The Student is the Customer: Santa Clara University School of Law Needs Assessment

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By identifying the student as the primary customer early on the process and thoroughly analyzing their experiences, MKThink found that meeting students' needs benefited everyone in the long run and streamlined the planning and design process.

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The Student is the Customer: Santa Clara University School of Law Needs Assessment

  1. 1. The Student Is the Customer Santa Clara University School of Law Needs Assessment Don Polden, Dean, Santa Clara University School of Law Nate Goore, Principal, MKThink MKTHINK the IDEAS company for the built environment 0
  2. 2. Session Overview • Santa Clara University School of Law Overview • Who is the Customer? • Case Study: Needs Assessment – Research and Analysis process – Findings • Next Steps • Conclusions 1
  3. 3. Santa Clara University School of Law Overview • Founded in 1912 • One of the top 10 schools for Intellectual Property and High-Technology degrees • Full and Part-time programs – Full-time enrollment: 750 – Part-time enrollment: 225 • Tuition-driven revenue model 2
  4. 4. Santa Clara University School of Law Students • 10th most ethnically diverse student body in the country – 40% of applicants from outside California – 50 states and 68 foreign countries • Class Composition – Women 54% – Men 46% – Students of Color 49% • Age – Full-time median age 25 (range 21-47) – Part-time median age 30 (range 22-50) • Tuition – $30,750 Full-time – $21,525 Part-time 3
  5. 5. The Law School Has Established Clear Institutional Goals Santa Clara University School of Law will excel in preparing its students to meet the challenges of a legal profession that is increasingly global, technologically sophisticated, and culturally diverse. In fulfilling this vision, the Law School is dedicated to educating lawyers of competence, conscience and compassion. • Maintain student-focused culture • Improve lawyering skills • Fully enable and support current and future curriculum • Engender student, faculty, and staff community • Enable centers to achieve full prominence (Technology, Social Justice, International) 4
  6. 6. Achieving These Goals Will Require Changes to the Built Environment Current • Aging facilities and infrastructure Conditions • Series of incremental renovations and additions • Extremely high density • Growth accommodated through off-campus leases The current environment is inhibiting the school from achieving its Goals 5
  7. 7. Project We Implemented a Process That Translated the Overview School Goals into Actionable Activities Discovery Assessment Project Definition SCU Law School Goals Establish Define Projects Key Facility Evaluation Customers Gap Action Plan Analysis Project Implementation Goals and User Needs Measures Issues Best Practices Emerging Themes and Opportunities 6
  8. 8. Key Developing Project Goals Required an Understanding Customers of the Customer University Donors Neighbors Faculty Staff Students Daily occupants Alumni Community Different Customers have Different Needs 7
  9. 9. Key Customers Possible Customer Focus: Alumni and Donors Opportunities • Optimized fundraising process University • Emphasis on new facility as key Donors growth driver Neighbors Students Constraints Faculty • Program and building design Staff tailored to individual donors • More expensive program—new Community construction focus Alumni 8
  10. 10. Key Customers Possible Customer Focus: Faculty Opportunities University • Create optimized faculty Donors environment Neighbors Students • Attract and retain top faculty Faculty • Faculty depth and reputation key Staff driver for growth—will attract students Alumni Community Constraints • Inconsistent with School’s mission 9
  11. 11. Key Customers Possible Customer Focus: Students Opportunities University Donors • Consistent with core mission Neighbors • Targets primary revenue source Students • Opportunity to increase enrollment Staff • Campaignable themes Faculty Alumni Constraints Community • Changing student body could mean changing needs 10
