BIODIVERSITY AND   SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMEN     T     Madoffe, S.S.      Tailored for3rd Year BSc WLM 2007
Introductiono   Living organisms and reliance on the envo   The world’s bd made up of mi of sppo   Species and environment...
Why conflicts over bd use?   Different interest groups at:    local(medicinal), national (water    catchment) and Interna...
CONCEPT OF BIODIVERSITY  Existence  of many species  Need to identify them –   Estimates only  Identification difficult...
Table 1. Estimated number of individual species in thousands                               ESTIMATED NUMBERS (THOUSANDS)CA...
EXTINCTION OF SPECIESo   Species extinction as natural phenomenono   Role of human on spp extinctiono   Do we know how man...
BD &BIOLOGICAL RESOURCESo      Biodiversity buzzword for the       1990s,o      Concern over bd is not new.o      BD = Con...
LEVELS OF BIODIVERSITY Three fundamental levels Genetic diversity: Species diversity Ecosystem diversity
Main gradients of terrestrial diversity Diversity     increases from:    Latitudinal gradients: Increase     Poles      ...
TROPICAL BIODIVERSITY   AN OVERVIEW       Very high bd:- spp, habitats,        ecosystems       Spp richness depends on...
EA a Mega-biodiversity Region       Due to:        Biogeographic diversity        Diversity of the land-form from     ...
Uses of Biodiversity       Direct use       Consumptive       Commercial       Indirect values         Maintain water...
AGRICULTURAL VALUES OFBIODIVERSITY   Genetic resources - rapid growth,    high yield, pest resistance etc   Crossing of ...
Biodiversity hotspots   What are hotspots?   High diversity of endemic spp and    threatened   Support 1,500 endemic pl...
BD hotspot cont.   There are 34 regions of    biodiversity hotspots worldwide   Examples: Madagascar, The tropical    An...
What are endemic species?   Highly restricted organisms example   Saint paulia (African violet),    Usambara eagle owl,...
Why are there endemic species? Evolutionary history and respond  to the environment they inhabit. Their ecological requi...
Why do hotspots have many endemicspecies? Many of the worlds hotspots are  islands WHY?. Isolation over long periods of ...
Why are hotspots threatened?   Island nature - Often unprepared to    compete with the introduced and    exotic species ...
Hotspots conservation   Pre-requisite   Relies on scientific evaluations of    the threatened status of species.   Dete...
Hotspots can be evaluated in terms of:   Their unique biodiversity   The amount of habitat lost and    protected, and  ...
Some conservation approaches   The establishment of traditional PAs   Implementation innovative    economic alternatives...
Monitoring hotspots   Aim: Implement programs and    strategies that are effective at    protecting bd   Hotspots are dy...
Monitoring done through   Understanding the situation in these    areas e.g.   Patterns of biodiversity   Which spp are...
Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal       Forests of East Africa   The Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal    Forests hotspot...
The EAMs of EA
Threats to EAMs   Fire   Illegal logging and pole extraction   Encroachment for Agricultural    development and settlem...
Fire in lowland adjacent to EAMs
Cons of EAMs and Coastal forests What are the current conservation initiatives taken by both Tz government and Internatio...
THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY   The rate of species extinction is    higher today than ever before   In spite of this there ar...
A: Socio-economic context ofBiodiversity loss   i) Poverty   ii) Loss of Traditional Knowledge   iii) Population dynami...
iv) Poor agricultural practices   Extensive and shifting cultivation   Indiscriminate use of fire   Cultivation on slop...
v) Pollution   Agro-chemicals (pesticides, and    chemical fertilizers)   Mining lead to degradation, water    pollution...
vi) Energy Crisis   Bio-energy use is about 92%   Petroleum 7.2%, and electricity    0.8%   vii) Tourism   What are ma...
2. Ecological aspects of BD loss i) Invasive species ii) Aforestation and deforestation
Examples of some threats tobiodiversity in Tanzania   i) Ecological isolation of    protected areas   Tarangire NP is is...
ii) Fragmentation of protected areas   Due to: logging, mining, construction e.g.    Ruvu F.R., Selous (TAZARA).   Fragm...
iii) Food and timber productionmethods   Change from subsistence agriculture    - industrial agriculture   Clearing natu...
iv) Invasive exotics into protectedareas   What’s an Invasive species?   What’s Alien invasive species?
