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Congenital vertical talus


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Etioligy, pathogenesis and management of CVT.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Congenital vertical talus

  1. 1. Dr. Joydeep Mandal
  2. 2.  Rare deformity  Term-1st used by : Henken in 1914.  Several Synonyms- Congenital convex pes valgus (CCPV) Reverse club foot congenital rigid flatfoot Rocker-buttom flatfoot
  3. 3.  Must be distinguished from flexible pes planus commonly found in infants and children.  Incidence 1 in 10,000  Male=female  B/L -50%
  4. 4.  The exact etiology of vertical talus in most cases is not known.  Theories include increased intrauterine pressure and resultant tendon contractures, or an arrest in fetal development occurring between the 7th and 12th week of gestation  50% idiopathic  Approximately one-half of all cases of vertical talus occur in association with neurologic abnormalities or genetic syndromes
  5. 5.  A/W -Neurological abnormalities- Arthrogryposis, myelomeningocoele, spinal muscular atrophy, neurofibromatosis, cerebral palsy -Genetic syndrome:trisomy 13,15 and 18  A thorough neurological and genetic work up
  6. 6.  AD inheritance 12-20%  Mutation in HOXD10  Mutation in GDF5  Syndromes-1.De barsy syndrome 2.Prune Belly syndrome 3.Costello syndrome 4.Rasmussen syndrome
  7. 7. Ogata and schoenecker – Three group- 1-Idiopathic 2-A/W other abnormality but no neurological deficit 3.A/W neurological deficit
  8. 8. 3.Hamanishi: five groups- 1.NTD or spinal anomalies 2.neuromuscular disorders 3.malformation syndromes 4.chromosomal aberrations 5.idiopathic
  9. 9.  Irreducible dorsal & lateral dislocation of navicular over talus  Posteriorly, Contracture of tendoachillis creates equinus of calcaneus  Anteriorly,contracture of EDL,EHL,Tibialis Anterior  Laterally PL,PB ,calcaneofibular ligament contracted  Posterior tendons subluxation over malleolus.  Tibialis Posterior acting as dorsiflexor.
  10. 10.  Navicular – hypoplastic wedge shaped  Talar head- flattened, extreme planter flexed & medially deviated  Calacaneum-plantar flexed & externally rotated  Angle between axis of talus & calcaneum is increased
  11. 11.  Coleman divided CVT into 2 types:  type 1 was associated with a calcaneocuboid dislocation, and type 2 was not.  This distinction is important clinically because the type 1 deformity is stiffer and particular attention must be paid to releasing the calcaneocuboid joint
  12. 12. Forefoot - abduction ; dorsiflexion Hindfoot - equinus and valgus
  13. 13.  CVT can be usually detected at birth by the presence of a rounded prominence of the medial and plantar surfaces of foot.  Plantar surface is convex-Rocker bottom appearance. Heel does not touch the ground.  After weight bearing begins, callosities develop beneath the anterior end of calcaneus and along the medial border of the foot superficial to the head of talus.  Deep creases on anterolateral aspect of foot  Foot is everted into valgus and externally rotated position
  14. 14.  Head of talus, plantar & medial aspect of midfoot  Calcaneus is in equinus  The forefoot is dorsiflexed at the midtarsal joints creating a palpable gap dorsally between the navicular and where the talar neck should normally be located. This gap can be helpful in distinguishing congenital vertical talus from the more common calcaneovalgus foot
  15. 15.  Heel does not touches the ground, have poor push off  Wt bearing on talar head resulting in painful callosities  Ambulation is usually not delayed but gait is awkward with difficult in balancing  Forefoot become severely abducted  Talus become like “hourglass”  Abnormal shape of foot result in difficult shoe wearing.
  16. 16.  The lack of ossification of many of the bones in the foot at birth can make the diagnosis of congenital vertical talus challenging on plain radiographs  The talus, tibia, calcaneus, and metatarsals are ossified at birth.  The cuboid ossifies in the first month of life while the cuneiforms and navicular usually ossify around the ages of 2 and 3 years, respectively.  Since most children with vertical talus are seen in the newborn period, the radio- graphic evaluation is focused on the relationships of the ossified talus and calcaneus to the tibia as well as the relationship of the metatarsals to the hindfoot.