  12. 12. Key Customers Students as Primary Customer: Implications • Analyze current conditions from student perspective • Understand school as system for delivering desired student experience • Design new ‘customer experience’ for students • Clear communication of intent to other customers and stakeholders • Discpline required to stay focused on student Focusing on meeting student needs will also serve other customers 11
  13. 13. Project Goals Specific Goals were Established for the Built Environment • Foster student, faculty, and staff interaction • Align capacity with current and future needs SCU Law School Goals • Primary entry and sense of community Students as • Ability to support curriculum Primary Customers • Strategy for housing the centers • Flexibility for future growth and change • Solutions consistent with budget expectations 12
  14. 14. Project Our Process Translated the School Goals into Actionable Overview Activities Discovery Assessment Project Definition SCU Law School Goals Establish Key Define Projects Customers Facility Evaluation Gap Action Plan Analysis Project Goals Implementation and Measures User Needs Issues Best Practices Emerging Themes and Opportunities 13
  15. 15. Research and Analysis Was Organized Around the Student Experience • Campus • Learning Environments • Faculty Access • Support Services • Informal Interaction Space • Information Access • Identity-defining environments 14
  16. 16. An Intensive Data Collection Effort Drew from Many Sources Customer experience Facility Assessment Benchmarks Qualitative • Interviews • Walkthroughs • Benchmarking research • Focus Groups • Structural, accessibility and exiting constraints • Survey • Observation • Videography Quantitative • Admissions and • Space allocation • ABA Space allocation Enrollment reports • Adjacency and • Time tracking organization • Space Utilization • Occupancy • Library Circulation reports 15
  17. 17. Overview of Findings • Campus • Learning Environments • Faculty Access • Support Services • Informal Interaction Space • Information Access • Identity-defining environments 16
  18. 18. Campus Students Access 10 Separate Buildings On and Off Campus… Not Shown: East San Jose Community Law Center 17
  19. 19. Campus …And Functions are Distributed Across Buildings S.F 50,000 49,200 Types of Space- SF % Building Support/Circulation 37,486 37% Book Storage 18,934 19% Centers 1,477 1% 40,000 Interaction Space 2,777 2% Offices 19,518 16% Learning Environment 27,100 27% 30,000 20,000 17,000 14,000 10,000 9,075 3,385 3,200 2,974 1,854 1,440 1,400 619 0 Heafey Bannan Bergin ESJCLC Law House Montgomery H, Annex BofA Law Alumni Journals Benson 18
  20. 20. Campus Campus Environment Student Perspective • Absence of clearly articulated campus • Shared buildings with undergraduates harms sense of community Quotes “The campus environment should reflect what we will be exposed to when we graduate.” “We need our own space.” “Knock down all of the little buildings surrounding campus.” “Buildings are too scattered—need to be visibly linked.” “The career center seems like a makeshift operation.” “It would be nice for the law school to have all of Bannan.” 19
  21. 21. Overview of Findings • Campus • Learning Environments • Faculty Access • Support Services • Informal Interaction Space • Information Access • Identity-defining environments 20
  22. 22. Structured Learning Students Attend the Majority of Classes in One Building Environment Several additional classroom are located off-campus 21
  23. 23. Structured Learning Classrooms and Seminar Rooms Environment Student Perspective Themes • Rooms are the wrong size - too big or too small • Poor configurations and acoustics Quotes “It interrupts the entire class when people come in late because they have to maneuver around laptop cords and book bags.” “The Socratic method does not work in the giant classrooms.” “Classrooms in Montgomery and the Law Alumni Center are too far away.” “Seminar rooms always have to be rearranged because lectures and skills courses are taught there.” “Classrooms should be configured to emphasize interaction.” “We have too small a class in too large a space.” 22