Factors contributing to the introductionand spread of alien species   Human mobility.   Economic and trade    Climate c...
Examples of Alien invasive spp in EA   Nile perch (Lates niloticus)   Maesopsis eminii   Acacia mearnsii   Lantana cam...
Alien invasive speciesMaesopsis eminii in the E. Usambaras
Lantana camara
Impacts of Invasive species   Can reduce the quality of the forest   Sometimes they can eliminate native spp   Sometime...
How can we protect our PAs from       notorious invasives?   Quarantine   Planned imports and releases of exotics   Imp...
Control/Elimination of invasive species Mechanical Control Chemical Control by pesticides Biological Control Ecosystem...
V: Over-exploitation of plants and      animals   Over-exploitation of plants and animals    like deforestation could res...
Land clearing
Illegal logging/Mining
VI: Foreign debt serving   High levels of foreign debt, has put    pressure on governments to engage    in a variety of a...
ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT   What is Environment?   Environment overlapping    phenomenon:   physical, biol...
What is a resource   Resource implies something which:     Can be used to satisfy human      needs.     Some technology...
Impacts of Environmentaldegradation   Loss of bd has significant impact on    environment   Development activities could...
Impacts   Local impacts   Consider impact of tree fall or animal    killed in a tropical forest   National, regional an...
Relationship Environment and bd   Env and bd are cross-sectorial issues   BD are therefore housed in    environmental ag...
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (SD) The Concept of SD and its  implications Development        Environment led  to the concept ...
Concept of SD cont. Several defs, however, balancing the  fulfillment of human needs with the  protection of NE so that t...
Sustainable Agriculture Agriculture is sustainable if it  provide: Enough food Employment, Better income and Conserve...
Requirements for sustainable       development   Right Policy for effective citizen participation   Conducive economic s...
How to achieve sustainable        development   i) Conservation and development – hand in    hand   ii) Holistic Integra...
Challenges in Sustainable    Development Time-horizon of development The principle of the free market  mechanism Trickl...
Constraints on SD in Sub-Saharan    Africa General constraints Political constraints Socio-economic constraints Techno...
Roles of BD in Sustainable       Agricultural Planning   Maintain diversified ecosystem around    farms   Diversified cr...
ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENTS•   Popular from 1960s & 1970s DCs•   Main concern human impact on env•   1960s concern, pesticides...
Major International Environmental    conference UNCHE - Stockholm in 1972. WCED - 1986 -Brundtland Advocated world "SD"...
UNGA RESOLUTIONS 1989- Holistic approach to env &  development 1992 Earth Summit on SD – Rio MAIN OTPUT AGENDA 21
AGENDA 21   Action Plan and Strategy of env &    economic problems & solutions to the    problems.   Remove differences ...
INTERNATIONAL IMPLEMENTATIONOF RIO COMMITMENTS   International conferences of    1990s   Establishment of legal,    inst...
IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21     IN TANZANIA◊   Ratified important international legal    instruments – eg BD & Climate Cha...
CONSTRAINTS IN IMPLEMENTING    AGENDA 21 High Incidence of Poverty Un-equal distribution of pop/economy HIV/AIDS and hu...
WORLD SUMMIT ON SD, JOBURG    2002 (WSSD)   Main changes after Rio Summit:     Globalisation,     Increasedpoverty,   ...
Key areas dedicated for the WSSD Water, energy, Health, Agriculture  and Biodiversity To achieve SD in above areas we  n...
Key Outcomes of the WSSD   SD central element of the    international agenda   More Governments commitments on    SD   ...
BEYOND JOSBURG: FUTURE      PERSPECTIVES FOR TANZANIA   Main focus:   Inter-sectoral co-ordination and integration   Mo...
WORLD CONSERVATION       STRATEGY   What is conservation?   History of Conservation    e.g. Greeks and Romans   Motivat...
CONSERVATION OBJECTIVES   Maintain essential ecological processes   Preserve genetic resources   Ensure the sustainable...
