How is right & wrong determined? Through the society you are part of, culture, value system/values
Are there ever any exceptions?
Simple truth: doing the right thingPersonal Integrity: external viewpoint vs internal – living a life true to your moral standards at the cost of considerable sacrifice (Superman, Batman, etc)Individual Behavior – Moral standards we develop impact our daily lives and decisionsSocietal Behavior -
Looks at how pple develop their own set of moral standards, how they live their lives according to those standards and how they judge the behavior of others. -Then develop standards based on how people “ought” to behave
Value Conflict• Lying is wrong – but what if it would save someone’s life?• Stealing is wrong – but what if you were feeding your starving children?• Killing is wrong – but what if you killed someone in self-defense to protect yourself or a loved one?
Ethics• Four Categories ▫ Simple Truth ▫ Personal Integrity ▫ Appropriate Individual Behavior Rules ▫ Appropriate Societal Behavior Rules
So what is the study of Ethics?• Looks at how choices are made and then develop a set of principles to apply those ethics
Ethical Theories• Virtue Ethics• Ethics for the Greater Good• Universal Ethics
Solving Ethical Dilemmas• Sleep-test OR• Three-step Process ▫ Analyze the consequences ▫ Analyze the actions ▫ Make a decision
Solving continued• Arthur Dobrin’s eight questions ▫ Facts? ▫ Can you determine anything of unknown facts ▫ What do the facts mean? ▫ How do others involved in the situation view the problem? ▫ What will happen if you choose one thing versus the other? ▫ What are your feelings telling you? ▫ Will you be able to look yourself in the mirror if you choose one thing over another? ▫ Can you explain and justify your decision to others?
Ethical Reasoning• Lawrence Kohlberg ▫ Six Stages of Reasoning classified in three levels of development Preconventional Conventional Postconventional