  17. 17. Forced plantar flexion and forced dorsiflexion lateral radiographs are necessary to confirm the diagnosis of vertical talus and rule out the oblique talus and calcaneovalgus foot as diagnoses. PLANTARFLEXED FILM: The forced plantar flexion lateral radiograph in a vertical talus foot shows persistent malalignment of the long axis of the talus and the first show persistent dorsal translation of the forefoot on the hindfoot. DORSIFLEXED FILM: the forced dorsiflexion lateral radiograph demonstrates a persistently decreased tibiocalcaneal angle indicating fixed hindfoot equinus . OBLIQUE TALUS: In contrast, a forced plantar flexion lateral radiograph of an oblique talus will demonstrate restoration of a normal relationship between the long axis of the talus and the first metatarsal
  18. 18. Measurements that can be obtained on the radiograph include  the talocalcaneal – Increased in both AP & lateral views.  tibiocalcaneal – Increased in lateral view.  tibiotalar – Increased in lateral view.  talar axis- first metatarsal base angles – Disrupted in both AP and lateral views.
  19. 19. Radiographs of an infant's foot particularly less than 6 months can be difficult to interpret. The use of dynamic ultrasound has been reported to be helpful in the evaluation of infants with vertical or oblique talus.
  20. 20.  Calcaneovalgus foot deformity: -foot is dorsiflexed -no equinus contracture of calcaneus -flexible foot -forced plantar flexion lateral x-ray-normal  Posteromedial bow of the tibia : calcaneovalgus foot,a shortened and bowed tibia  Oblique talus
  21. 21.  The goals of treatment are to restore the normal anatomic relationships between the talus, the navicular, and the calcaneus, in order to provide a normal weight distribution through the foot.
  22. 22.  In the OPD settings  One assistant to either hold the corrected foot or apply cast.  If breastfeed-nursed before manipulation  More relaxed the baby-better the cast that can be applied
  23. 23.  Supine on the clinic table with feet at the end of the table  Crucial-to palpate the head of talus:Plantar medial aspect of midfoot
  24. 24.  The foot is stretched into plantar flexion and inversion while counter pressure is applied to the medial aspect of the head of the talus
  25. 25. After a few minutes of manipulation,A/K cast applied in two sections,with knee in 90’ of flexion.  1st section-short leg cast extending from toes to just distal to knee with foot in plantar flexion and inversion.  2nd stage-cast extended to A/K level.  4-6 plaster cast is usually enough to achieve reduction of the talonavicular joint.
  26. 26.  Carefully mold the malleoli, head of the talus, above the calcaneum and arch.  Avoid constant pressure at single point.  Cast changed on weekly basis.  Never do pronation of the foot.
  27. 27.  Final cast –Maximum plantar flexion, inversion.  Foot simulates –clubfoot.  Lateral radigraph in PF;TAMBA<30’.  However, unlike clubfoot, essentially 100% of reported vertical talus deformities have not been fully corrected with cast immobilization alone and have required major reconstructive surgery but it reduces extension and complexity of the surgery.
  28. 28.  The type of procedure used for an individual patient is based on  the age of the patient,  severity of the deformity,  and the preference of the surgeon.  Children up to the age of 1 to 4 years are usually offered an open reduction of the talonavicular joint, which can be performed through either a one-stage or two-stage operation.
  29. 29.  Occasionally, in children of 3yrs or old with severe deformity require excision of navicular during open reduction.  Children of 4 to 8 yrs require open reduction and soft tissue procedures combined with extra-articular subtalar arthrodesis.  Children of 12 yrs or older require triple arthrodesis.