  24. 24. Structured Learning The Current Classroom Configuration Isn’t Aligned With Environment the Needs of the Students Weekly Room In Use Hours Weekly Room In Use Hours: 2002-2003 50 • Students Occupy Rooms over 45 40 40 hours per week… 35 30 Hours 25 20 15 10 Fall 5 Spring 0 Summer R 0 7 5 7 9 2 6 ic 11 12 13 13 13 14 11 C lin LC C nn nn nn nn nn nn n gi w JC Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba La r Be ES Room Average Seat Occupancy By Room Average Seat Occupancy by Room: Fall 2002 Fall 2002 140 125 125 …but On average, rooms are less 120 than half full 100 100 84 84 80 Seats 59.9 59.2 60 47 48.1 40 40 40 19.1 18.5 20 20 15.1 11.6 20 TOTAL 6 OCCUPIED 0 R 6 0 7 5 7 9 2 ic C 11 11 12 13 13 13 14 l in LC C in nn nn nn nn nn nn JC w rg Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba Ba La ES Be Room 23
  25. 25. Structured Learning Class Sizes are Becoming Smaller, but Most Seats Are in Environment Large Rooms Number of Classes Total Class Usage By Enrollment by Enrollment: 2002-2003 2002-2003 50 • Many classes have fewer than 45 45 students… 40 35 # of Classes 30 25 20 15 10 Fall 5 Spring 0 Summer #1-15 16-30 31-45 46-60 61-75 76-90 90+ Students Enrolled Number of Room by Size vs. of Rooms by Size Vs. Total Seats By Size Number Total Seats by Size 300 • …while most of the Law School’s 250 available classroom seats are in large classrooms 200 ## of Seats Of Rooms 150 100 50 0 Total Seats By Room Size # 1-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 80-101 101-120 121+ Room size # Of Seats 24
  26. 26. Structured Learning Students Are In Classes Throughout the Day Environment • Daily patterns are consistent • Fall and Spring show similar patterns • Consistently large use patterns after 6PM Day Utilization (Total): 2002-2003 Day Utilization(Total) 2002- 2003 100% 90% Autumn-Mon Autumn-Tue 80% Autumn-Wed 70% Autumn-Thur Autumn-Fri 60% Winter-Mon Utilization 50% Winter-Tues Winter-Wed 40% Winter-Thurs 30% Winter-Fri Summer-Mon 20% Summer-Tue 10% Summer-Wed Summer-Thurs 0% 8-9 9-10 10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 15-16 16-17 17-18 18-19 19-20 20-21 21-22 Hour of Day 25
  27. 27. Structured Learning SCU’s Students Are Allocated less Classroom Space than Their Environment Peers Classrooms & Seminar Rooms Square Feet per FTE Adjusted Student Classrooms & Seminar Rooms Square Feet per FTE Adjusted Student 60 51 50 40 31 Square Feet 30 25 18 20 SCU 16 10 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Quartile Quartile Quartile Quartile All ABA Law Schools 26
  28. 28. Unstructured Learning All of the Unstructured Learning Space is in the Library Environment 27
  29. 29. Unstructured Learning Unstructured Learning Environment Student Perspective Themes • Nowhere to meet • Need space to encourage collaborative learning Quotes “We are embarrassed to have people come to our student group facilities.” “After class, I frequently meet with faculty in the parking lot. Where else can we talk?” “When you are studying in the library’s conference rooms, you can hear everything in the next room.” “I’d rather study at Starbucks.” 28
  30. 30. Overview of Findings • Campus • Learning Environments • Faculty Access • Support Services • Informal Interaction Space • Information Access • Identity-defining environments 29
  31. 31. Faculty Access Students Have Difficulty Interacting With Faculty Outside of Class Themes • No space to meet with faculty • Scattered faculty members both on and off campus Quotes “Students have to wait in the hall to meet with faculty members” “Students want privacy when they come to discuss their issues and concerns.” “There is no efficiency in the location of faculty offices.” 30
  32. 32. Facility Faculty-Only Buildings Are Less Conducive to Promoting Student Assessment Faculty Interaction 31
  33. 33. Overview of Findings • Campus • Learning Environments • Faculty Access • Support Services • Informal Interaction Space • Information Access • Identity-defining environments 32
  34. 34. Student Services SCU’s Space Allocation for Student Services Is Consistent with Other Schools Staff and Administrative Offices Square Feet per FTE Adjusted Staff and Administrative Offices Square Feet per FTE Adjusted Student: All ABA Approved Student: All ABA Approved 35 30 30 25 20 Square Feet 17 SCU 17 15 12 10 7 5 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Quartile Quartile Quartile Quartile 33
  35. 35. Student Services Students, However, Don’t Experience an Integrated Service Environment • Law Review/Journals • Alumni Services • Career Services • Academic Support • Dean’s Office • Admissions • Registrar • Student Organizations 34
