Drugs acting on the cns

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Drugs acting on the cns

  1. 1. Drugs acting on the CNS
  2. 2. Why should there be drugs to act on CNS… The answer is simple; In order to repair or modify functions of the CNS
  3. 3. Different states of the brain Death Convulsions Excitation Normal operating brain Slight loss of sensation Total loss of sensation Death
  4. 4. Death Anticonvulsants Convulsions Anaesthetics Preanaesthetics Tranquilizers Excitation Normal operating brain (awake) Slight loss of sensation CNS stimulants Total loss of sensationAnaesthesia antagonists Death
  5. 5. Mechanisms of action (on the synapse) Action potentialSwitch on Switch offSpeed up Modify slow down
  6. 6. Key players at the synapse Neurotransmitter + ReceptorThey can either be inhibitory or excitatoryIn. N’trans + In. Rec. = (Reduced Activity)Exc.N’trans + Exc.Rec = (Increased activity)
  7. 7. Common natural neurotransmitters in the brainGlutamate (glutamic Excitatory Acid) GABA Inhibitory Dopamine Inhibitory Acetylcholine Excitatory Excitatory Aspartic acid Serotonin Inhibitory Glycine Inhibitory Norepinephrine Mostly Excitatory
  8. 8. Modification of the action potential How does it occur??? Increase conc. of excitatory neurotransmitter Assist stimulation of excitatory receptor Switch on Speed up Decrease conc. of inhibitory neurotransmitter Inhibit stimulation of inhibitory receptor
  9. 9. CyclohexaminesThey include Ketamine Phencyclidine TiletamineTelazol is a combination of tiletamine and zolazepamThey produce what is referred to as Dissociative Anaesthesia
  10. 10. Etomidate This is a sedative hypnotic nonbarbiturate drug, of ultrashort duration
  11. 11. CNS Excitatory Drugs CNS Stimulants Anaesthetic antagonists Excitation
  12. 12. CNS StimulantsThese are used for stimulation of some brain centers like respiratory center.They are also used for; To counteract lethargy and fatigue To reduce sleepiness. To decrease appetite and promote weight loss, as well as to treat obesity. To improve concentration especially for those with attentional disorders such as ADHD. Occasionallyused to treat clinical depression.
  13. 13. Common CNS Stimulants Doxapram Hydrochloride Methlyxanthine derivatives - Caffeine - Theophylline - Theobromine
  14. 14. AntagonistsAntagonist Used to antagonize…4-Aminopyridine Xylazine, xylazine- ketamine, xylazine- acepromazineYohimbine Xylazine, Barbiturates,hydrochloride Ketamine, AcepromazineTolazoline Xylazine, xylazine-hydrochloride halothanePhysostigmine Ketamine

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