WHY CONCERN ABOUT   CONSERVATIONGeneral Reduced ecosystem services Resources degradation particularly in  DCs due to pov...
Other concerns: Global Many living resources are shared Many living resources occur in areas  beyond national jurisdicti...
Main obstacles for conserving bd Belief on living resources Failure to integrate conservation with  development Poor de...
CONSERVATION AND MANG OF BD   Conservation to bd focus on:    • Causes of losses    • Opportunities for bd on SD   BD no...
Priority setting based on:   Importance of the BD to nations    survival   Distribution of BD   Level of endemism   Le...
Why Conservation of Natural forestand wildlife is a very challenging   High demand of this resource by the    people.   ...
METHODS OF REDUCING    BIODIVERSITY LOSSES   Respective and incorporate African    values, knowledge systems, and    prio...
Methods cont. Policies Education, Training and Networking Monitoring, Evaluation and Research
MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS    AND ENV. CONS 2000, 189 countries sign Millennium  declaration Focus on the declaration: ...
WHAT ARE THE MDGS? Blueprint on devel & env - agreed by  all world countries & all leading  developing institutions to er...
Element of the MDGsi) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger       Main sources of bd losses       Particular attention to...
ii) Achieve universal primary education   Girls/women are main target   Importance of women on bd    cons   Role of UNV
iii) Promote gender equity and    empower women   Women are the poorest yet they    are main actors in bd cons   Empower...
Constraints of Women empowerment    and participation in BD conservation Traditions – women should not own  land Lack of...
Others   iv) Reduce child mortality   v) Improve maternal health   vi) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria    and other diseases ...
viii) Develop global partnership for    development    Open trade – non-discriminatory    Assist to conserve rare specie...
C: The Linkage of MDGs and BD     conservation   Linkages btn MDG’s and BD cons exists but    not well articulated!!   C...
AND THEREFORE: Stable env will therefore assist to  achieve MDGs Income from bd can reduce  poverty Income from BD cons...
ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND ITS    MEASUREMENTSWhy ecologists interested in ecologicaldiversity and its measurement. Compreh...
Objective of measuring BD  To provide baseline information on:   distribution,   richness and   relative abundance of ...
How to measure diversity Recording the number of species Describing their relative abundance or Combine the two compone...
POPULATION INDICES Numerous diversity indices developed Indices seek to characterize the  diversity by a simple number....
Simpsons Diversity Index Used to quantify the bd of a habitat. Takes into account: the number of species present, and ...
i) Simpsons Index (D)   D = (n / N)2   n = the total no. of organisms of a    particular species    N = the total no. of...
Measuring biodiversity   Diversity appears to be very simple and    unambiguous concept.   Where then is the scope for s...
Example of the above   Consider 4 sites A, B, C and D Site A: - 1 species of moth Site B: - 3 species of moth   B is m...
Example cont.   Site C: 4 spp - @ moth sp has 3 individuals    = 12   Site D: 4spp – one sp has 9 individuals,    others...
METHODS OF ASSESSING FOREST   BIODIVERSITYi)Traditional inventory analysis:    Estimate of standing volume of      trees ...
Methods cont.ii) Remote Sensing:     Include aerial photography and      satellite imagery     Can not be used to identi...
MORE READINGS ON:   GLOBOLIZATION AND ITS    IMPACT TO BIODIVERSITY IN    THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES   GOOD LUCK
Biodiversity 2009
Biodiversity 2009
Biodiversity 2009
Biodiversity 2009
Biodiversity 2009
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Biodiversity 2009

  1. 1. BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMEN T Madoffe, S.S. Tailored for3rd Year BSc WLM 2007
  2. 2. Introductiono Living organisms and reliance on the envo The world’s bd made up of mi of sppo Species and environmental adaptationo All species depend on one another- directly or indirectly for their survivalo Recently more env degradation ever than beforeo Humans and the role on the future of the Eartho Conflicts btn Resource Utilization and Cons LEAD TO: Debate on Biodiversity
  3. 3. Why conflicts over bd use? Different interest groups at: local(medicinal), national (water catchment) and International (Carbon sequestration) Awareness on bd and measures to reduce losses
  4. 4. CONCEPT OF BIODIVERSITY  Existence of many species  Need to identify them – Estimates only  Identification difficult – WHY?