  36. 36. Student Services Staff and Administrative Offices Staff Perspective Themes • Difficult Wayfinding • Workflow constrained by remote locations Quotes “Students can never find our offices.” “Staff from the same offices are scattered over campus, due to space constraints.” “Some of our applicant files are stored in classrooms – we need more space.” “Why don’t we have a staff lounge?” 35
  37. 37. Overview of Findings • Campus • Learning Environments • Faculty Access • Support Services • Informal Interaction Space • Information Access • Identity-defining environments 36
  38. 38. Interaction Space Very Little Space is Allocated to Interaction Space • Interaction Space occupies less than 2% of the Law School 100,000 Building Support 90,000 37% 80,000 70,000 Book Storage and Microfilm 60,000 23% Square Feet 50,000 Unstructured 40,000 16% Learning Environment 30,000 Structured 14% Learning Environment (Classrooms) 20,000 Staff Offices 11% 10,000 Faculty Offices 8% 2% Interaction Space 1% Centers 0 Function 37
  39. 39. Interaction Space Interaction Space Provides Limited Utility Themes • Student lounge is inadequate • No place to buy food • No student reception space • Primary interaction space is corridors Quotes “The Bannan common room looks like a high school waiting area.” “Interaction space is very important because it provides an opportunity to network.” “Lockers get in the way of everything.” “The student lounge is terrible for a school with 900 students.” “I’ve seen family picnics in the student lounge on the weekends.” “Why doesn’t our campus have a designated place to get food before class?” 38
  40. 40. Overview of Findings • Campus • Learning Environments • Faculty Access • Support Services • Informal Interaction Space • Information Access • Identity-defining environments 39
  41. 41. Information Students’ Shift Towards Electronic Information Access Put Pressure Access on a Traditional Library Environment Themes • Inadequate study areas • Limited technology support • Poor environmental conditions Quotes “When I’m in the library, I feel like I’m being held captive.” “The library should be designed to represent our school’s ideals.” “I would rather not spend ten hours a day in that dreary place.” “I use the undergraduate library instead.” “The library is not a good use of space.” “It doesn’t seem like an important part of the school.” “I’ve seen people fall down the stairs in the library.” 40
  42. 42. Information Access Half of the Law School’s Space is in the Library Building… 101,173 100,000 Heafey + Annex 90,000 80,000 52,174 70,000 60,000 Square Feet 50,000 Bannan 17,000 40,000 30,000 Bergin 14,000 Other Buildings • Montgomery 20,000 • BofA Building Other Buildings • Law Alumni Center 17,999 • Law House 10,000 • Benson Center • Law Review • Computer & High Tech/ 0 International Law 41
  43. 43. Information …And Over a Third of the Law Library is Used for Book Storage Access and Microfilm • Unstructured learning environments occupy a majority of the library space • Only 1% of the library is allocated to interaction space 60,000 49,200 50,000 Building Support 12,812 26% 40,000 Square Feet 30,000 Book Storage and 18,934 38% Microfilm 20,000 13,050 27% Learning Environment 10,000 Staff Offices 3,167 6% Interaction Space Centers Heafey Law Library 42
  44. 44. Information Access Space Allocation per Student Is In the Bottom Half of All Schools Library Square Feet per FTE Adjusted Student: Library Square Feet per FTE Adjusted Student: All ABA Approved All ABA Approved 140 133 120 100 82 80 62 Square Feet 60 SCU 60 42 40 20 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Quartile Quartile Quartile Quartile 43
  45. 45. Overview of Findings • Campus • Learning Environments • Faculty Access • Support Services • Informal Interaction Space • Information Access • Identity-defining environments 44
  46. 46. Identity Defining Environments Student Equate the Identity of the Law School with Several Aspects of Their Experience • Centers – Signify future for students – Transition to working world – Symbolic representation of Law School’s vision • Student Organizations – Student Autonomy and Leadership – Camaraderie • Classroom Environment – Shared experience by all – Spend lots of time there! • Campus – Visual/emotional connection – First impression for visitors – Point of pride 45
