PROCESS DRAMA, ICL AND
BEGINNER LANGUAGE LEARNERS

          AFMLTA
        SYDNEY 2009
        JULIA ROTHWELL QUT
The session
► Brief
      introduction to the project and process
  drama
► Workshop: a gallop through some strategies
► Q...
The classroom context
 Language classrooms:

 the "joyless pursuit of parts
 of speech and correction of
 'faulty sentence...
Engaging bodies
►   To what extent do contemporary language classrooms
    heed Dewey’s (1916/68) advice "the pupil has a ...
Model of language for research
                 (Bakhtin, Halliday)

►A  social practice which uses a culturally specific
...
Intercultural literacy
►A  capacity to reflect on the cultural identities of
  self and other, and their relationship to l...
…with beginners




     ??
Key elements of research                  (5)



►Kress  & van Leeuwen: multiple modes
►Bakhtin, Halliday: range of genres...
Process drama:
              ‘doing’ difference
The process involves:-
► Storying: pre-text, scenarios, reactions &
  rela...
Process drama: the processes

                    Reflection        Pre-text




    Enrolment/storying                   ...
Research site

•Middle class state secondary school
•Grade 8 class of 21 students, 3 with mild

 learning disabilities,
•H...
Research methodology
► Actionresearch over 2 terms, 3 hours a week
► Observing teacher
► Process drama focus question:


 ...
Unit of work: focus experiences
► Term 1
On board the ship
► Give name & age to board ship
► Reflect on need for migrants ...
Workshop          (10-35)



► Shaun    Tan picture; reason for leaving
► ‘Choose’ family identity from ship’s lists (pre-...
Process drama with beginner
          learners
                Reflection + drill      Pre-text +
                Language...
List of process drama strategies used
► Pre-text
► Shoulder  tap
► Freeze frame
► Teacher in role
► Soundscape
► Hot seat
...
Characteristics of process drama which
        support intercultural literacy
► Less  textbook reliance; students out of d...
Questions, comments
j.rothwell@qut.edu.au
Bibliography
►   Bakhtin, M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays. Austin: University of
    Texas Press.
►   Bakht...
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Intercultural language learning: performance and reflection through process drama

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Intercultural language learning: performance and reflection through process drama Presentation given by Julia Rothwell at AFMLTA conference Sydney 2009

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Intercultural language learning: performance and reflection through process drama