  5. 5. Table 1. Estimated number of individual species in thousands ESTIMATED NUMBERS (THOUSANDS)CATEGORY IDENTIFIED UNIDENTIFIEDALGAE 50 350ARACHNIDAE 45 550CRUSTACEANS 50 150FUNGI 40 1,360INSECTS 1,000 1,400MOLLUSCUS 250 100NEMATODES 45 455PLANTS 500 100PROTOZOA 100 160VERTEBRATES 150 0OTHERS 240 260
  6. 6. EXTINCTION OF SPECIESo Species extinction as natural phenomenono Role of human on spp extinctiono Do we know how many spp have disappeared?o Spp extinction and documentationo Have we overdrawn our account?o Status of Global foresto Examples from EAMs and Amazono Protect what protects us
  7. 7. BD &BIOLOGICAL RESOURCESo Biodiversity buzzword for the 1990s,o Concern over bd is not new.o BD = Contraction of Biological diversity.o Biodiversity variety of life forms ORo Variety and variability among living organisms
  8. 8. LEVELS OF BIODIVERSITY Three fundamental levels Genetic diversity: Species diversity Ecosystem diversity
  9. 9. Main gradients of terrestrial diversity Diversity increases from: Latitudinal gradients: Increase Poles – equator Elevation gradients: Increases with altitude. Precipitation gradients Others include: Nutrient levels, Salinity gradients and Island
  10. 10. TROPICAL BIODIVERSITY AN OVERVIEW  Very high bd:- spp, habitats, ecosystems  Spp richness depends on RTH.  About 2/3 of all spp occur in tropics  Tropical humid forests 14-18 mi. km2  Today shrinkage 1 mi. km2 every 5 - 10 yrs.
  11. 11. EA a Mega-biodiversity Region Due to:  Biogeographic diversity  Diversity of the land-form from  Patterns of geological change  History of ethnic/cultural diversity
  12. 12. Uses of Biodiversity Direct use Consumptive Commercial Indirect values  Maintain water cycles  Climate regeneration  Storage and cycling of essential nutrients  Photosynthesis etc These values: could be looked at: International, National, or local.
  13. 13. AGRICULTURAL VALUES OFBIODIVERSITY Genetic resources - rapid growth, high yield, pest resistance etc Crossing of cultivated species and their wild relatives Variety of gemplasm e.g. dry land cereals: millet, Wild species of cropping potential for agriculture/livestock
  14. 14. Biodiversity hotspots What are hotspots? High diversity of endemic spp and threatened Support 1,500 endemic plant species, 0.5%t of the global total Plant diversity is the biological basis for hotspot designation WHY? Diversity of endemic vertebrates in hotspot regions is also extraordinarily high
  15. 15. BD hotspot cont. There are 34 regions of biodiversity hotspots worldwide Examples: Madagascar, The tropical Andes, Mediterranean region, Mesoamerica, the Caribbean, Indo Burma etc In EA we have EAMs and Coastal forests of Kn and Tz
  16. 16. What are endemic species? Highly restricted organisms example Saint paulia (African violet), Usambara eagle owl, Uluguru violet-backed sunbird.
  17. 17. Why are there endemic species? Evolutionary history and respond to the environment they inhabit. Their ecological requirements are only met over a small area and They are not capable of dispersing great distances to other suitable habitats.
  18. 18. Why do hotspots have many endemicspecies? Many of the worlds hotspots are islands WHY?. Isolation over long periods of geologic time Benign environments - greatest diversity of ecosystems Isolate benign environments
  19. 19. Why are hotspots threatened? Island nature - Often unprepared to compete with the introduced and exotic species They are ecologically "naive." – due to evolutionary history Threats by humans - logging, slash and burn, mining etc
  20. 20. Hotspots conservation Pre-requisite Relies on scientific evaluations of the threatened status of species. Determining priority areas for conservation Set conservation priorities on the basis of resources and importance of the area
  21. 21. Hotspots can be evaluated in terms of: Their unique biodiversity The amount of habitat lost and protected, and The number of endemic species in a small area
  22. 22. Some conservation approaches The establishment of traditional PAs Implementation innovative economic alternatives Influencing the behaviour of the locals Working with international corporations Employ scientific, economic, policy, and education tools to create effective conservation strategies.
