________ ____________________. </li></ul>Useful words/ structures: whether / if / that (we wanted to find out whether / if ..., we showed that ... ) metal / non-metal / magnets / iron filings / attraction / pin / paper clip Inclusive Strategies: Working with Text
Teaching Practice / CPD + EAL Experiment with practical EAL strategies: <ul><li>Support a pupil in another teacher’s lessons. Identify the barriers to learning for that pupil. Experiment with strategies to overcome those barriers. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan + teach a lesson that includes an explicit language focus. (Partnerships?) </li></ul><ul><li>Produce resources or display materials to support or involve a specific group of pupils in your subject area. </li></ul>
Recommended research into EAL learning: Jim Cummins BICS + CALPS Cummins Framework Pauline Gibbons Mode Continuum Both are widely used by EAL professionals + their theories underpin most good EAL practice. Email contact: [email_address] [email_address]