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Hazard awareness


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Hazard awareness

  1. 1. Session 3 Laboratory Safety TrainingChemical Risk Management
  2. 2. Toxic effects of LaboratoryChemicals In order to minimize the hazards associated with chemicals used in the laboratory the researcher must investigate many sources of information to safely design the experiment. There are many ways to do this. The starting point should be with a review of the MSDS. 2
  3. 3. Hazard Communication Hazard Communication Standard 29CFR 1910.1200 – OSHA published in 1988, requires, chemical manufacturers or importers to evaluate the hazards of the products they supply and summarize this information on Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), shipping labels, and product warnings 3
  4. 4. Hazard Communication Employers must supply this information to their employees and provide training on: – The chemical hazards found in their work place. This includes training on reading hazard labels and MSDS, physical and health hazards of the chemicals, how to detect releases, the use of any required personal protective equipment (PPE), and the details of the hazard communication program. 4
  5. 5. Hazard Communication Specific laboratory requirements include: – Ensuring all incoming chemical containers are labeled, – MSDS are received with incoming chemicals and are readily accessible to laboratory employees at all times, while working in their labs, – Ensure all laboratory, employees are trained on the physical and health hazards associated with the chemicals used including: 5
  6. 6. Hazard Communication Methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or release hazardous chemicals in the work area, The measures employees can take to protect themselves from chemical hazards, such as work practices, emergency procedures, and PPE. 6
  7. 7. Hazard Communication Laboratories that ship hazardous chemicals are considered either a chemical manufacturer or distributor under this standard and must also comply with the shipping requirements, including labeling containers, using proper shipping names and preparing an MSDS to be provided to the recipients 7
  8. 8. Each MSDS must contain thefollowing information:1. Suppliers name, 1. Physical hazards, address, ph #, date, including reactivity,2. Chemical name, CAS 2. Health hazards, # of all hazardous including signs and ingredients if it is > 1% symptoms of of the product, exposure, medical3. Physical and chemical conditions that characteristics, vp., fp., might be aggravated by exposure, 8
  9. 9. Each MSDS must contain thefollowing information:1. Primary routes of 1. Emergency and first entry, aid procedures,2. PELs, RELs, TLVs 2. Disposal3. Toxicity data, considerations4. Storage and 3. Transportation handling data, information 9
  10. 10. Additional sources of hazardinformation  National Fire Protection Association NFPA 704  National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) RELs.  American Council of Governmental Hygienists (ACGIH) TLVs  International Agency for Cancer Research, (IARC) 10
  11. 11. Additional sources of hazardinformation National library of Medicine (NLM) Toxline, Medline Hazardous substance Data Base (HSDB) Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) MSDS database e.g. SIRI 11
  12. 12. Other hazard classification systems The NFPA 704 System is a means of providing hazard information for a material. Each of the four sections is associated with a particular hazard and the higher the number the more hazardous the material is for that particular characteristic. The fourth section is to give information on special hazards. Next are the four sections and an explanation of each. 12
  13. 13. Red=Flammability • 4-Materials with a flashpoint below 73 F (22 C) and a boiling point below 100 F. 3-Materials with a flashpoint below 73 F and a boiling point greater than or equal to 100 F (38 C) or a flashpoint above 73 F and less than 100 F. 2-Materials with a flashpoint above 100 F, but not exceeding 200 F (93.3 C). 1-Materials with a flashpoint above 200 F. 0-Materials which normally wont burn. 13
  14. 14. Blue-Health Hazard 4-Materials with an oral LD50 of less than or equal to 5 mg/ kg. 3-Materials with an oral LD50 above 5, but less than 50 mg/ kg. 2-Materials with an oral LD50 above 50, but less than 500 mg/kg. 1-Materials with an oral LD50 above 500, but less than 2000mg/kg. 0-Materials with an oral LD50 above 2000mg/kg. 14
  15. 15. Yellow=Reactivity Hazard4-Material is capable of explosion or detonation atnormal temperature and pressure.3-Material is capable of explosion, but requires astrong initiating source, or the material reactswith water.2-Material undergoes violent chemical changes atelevated temperature and pressure.1-Normally stable, but can become unstable atelevated temperatures.0-Normally stable. 15
  16. 16. White = Special HazardW Water ReactiveOx OxidizerCOR CorrosiveRadiation 16
  17. 17. Routes of Exposure Inhalation - Most common route of exposure, lungs are designed for maximum transport and adsorption of vapors, large surface area (1000 sf) Dermal – Second most common route of exposure, lipid (pass with greater ease) and water soluble chemicals can pass through the skin. Has 20 sf surface area. 17