  23. 23. Monitoring hotspots Aim: Implement programs and strategies that are effective at protecting bd Hotspots are dynamic places Need to monitor them on what has already happened Anticipate what might happen, based on what has happened before
  24. 24. Monitoring done through Understanding the situation in these areas e.g. Patterns of biodiversity Which spp are concentrated in which places? Factors contributing to biodiversity loss How is biodiversity changing over time?Different ways of monitoring: Permanent sample plots, remotes sensing etc
  25. 25. Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of East Africa The Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests hotspot (Fig. 1) Stretches along most of the eastern coast of Tanzania and into extreme SE Kenya. The hotspot extends more than 400 km Comprises only 0.1% of tropical Africas land area yet contains 13% of the entire continents vascular plants.
  26. 26. The EAMs of EA
  27. 27. Threats to EAMs Fire Illegal logging and pole extraction Encroachment for Agricultural development and settlement Human population pressures also threaten the remaining forests Alien invasive species
  28. 28. Fire in lowland adjacent to EAMs
  29. 29. Cons of EAMs and Coastal forests What are the current conservation initiatives taken by both Tz government and International institutions?
  30. 30. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY The rate of species extinction is higher today than ever before In spite of this there are more species to date on earth than ever before. BD loss and environmental degradation is a result of humanity + natural
  31. 31. A: Socio-economic context ofBiodiversity loss i) Poverty ii) Loss of Traditional Knowledge iii) Population dynamics Consider : Migrations by people and livestock Urbanization Refugees in small area
  32. 32. iv) Poor agricultural practices Extensive and shifting cultivation Indiscriminate use of fire Cultivation on slopes – lead to soil erosion Monocultural farming Over-grazing Dilemma of pushing pastoralists to marginal areas
  33. 33. v) Pollution Agro-chemicals (pesticides, and chemical fertilizers) Mining lead to degradation, water pollution and disturbance of wildlife. Traffic.
  34. 34. vi) Energy Crisis Bio-energy use is about 92% Petroleum 7.2%, and electricity 0.8% vii) Tourism What are main tourism related problems?
  35. 35. 2. Ecological aspects of BD loss i) Invasive species ii) Aforestation and deforestation
  36. 36. Examples of some threats tobiodiversity in Tanzania i) Ecological isolation of protected areas Tarangire NP is isolated from lake Manyara NP Uluguru as an ecological islands Ref. Island biogeography theory
  37. 37. ii) Fragmentation of protected areas Due to: logging, mining, construction e.g. Ruvu F.R., Selous (TAZARA). Fragmentation: Reduces the effective habital areas Divides plant and animal pops into smaller isolated pops that become viable to local extinction Creates gaps barriers for dispersal and migration of animals and plants.
  38. 38. iii) Food and timber productionmethods Change from subsistence agriculture - industrial agriculture Clearing natural forests for industrial forest plantations WHY is industrial farming not sustainable in tropical Africa?
  39. 39. iv) Invasive exotics into protectedareas What’s an Invasive species? What’s Alien invasive species?
  40. 40. Factors contributing to the introductionand spread of alien species Human mobility. Economic and trade Climate change Conflict and construction Tourism Biological control of pests Forest/ecosystem disturbance
  41. 41. Examples of Alien invasive spp in EA Nile perch (Lates niloticus) Maesopsis eminii Acacia mearnsii Lantana camara Senna spectabilis Indian house crow
  42. 42. Alien invasive speciesMaesopsis eminii in the E. Usambaras
  43. 43. Lantana camara
  44. 44. Impacts of Invasive species Can reduce the quality of the forest Sometimes they can eliminate native spp Sometimes invaders brings its diseases or parasites Sometimes they interbreed - thus eroding native gene diversity Sometimes exotics out-compete natives for an essential resource They exert a price.