  1. 1. PROCESS DRAMA, ICL AND BEGINNER LANGUAGE LEARNERS AFMLTA SYDNEY 2009 JULIA ROTHWELL QUT
  2. 2. The session ► Brief introduction to the project and process drama ► Workshop: a gallop through some strategies ► Questions, reflection, discussion
  3. 3. The classroom context Language classrooms: the "joyless pursuit of parts of speech and correction of 'faulty sentences" (Christie, 2004 p. 149)? Or “agitated and cacophonous dialogic life” (Bakhtin,1981, p.344) Julia Rothwell QUT July 2009
  4. 4. Engaging bodies ► To what extent do contemporary language classrooms heed Dewey’s (1916/68) advice "the pupil has a body, and brings it to school along with his mind. And the body is, of necessity, a wellspring of energy; it has to do something" (p. 141)? ► Post compulsory enrolment in language learning in Australia (et al) is tiny. Students make comments such as „...when I was learning German we just sat down and got told what to do“ and „Lessons were all about sitting down and writing“ (PhD data set, 2009)
  5. 5. Model of language for research (Bakhtin, Halliday) ►A social practice which uses a culturally specific system of spoken words and written symbols for different purposes with different people. ► Sense of genre: Field, tenor and mode - performance of genres ► Language as dynamic across time and space ► Language imbued with all that’s gone before, individually and culturally - a ‘heteroglossic cacophony’… Julia Rothwell QUT July 2009
  6. 6. Intercultural literacy ►A capacity to reflect on the cultural identities of self and other, and their relationship to language, in a critical and refractive way; ► an informed understanding of the nature and complexity of the language and behavioural choices made in any interaction; ► a consequent skill and confidence in negotiating meaningful interaction with speakers of different languages and cultural backgrounds….
  7. 7. …with beginners ??
  8. 8. Key elements of research (5) ►Kress & van Leeuwen: multiple modes ►Bakhtin, Halliday: range of genres, audience and authentic communicative texts; language as a cultural experience ►Carr, O’Toole: experience communication as ‘others’ ►Ongoing conversations with students about language learning and engagement Julia Rothwell QUT July 2009
  9. 9. Process drama: ‘doing’ difference The process involves:- ► Storying: pre-text, scenarios, reactions & relationships ► Multiple roles - varied experiences of field, tenor and mode -multi-vocal (heteroglossic) ► Cycle of experience: in role then reflection – intracultural/intercultural (O’Toole, 1993) distance ► Critical pedagogy: drama & languages as education for citizenship – reflection around key question related to target and first language/cultures. Julia Rothwell QUT July 2009
  10. 10. Process drama: the processes Reflection Pre-text Enrolment/storying Building belief Reflection Enrolment/storying
  11. 11. Research site •Middle class state secondary school •Grade 8 class of 21 students, 3 with mild learning disabilities, •Half beginners, half (mixed) primary experience
  12. 12. Research methodology ► Actionresearch over 2 terms, 3 hours a week ► Observing teacher ► Process drama focus question: What is it like to leave your home country forever, to live in a new land using a new language? Julia Rothwell QUT July 2009
  13. 13. Unit of work: focus experiences ► Term 1 On board the ship ► Give name & age to board ship ► Reflect on need for migrants to speak language before arrive ► Describe family to strangers ► Describe & respond to ship’s conditions ► Organise family photo captions/write postcard/email home ► Read, develop story of, and reflect on hardships of voyage ► Pass immigration interview to enter Germany
  14. 14. Workshop (10-35) ► Shaun Tan picture; reason for leaving ► ‘Choose’ family identity from ship’s lists (pre-text) ► “Wie heissen Sie?” (inside - outside circles) ► (Fill in ticket) ► Family photo for govt records – shut eyes-discuss feelings (freeze frame, shoulder tap) ► Board ship giving name and age, speaking no English (role play, teacher in role) ► Introduction to other family in cabin (role play) ► Storm at sea (storying, freeze frame, shoulder tap, soundscape, hot seat)
  15. 15. Process drama with beginner learners Reflection + drill Pre-text + Language L1/ L2 vocab building L1/L2 Enrolment/ Building belief + storying + build drill language chunks personal language + local context info needs L2 L1/L2 Enrolment/ storying + build Reflection + drill personal language language needs L2 L1/ L2
  16. 16. List of process drama strategies used ► Pre-text ► Shoulder tap ► Freeze frame ► Teacher in role ► Soundscape ► Hot seat ► Gossip mill ► Inside-outside circles ► Role play ► Storying
  17. 17. Characteristics of process drama which support intercultural literacy ► Less textbook reliance; students out of desks ► Links to first language acquisition – purpose over form - flexible learning sequences ► Wider functions, genres and forms ► Considered use of L1 and L2 – when and for what ► Reflection on differences and on connections between language and cultural referents in new and first language ► Can explore new communicative media – despite school technology limitations (students’ bodies, digital camera, video, Youtube, photostory) Julia Rothwell QUT July 2009
  18. 18. Questions, comments j.rothwell@qut.edu.au
  19. 19. Bibliography ► Bakhtin, M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays. Austin: University of Texas Press. ► Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). The dialogic imagination. Austin: University of Texas Press. Halliday, M. A. K. (1985a). Spoken and written language. Victoria: Deakin University Press. ► Carr, J. (1999). From 'sympathetic' to 'dialogic' imagination: Cultural study in the foreign language classroom. In J. Lo Bianco, A. Liddicoat & C.Crozet (Eds.), Striving for the third place. Melbourne: Language Australia.Halliday, M. A. K. (1993). Language in a changing world: Occasional paper no 13. Deakin, ACT: ALAA. ► Halliday, M. A. K. (2004). Representing the child as a semiotic being (one who means). In J. A. Foley (Ed.), Language, education and discourse: Functional approaches. London, New York: Continuum. ► Halliday, M. A. K. H., R. (1985). Language, context and text: Aspects of language in a social-semiotic perspective. Deakin, Victoria: Deakin University Press. ► O'Toole, J. (1992). The process of drama: negotiating art and meaning. London: Routledge. Julia Rothwell QUT July 2009

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