  47. 47. Identity Defining Environments The Centers Are an Important Component of the School’s Identity… Web Site Home page: Links to Centers 46
  48. 48. Identity Defining Environments …But have Very Little Allocated Space • The Centers occupy less than 1% of the Law School 100,000 Building Support 90,000 37% 80,000 70,000 Book Storage and Microfilm 60,000 23% Square Feet 50,000 Unstructured 40,000 16% Learning Environment 30,000 Structured 14% Learning Environment (Classrooms) 20,000 Staff Offices 11% 10,000 Faculty Offices 8% 2% Interaction Space 1% Centers 0 Function 47
  49. 49. Identity Defining Environments The Centers Aren’t Prominently Positioned Social Justice Law Center 370 sf International Law Center 305 sf High Tech Law Center 304 sf 48
  50. 50. Identity Defining Environments The University Offers Little Space for Student Organizations Student Organizations Square Feet per FTE Adjusted Student: Student Organizations Square Feet per FTE Adjusted Student: All ABA Approved All ABA Approved 60 50 48 40 Square Feet 30 19 20 12 10 6 SCU 5 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Quartile Quartile Quartile Quartile 49
  51. 51. Identity Defining Environments Only One Floor of the ‘Classroom Building’ is Allocated to the Law School 50
  52. 52. Identity Defining Environments The Primary Classroom Environment Doesn’t Support Pre- and Post- Class Interaction 51
  53. 53. Identity Defining Environments The Main Law School Buildings Are Separated By a High Traffic Open Space… 52
  54. 54. Identity Defining Environments …and the both the Campus and Buildings Lack Clear Entries 53
  55. 55. Improving the Student Experience: Key Criteria Campus • Occupy entire buildings • Consolidate to core campus • Create entry and visual connection between buildings Structured Learning • Match classroom size to class size Environment • Configure rooms to support teaching style • Small seminar rooms for skills courses Unstructured Learning • Increase allocated space Environment • Sufficient rooms available to support interaction and group study • Distribute throughout campus Interaction Space • Dedicated spaces • Indoor/Outdoor space • Larger student lounge, food as focal point 54
  56. 56. Improving the Student Experience: Key Criteria Faculty Offices • Consolidate • Improve room proportions • Integrated space to meet with students Student Service Offices • Closer proximity to other school services • Additional work space • Meeting rooms Library • Usable study spaces • Varied storage areas • Plug-in/wireless ports Centers • Define as focal point for school • Share one collaborative space • Meeting rooms and additional work spaces 55
  57. 57. Improving the Identity-Defining Environments Critical Success Factors • Centers – Need dedicated, high profile space – High-activity environment • Student Organizations – Need more space—move into second Quartile • Classroom Environment – Expand Classroom environment to more than one floor – Add high value student experience space • Campus – Occupy entire buildings – Create visible main entrance – Form visual connection among buildings 56
  58. 58. Project Overview Managing the Other Customers Through the Process Discovery Assessment Project Definition SCU Law School Goals Establish Key Define Projects Customers Facility Evaluation Gap Action Plan Analysis Project Goals Implementation User Needs and Measures Issues Best Practices Emerging Themes and Opportunities 57
  59. 59. Redesigning the Student Experience • Redefined Adjacencies • Reallocated Program 58
  60. 60. Projected Space Allocation Adjacencies: Identity Defining Spaces Centers and Interaction Journals Space Santa Clara Law School Entry 59
  61. 61. Projected Space Allocation Adjacencies: Core Student Environments Library Book Storage Classrooms Library Admin Services Tech. Services Study Rooms Circulation Student Lounge Reference Desk Student Lockers/ Mailboxes Study Rooms Centers and Interaction Journals Space Santa Clara Law School Entry 60