  45. 45. How can we protect our PAs from notorious invasives? Quarantine Planned imports and releases of exotics Importers to accept liability for damages Govt determine ecological effects of new spp International co-operation Adopt a general policy on use of native species
  46. 46. Control/Elimination of invasive species Mechanical Control Chemical Control by pesticides Biological Control Ecosystem Manipulation Integrated Management
  47. 47. V: Over-exploitation of plants and animals Over-exploitation of plants and animals like deforestation could result in: Habitat destruction and modification, Examples:  Charcoal burning  Excessive harvesting of animals e.g. elephants, rhinos
  48. 48. Land clearing
  49. 49. Illegal logging/Mining
  50. 50. VI: Foreign debt serving High levels of foreign debt, has put pressure on governments to engage in a variety of agricultural and industrial practices e.g Hunting block e.g. in Loliondo Mining in Lake Zone could endanger some species - WHY?
  51. 51. ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT What is Environment? Environment overlapping phenomenon: physical, biological, anthropic, and resource generating in nature. Humans use Resources and could be renewable or non-renewable
  52. 52. What is a resource Resource implies something which:  Can be used to satisfy human needs.  Some technology to extract and transform it to a usable form  Must be a demand for that product.
  53. 53. Impacts of Environmentaldegradation Loss of bd has significant impact on environment Development activities could have impact on the environment
  54. 54. Impacts Local impacts Consider impact of tree fall or animal killed in a tropical forest National, regional and global impacts Effects of Uluguru Mt forests and water resources in Dar River Nile and Niger Deforestation in the LCD and industrial pollution in DC on C build-up.
  55. 55. Relationship Environment and bd Env and bd are cross-sectorial issues BD are therefore housed in environmental agencies, e.g Environmental degradation increase GHGs, soil erosion etc which impact on biodiversity Solution to environmental problems is thus solutions to biodiversity issues
  56. 56. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (SD) The Concept of SD and its implications Development Environment led to the concept of SD SD now a central concept in environmental policies of many countries.
  57. 57. Concept of SD cont. Several defs, however, balancing the fulfillment of human needs with the protection of NE so that these needs can be met now and future SD has to be:  environmentally friendly  technically appropriate,  economically viable and  socially acceptable
  58. 58. Sustainable Agriculture Agriculture is sustainable if it provide: Enough food Employment, Better income and Conserve NR and protect the environment.
  59. 59. Requirements for sustainable development Right Policy for effective citizen participation Conducive economic system Friendly social system with less conflicts Environmentally friendly production system International system that fosters sustainable patterns of trade and finance Administrative system that is flexible and has the capacity for self-correction
  60. 60. How to achieve sustainable development i) Conservation and development – hand in hand ii) Holistic Integration in: land use; traditional and modern systems & technology iii) Cropping/animal production systems iv) Alternative energy systems v) Monitoring of resources and environment vi) Education, training, and orientation priorities
  61. 61. Challenges in Sustainable Development Time-horizon of development The principle of the free market mechanism Trickle-down process from the developed countries Liberalization and an increase in North-South trade and aid cooperation
  62. 62. Constraints on SD in Sub-Saharan Africa General constraints Political constraints Socio-economic constraints Technological constraints Specific or sectoral constraints  Agriculture  Industrial development  Mineral industry development
  63. 63. Roles of BD in Sustainable Agricultural Planning Maintain diversified ecosystem around farms Diversified cropping systems, and cultivars. Traditional activities-ecologically sound Use env friendly cropping & husbandry practice Promoting sound economic valuation Promote community participation in planning
  64. 64. ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENTS• Popular from 1960s & 1970s DCs• Main concern human impact on env• 1960s concern, pesticides, pollution, & population.• 1970s, concern resource depletion, pop and poverty• Today, global conservation & wise mang of NR for SD
  65. 65. Major International Environmental conference UNCHE - Stockholm in 1972. WCED - 1986 -Brundtland Advocated world "SD" 1987,WCED "Our Common Future" Global env problems and measures to solve them.
