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Prescription drugs for the respiratory system


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Prescription drugs for the respiratory system

  1. 1. Prescription drugs for the Respiratory System Biology 120 Mary E. Martin
  2. 2. Ventolin HFA <ul><li>Generic name Albuterol Sulfate </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Understanding what causes your asthma </li></ul><ul><li>To better understand your asthma, you should first recognize what causes it. When you have asthma, there are 2 main things happening inside your lungs:       – Bronchospasm — The tightening of muscles surrounding the airways       – Inflammation — The swelling or irritation of the airways </li></ul><ul><li>Together, bronchospasm and inflammation can cause wheezing, chest tightness, coughing, and shortness of breath. If your symptoms worsen, you may be having an asthma attack. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>How VENTOLIN HFA can help </li></ul><ul><li>VENTOLIN HFA is an albuterol inhaler. Albuterol treats bronchospasm by quickly opening the airways within your lungs to ease breathing during an asthma attack. VENTOLIN HFA can be used as a rescue medicine to help relieve your sudden asthma symptoms when they occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Like most asthma medicines and many other household products, VENTOLIN HFA uses a propellant — a gas that sprays the medicine out of the canister. VENTOLIN HFA uses a propellant called hydrofluoroalkane, or HFA, which is not as harmful to the ozone layer as the previous propellant, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). GlaxoSmithKline was the first company to have a completely CFC-free respiratory portfolio of products available in the United States. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Possible side effects <ul><li>Paradoxical bronchospasm </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular effects </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate hypersensitivity reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Hypokalemia </li></ul><ul><li>VENTOLIN HFA acts within minutes to help relieve bronchospasm and its symptoms and lasts for up to 4 to 6 hours. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions <ul><li>Immediate hypersensitivity reactions may occur after administration of albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol, as demonstrated by cases of urticaria, angioedema, rash, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis, and oropharyngeal edema. Discontinue VENTOLIN HFA if immediate hypersensitivity reactions occur. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cardiovascular effects <ul><li>VENTOLIN HFA, like all other beta2-adrenergic agonists, can produce clinically significant cardiovascular effects in some patients such as changes in pulse rate or blood pressure. If such effects occur, VENTOLIN HFA may need to be discontinued. In addition, beta-agonists have been reported to produce electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, such as flattening of the T wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression. The clinical relevance of these findings is unknown. Therefore, VENTOLIN HFA, like all other sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with underlying cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Paradoxical Bronchospasm <ul><li>Inhaled albuterol sulfate can produce paradoxical bronchospasm, which may be life threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, VENTOLIN HFA should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted. It should be recognized that paradoxical bronchospasm, when associated with inhaled formulations, frequently occurs with the first use of a new canister. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Flonase <ul><li>Generic name: fluticasone nasal </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>What is Flonase? </li></ul><ul><li>Flonase is a nasal spray containing the corticosteriod fluticasone. It prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. </li></ul><ul><li>Flonase is used to treat nasal symptoms such as congestion, sneezing, and runny nose caused by seasonal or year-round allergies. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Flonase can lower the blood cells that help your body fight infections. Avoid being near people who are sick or have infections. Call your doctor for preventive treatment if you are exposed to chicken pox or measles. These conditions can be serious or even fatal in people who are using this medicine. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Before using Flonase, tell your doctor if you have been sick or had an infection of any kind. You may not be able to use Flonase until you are well. </li></ul><ul><li>Also tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs, or if you have: </li></ul><ul><li>glaucoma or cataracts; </li></ul><ul><li>liver disease; </li></ul><ul><li>herpes simplex virus of your eyes; </li></ul><ul><li>tuberculosis or any other infection or illness; </li></ul><ul><li>sores or ulcers inside your nose; or </li></ul><ul><li>if you have recently had injury of or surgery on your nose. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Flonase side effects <ul><li>Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction to Flonase: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: </li></ul><ul><li>severe or ongoing nose bleed; </li></ul><ul><li>sores in the nose that won't heal; </li></ul><ul><li>vision problems; or </li></ul><ul><li>fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Less serious Flonase side effects may include: <ul><li>headache, back pain; </li></ul><ul><li>minor nose bleed; </li></ul><ul><li>menstrual problems, loss of interest in sex; </li></ul><ul><li>sinus pain, cough, sore throat; or </li></ul><ul><li>sores or white patches inside or around your nose </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Before using Flonase, tell your doctor if you are using any of the following drugs: </li></ul><ul><li>certain antifungal medications such as ketoconazole (Nizoral); or </li></ul><ul><li>HIV medicines such as ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cipro <ul><li>Generic name: Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Oral tablet </li></ul>
  17. 17. What is this medicine? <ul><li>CIPROFLOXACIN (sip roe FLOX a sin) is a quinolone antibiotic. It is used to treat certain kinds of bacterial infections. It will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. </li></ul>
  18. 18.   What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine? <ul><li>They need to know if you have any of these conditions: •child with joint problems •heart condition •kidney disease •liver disease •seizures disorder •an unusual or allergic reaction to ciprofloxacin, other antibiotics or medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives •pregnant or trying to get pregnant •breast-feeding </li></ul>
  19. 19.   What may interact with this medicine? <ul><li>Do not take this medicine with any of the following medications: •cisapride •droperidol •terfenadine •tizanidine </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>This medicine may also interact with the following medications: •antacids •caffeine •cyclosporin •didanosine (ddI) buffered tablets or powder •medicines for diabetes •medicines for inflammation like ibuprofen, naproxen •methotrexate •multivitamins •omeprazole •phenytoin •probenecid •sucralfate •theophylline •warfarin </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible : •allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue •breathing problems •confusion, nightmares or hallucinations •feeling faint or lightheaded, falls •irregular heartbeat •joint, muscle or tendon pain or swelling •pain or trouble passing urine •redness, blistering, peeling or loosening of the skin, including inside the mouth •seizure •unusual pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome): •diarrhea •nausea or stomach upset •white patches or sores in the mouth </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>peripheral vasodilatation </li></ul><ul><li>angina </li></ul><ul><li>tremor </li></ul><ul><li>central nervous system stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>sleeplessness </li></ul><ul><li>headache </li></ul><ul><li>muscle cramps </li></ul><ul><li>drying or irritation of the oropharynx </li></ul>Other possible side effects