  62. 62. Projected Space Allocation Adjacencies: Faculty and Service Environments Faculty Faculty Support Meeting Rooms ITS Faculty Offices Faculty Lounge Clinics Library Book Storage Classrooms Library Admin Devel. + Alumni Services Relations Tech. Services Study Rooms Circulation Dean’s Dean’s Office Student Lounge Meeting Room Reference Desk Student Lockers/ Acad. Success Mailboxes Study Rooms Program Staff Career Services Meeting Rooms Centers and Interaction Student Services Staff Lounge Journals Space Admissions Law Records Santa Clara Law School Entry 61
  63. 63. Projected Space Allocation The Law School Can Meet it’s Space Needs in Two Steps Current State Decompression Growth • Sufficient space • Sufficient Space to required to meet meet Schools growth current needs objectives • Enable some • Organize functions to adjacency support optimal improvements adjacencies 62
  64. 64. User Needs: Law School Space Analysis Learning Environments Study Spaces Baseline Heavy On-campus Study hours per day 4 hours per student 5 hours per student % individual private study 50% 2 hours per student 50% 2.5 hours per student % group study 20% 0.8 hours per student 20% 1 hours per student % casual study 30% 1.2 hours per student 30% 1.5 hours per student Daily student hours studying on campus Current Add 60 Add 90 Current Add 60 Add 90 individual private study 1,440 1,560 1,680 1,800 1,950 2,100 group study 576 624 672 720 780 840 casual study 864 936 1,008 1,080 1,170 1,260 Daily hours in use 12 12 Spaces needed Current Add 60 Add 90 Current Add 60 Add 90 individual private study 120 130 140 150 163 175 group study (4 per room) 12 13 14 15 16 18 casual study 72 78 84 90 98 105 63
  65. 65. Projected Space The Decompression Program Added High Allocation Student Demand Space TYPE CURRENT DECOMPRESSION % Change Gross Square Feet 101,173 *117,757 16% Conference/Meeting net 881 3,300 256% Interaction Space net 2,777 6,195 123% Centers & Journals 1,430 2,260 58% Staff/Student Svc. net 7,939 9,720 23% Classroom & Seminar net 14,450 17,460 21% Faculty Offices net 8,412 9,040 7% Library-Specific net 22,642 23,050 2% Student Indiv. Study net 5,156 3,140 -35% Building Circ/Support 37,486 41,215 * Includes 5% Program Contingency 64
  66. 66. Projected Space …While the Growth Program Indicates More Allocation Balanced Change TYPE DECOMPRESSION GROWTH % Change Gross Square Feet *117,757 147,181 25% Conference/Meeting net 3,300 4,160 26% Interaction Space net 6,195 6,595 7% Centers & Journals 2,260 2,760 22% Staff/Student Svc. net 9,720 13,365 38% Classroom & Seminar net 17,460 22,400 28% Faculty Offices net 9,040 11,740 30% Library-Specific net 23,050 27,671 20% Student Indiv. Study net 3,140 4,050 29% Building Circ/Support 41,215 51,513 * Includes 5% Program Contingency 65
  67. 67. Current Activities and Next Steps • Planning Workshops – Students – Faculty – Staff – Administration • Incremental, result driven steps 66
  68. 68. Redevelopment Scenarios Aligning Adjacencies With Buildings Law Alumni Center Journal Buildings Law House • Staff Offices • Student Offices • Vacate Heafey Law Library BofA Building • Library Administrative Services • Innocence Project • Library Technical Services • Book Storage – compact shelving • Additional Conference Rooms • Additional Study Rooms • Decrease Computer Labs Bannan 1st Floor • Classrooms Heafey Annex • Student Lounge • Law Records • Student Services Bannan 2nd Floor Montgomery House • Career Services • Classrooms • Information Technology • Academic Success Program • Seminar Rooms Services • Staff Lounge • Faculty Offices • Student Organizations • Faculty Support Services • Overflow Offices Bergin Bannan 3rd Floor • Deans’ Offices • Faculty Offices • Admissions • Meeting Rooms • Centers • Faculty Lounge • Shared Lounge • Seminar Rooms • Moot Court Benson Center-Two Rooms ESJCLC • Vacate • Staff Offices • Faculty Offices • Staff Offices • Classroom • Conference 67
  69. 69. Programmatic Trade-offs and Test Fits 68
  70. 70. Programmatic Trade-offs and Test Fits 69
  71. 71. Programmatic Trade-offs and Test Fits 70
  72. 72. Planning Implications 71
  73. 73. Planning Implications 72
  74. 74. Planning Implications 73
  75. 75. Conclusions • Establish and understand primary customer early in process • Students can serve as primary customer – Must be aligned with overall institutional goals – Collaborative process with other stakeholders • Meeting student needs can benefit everyone in the long run • Thorough analysis of student experience key component of design process 74

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