  66. 66. UNGA RESOLUTIONS 1989- Holistic approach to env & development 1992 Earth Summit on SD – Rio MAIN OTPUT AGENDA 21
  67. 67. AGENDA 21 Action Plan and Strategy of env & economic problems & solutions to the problems. Remove differences btn N&S Global consensus and political commitment Develop alternative and more environmentally friendly ways of living. Aiming to achieve SD - "sustainable living"
  68. 68. INTERNATIONAL IMPLEMENTATIONOF RIO COMMITMENTS International conferences of 1990s Establishment of legal, institutional and policy instruments Mid-term assessment (1997) of Rio Resolutions
  69. 69. IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21 IN TANZANIA◊ Ratified important international legal instruments – eg BD & Climate Change Conventions.◊ Important legislations at national level – Forest policy, Land policy, etc◊ Institutional arrangements like establishment of NEMC◊ Policy documents e.g. Environment, Population, HIV/AIDS, PRSPs
  70. 70. CONSTRAINTS IN IMPLEMENTING AGENDA 21 High Incidence of Poverty Un-equal distribution of pop/economy HIV/AIDS and human health problems Other: extreme weather conditions, negative effects of globalization etc
  71. 71. WORLD SUMMIT ON SD, JOBURG 2002 (WSSD) Main changes after Rio Summit:  Globalisation,  Increasedpoverty,  HIV/AIDS, Loss of bd etc Rio was for commitments Joburg was to: • Review progress of agenda 21 & • Map way forward towards global SD.
  72. 72. Key areas dedicated for the WSSD Water, energy, Health, Agriculture and Biodiversity To achieve SD in above areas we need: Global Partnership e.g. NEPAD
  73. 73. Key Outcomes of the WSSD SD central element of the international agenda More Governments commitments on SD Energy and sanitation issues More support to Africa and NEPAD Civil society were given prominence The concept of partnerships
  74. 74. BEYOND JOSBURG: FUTURE PERSPECTIVES FOR TANZANIA Main focus: Inter-sectoral co-ordination and integration More emphasis on SD and poverty reduction themes Harmonization and further development of legal, policy and institutional arrangements Further action on HIV/AIDS and poverty, and environmental degradation
  75. 75. WORLD CONSERVATION STRATEGY What is conservation? History of Conservation e.g. Greeks and Romans Motivations for conservation in Africa:  Preserve game for colonial hunters  Preserve for rituals (sacred forests)
  76. 76. CONSERVATION OBJECTIVES Maintain essential ecological processes Preserve genetic resources Ensure the sustainable utilisation of species and ecosystems
  77. 77. WHY CONCERN ABOUT CONSERVATIONGeneral Reduced ecosystem services Resources degradation particularly in DCs due to poverty and struggle for food Increased costs to produce goods and services The resource base of major industries is shrinking
  78. 78. Other concerns: Global Many living resources are shared Many living resources occur in areas beyond national jurisdiction Living resources in one state may be affected by activities done in another state
  79. 79. Main obstacles for conserving bd Belief on living resources Failure to integrate conservation with development Poor developmental planning Lack of a capacity to conserve Lack of support for conservation Wrong target conservation group
  80. 80. CONSERVATION AND MANG OF BD Conservation to bd focus on: • Causes of losses • Opportunities for bd on SD BD not equally distributed – Set conser priority Approaches in priority setting  biodiversity hotsports,  major tropical wilderness and  megadiversity countries.