  18. 18. Routes of Exposure Ingestion – can occur through food contamination, eating drinking in lab, poor hygiene, mucociliary transport of vapors trapped in upper air ways, Injection – Can occur through injury and needle sticks 18
  19. 19. Lethal Concentration Lethal Concentration- LC-50, pertains to inhalation hazards. It is the concentration of a material in air that will kill 50% of the test subjects when administered as a single exposure (typically 1 to 4 hours). This value gives you an idea of the relative toxicity of the material. This value applies to vapors, dusts, mists and gases. 19
  20. 20. Lethal Dose An LD50 value is the amount of a solid or liquid material that it takes to kill 50% of test animals in one dose. The dose may be administered orally (by mouth), or injection into various parts of the body. The value is usually reported along with the administration method. 20
  21. 21.   Acute Toxicity Levels Toxicity LD-50 LD-50(rab LC- 50 Probable lethal human (rats) bits) (rats) dose Extremely <1mg <10ppm 10ppm < A taste, 1 Toxic grain Highly 1-50 mg 10-100 10-100 1 tea, 4 Toxic ppm ppm cc Moderately 50-500 100-1000 100-1000 1 oz, 30g. Toxic mg ppm ppm Slightly 500-5000 1000-10,0 1000-10,0 1 pint, Toxic mg 00 00 250g Mg//kg body weight 21
  22. 22. Acute Toxins Acute toxicity is the ability of a chemical to cause harm after a single exposure. They can cause local, or systemic effects or both. Chemicals that have a high level of acute toxicity (very low LD, LC-50s) are defined as particularly hazardous substances by the Lab Standard and require special handling procedures to be added to the lab CHP. 22
  23. 23. Acute Toxins These include: acrolein, arsine, chlorine, diborane, diazomethane, hydrogen cyanide,hydrogen floride, sodium cyanide, dimethyl mercury, etc. 23
  24. 24. Chronic Toxicity Harm occurs through repeated usually lower levels of exposure. Includes most carcinogens, reproductive hazards, some heavy metals. Many have a long latency period. Generally the longer the exposure the greater the hazard. 24
  25. 25. Factors affecting toxicity The potential for toxic effects is determined by the dose, the duration, the frequency and the route of exposure. Synergistic effects - the combination of the toxic effects of two substances may be significantly greater than the toxic effect of either substance alone. 25
  26. 26. Reproductive toxins Reproductive toxins are those that have an adverse effect on reproduction including: fertility, gestation, lactation and general reproduction performance. Mutagens affect the genetic material. Teratogens effect the development of the fetus. Ethylene dibromide and dibromochloropropane are well known male reproductive toxins. Others include: 26
  27. 27. Reproductive toxins cont. vacetaldehyde, acrylicacid, aflatoxins, aniline arsenic, benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, cadmium, carbondisulfide, chromic acid, chloroform, chloroprene, N,N-dimethylacetamide, dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dinitrooctylphenol ,di-sec-octyl- phthalate, diphenylamine, dithane, estradiol, 2- ethoxyl ethanol, 2-ethoxyetyl acetate, ethyl thiourea, 2-ethylhexanol, formaldehyde, formamide, glycol ethers, halothane, hexachlorobenzene, hexafluoroacetone, hydrazine(s), 27
  28. 28. Reproductive toxins cont. iodoacetic acid, karathane, lead compounds, mercury compounds, 2-methoxy ethanol, 2- methoxy- ethylacetate, methylchloride, N- methyl-2-pyrolidone, nitrobenzene, nitrousoxide, phenol, polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls, propylene glycol, monomethyl ether, propylene glycol, monomethyl ether acetate, propylene oxide, systhane, TOK(herbicide),toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl- chloride, xylene Additional information @ Reproductive Hazards 28
  29. 29. Medical Surveillance programs Use of certain chemicals at particular exposure levels require the participation a medical surveillance programs. Medical Screening/Surveillance 29
  30. 30. Carcinogens Chemical capable of causing changes in the DNA resulting in uncontrolled growth of cells or cancer. They are insidious because no immediate harmful effects are felt. Latency period can be from 20-30 years Usually results from chronic exposures 30
  31. 31. Carcinogens Defined in the Lab Standard as a chemical that is: – Regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen, – It is listed by the National Toxicology Program, – It is listed as a group 1 under IARC (international agency on cancer research), – It is listed as a group 2A, or 2B under IARC probable and possibly carcinogenic to humans. 31
  32. 32. Carcinogens Examples of "Select Carcinogens“ Examples of “Classes of Carcinogens” 32
  33. 33. Conclusion Risk assessment for use of hazardous chemicals includes: 1. Identify chemicals to be used and circumstances of use, 2. Consult sources of information, 3. Evaluate type of toxicity, 33
  34. 34. Conclusion1. Consider possible routes of exposure,2. Evaluate quantitative information on toxicity,3. Select appropriate procedures to minimize exposure following hierarchy of protection, a. Eliminate the hazard b. Substitute or reduce the hazard 34
  35. 35. Conclusion b. Engineering Controls – Fume Hood, Glove boxes c. Administrative Controls – CHP, SOPs d. Personal Protective Equipment – gloves, goggles2. Prepare for contingencies. 35