  81. 81. Priority setting based on: Importance of the BD to nations survival Distribution of BD Level of endemism Level of threat Availability of resources
  82. 82. Why Conservation of Natural forestand wildlife is a very challenging High demand of this resource by the people. Artificial regeneration very difficult and most of the species are under studied. Little biological data for making precise cons recommendations
  83. 83. METHODS OF REDUCING BIODIVERSITY LOSSES Respective and incorporate African values, knowledge systems, and priorities Involving local people in conservation activities Biodiversity conservation systems
  84. 84. Methods cont. Policies Education, Training and Networking Monitoring, Evaluation and Research
  85. 85. MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND ENV. CONS 2000, 189 countries sign Millennium declaration Focus on the declaration: Peace, security and disarmament Development and poverty reduction Protection of environment Human rights, democracy and good governance
  86. 86. WHAT ARE THE MDGS? Blueprint on devel & env - agreed by all world countries & all leading developing institutions to eradicate extreme poverty worldwide Key target of MDGs – fight poverty through reduced loss of env resources by advocating bd conservation
  87. 87. Element of the MDGsi) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger  Main sources of bd losses  Particular attention to marginal areas  BD main source of livelihood by poor  Poor countries borrow from DCs and they pay through bd utilization Strengthening rural income will reduce BD losses
  88. 88. ii) Achieve universal primary education Girls/women are main target Importance of women on bd cons Role of UNV
  89. 89. iii) Promote gender equity and empower women Women are the poorest yet they are main actors in bd cons Empowerment will help in decision making, access to knowledge etc
  90. 90. Constraints of Women empowerment and participation in BD conservation Traditions – women should not own land Lack of ownership Little control of benefits from income Restricted in participation of social welfare
  91. 91. Others iv) Reduce child mortality v) Improve maternal health vi) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases vii) Ensure environmental sustainability
  92. 92. viii) Develop global partnership for development Open trade – non-discriminatory Assist to conserve rare species, endangered etc Good governance reduce poverty Cancel debts etc
  93. 93. C: The Linkage of MDGs and BD conservation Linkages btn MDG’s and BD cons exists but not well articulated!! Consider poverty, diseases, education Vs Env conservation!! Dangers of not understanding and accepting the linkage by politicians and technocrats Could compromise conservation objectives
  94. 94. AND THEREFORE: Stable env will therefore assist to achieve MDGs Income from bd can reduce poverty Income from BD cons can improve social services eg health, education etc
  95. 95. ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND ITS MEASUREMENTSWhy ecologists interested in ecologicaldiversity and its measurement. Comprehending ecosystem structure and function. Conserving and breeding. Monitoring important land management interventions Set areas of priority for conser of bd
  96. 96. Objective of measuring BD To provide baseline information on:  distribution,  richness and  relative abundance of taxa that is needed for conservation decisionNB: Biodiversity seen as indicators of the wellbeing of ecological systems
  97. 97. How to measure diversity Recording the number of species Describing their relative abundance or Combine the two components
  98. 98. POPULATION INDICES Numerous diversity indices developed Indices seek to characterize the diversity by a simple number. Two best known are Simpson’s Index Shannon’s
  99. 99. Simpsons Diversity Index Used to quantify the bd of a habitat. Takes into account: the number of species present, and abundance of each species. Simpsons Diversity Index refer to any one of 3 closely related indices
  100. 100. i) Simpsons Index (D) D = (n / N)2 n = the total no. of organisms of a particular species N = the total no. of organisms of all species The value of D ranges between 0 and 1 ii) Simpsons Index of Diversity 1 - D iii) Simpsons Reciprocal Index 1 / D
  101. 101. Measuring biodiversity Diversity appears to be very simple and unambiguous concept. Where then is the scope for so many competing indices? Because diversity measures takes into account two factors. Species richness – i.e. number of species Evenness (equitability)
  102. 102. Example of the above Consider 4 sites A, B, C and D Site A: - 1 species of moth Site B: - 3 species of moth B is more diverse i.e. greater richness
  103. 103. Example cont. Site C: 4 spp - @ moth sp has 3 individuals = 12 Site D: 4spp – one sp has 9 individuals, others (3 sp.) have 1 individual @ giving a total of 12 individuals C & D have equal number of spp and individuals (12), The greater evenness of C makes it more diverse
  104. 104. METHODS OF ASSESSING FOREST BIODIVERSITYi)Traditional inventory analysis:  Estimate of standing volume of trees or animals in an area  To determine changes with time (e.g FHM) Could use permanent or temporary sample plots
  105. 105. Methods cont.ii) Remote Sensing:  Include aerial photography and satellite imagery  Can not be used to identify individual plant Can be used for mapping vegetation (zonation) and land use planning
  106. 106. MORE READINGS ON: GLOBOLIZATION AND ITS IMPACT TO BIODIVERSITY IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES GOOD LUCK

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