  30. 30.  Several authors, beginning with Osmond-Clarke, Herndon and Heyman, and Coleman and associates, described staged, 2-incision reconstructive surgery.  The first stage of the Coleman procedure consisted of lengthening the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), extensor hallucis longus (EHL), and tibialis anterior, with capsulotomies of the talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints and release of the talocalcaneal interosseous ligament.  The second stage consisted of tendo-Achilles lengthening and a posterior capsulotomy of the ankle and subtalar joint.
  31. 31.  After noting a high incidence of complications with the 2-stage technique, Ogata and colleagues recommended a single-stage procedure with a medial approach  Kodros and Dias published results they derived using a single-stage approach with a Cincinnati incision.  Seimon described a single-stage dorsal approach
  32. 32.  The first step is the reduction of the talonavicular joint which is aided by release of the anterior tibialis tendon and the tibionavicular and talonavicular ligaments. The reduction is held by a Kirschner wire placed across the talonavicular joint .  The second step is lengthening of the toe extensors and peroneals which aids in improving ankle plantar flexion and forefoot adduction. The calcaneocuboid joint is also reduced if necessary.  The third step is correction of the ankle equinus contracture which is done by lengthening the Achilles tendon and releasing the ankle and subtalar joint capsules.  Some authors have recommended the addition of a tibialis anterior tendon transfer to the head or neck of the talus at the time of open reduction to add a dynamic corrective force
  33. 33.  The Cincinnati incision provided excellent exposure to the pathoanatomy to allow complete correction of the plantar flexed vertical talus, reduction of the talonavicular dislocation, and realignment of the equinovalgus deformity of the calcaneus.
  34. 34.  Three incisions-  Described by Kumar , Cowell and Ramsey.  1st – Oblique incision over sinus tarsi.  2nd – Concave incision over prominent medial head of talus.  3rd – 2 inches long incision over medial side of TA.
  35. 35.  Through DL approach - calcaneocuboid joint inspected and reduced.  Medially – Tibialis anterior tendon exposed, if contracted, lengthening done with Z plasty or transpose it into the planter aspect of the repaired talonavicular capsule.  dorsal talonavicular ligament (deltoid) released.  Planter calcaneonavicular ligament is released.  capsulotomy of talonavicular joint done  reduced and transfixed with k-wire.
  36. 36.  Posteriorly - Z-lengthening of Achilles tendon with distal transverse cut directed laterally.  Check lateral x-ray:  1st metatarsal axis should line up exactly with long axis of talus
  37. 37.  Described by Coleman et al. for older children with severe or recurrent deformities.  It combines open reduction and realignment of talonavicular joint (by Kumar et al.) with Grice-Green fusion of talo-calcaneal joint performed 6 to 8 weeks later.  Modification done by Dennyson and Fulford using screws for talo-calcaneal fusion.
  38. 38.  Apply long leg cast with knee flexed and ankle, foot in neutral position for 8 weeks.  Steinmann pin or k wire removed and new long leg cast applied for next 4 weeks.  Below knee cast for another 4 weeks.  Foot supported in ankle-foot orthosis for another 3 to 6 months.
  39. 39. Correction of vertical talus through an open reduction can be associated with significant short- term complications, including  wound necrosis  undercorrection of the deformity ,  stiffness of the ankle and subtalar joint ,  The eventual need for multiple operative procedures such as subtalar and triple arthrodesis .  Long-term outcomes are likely to be complicated by a significant amount of degenerative arthritis as is seen in many patients with clubfoot treated with extensive soft-tissue releases
  40. 40.  Described by Dobbs et al.  Between 2000 to 2003, at St. Louis Children’s Hospital & University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics ;Dobbs et al treated 11 cases (19 feet) of idiopathic CVT by: -serial manipulation and casting(reverse ponseti technique) -percutaneous fixation of talonavicular joint using k-wire - percutaneous Achilles tenotomy.
  41. 41.  Both clinical and radiological parameter.  Clinical-1.ankle and subtalar movement 2.cosmetic appearance 3.loss of the medial arch 4.medial prominence of the talar head 5.hind foot valgus 6 .abnormal shoe wear
  42. 42.  Radiological –anteroposterior: 1.talocalcaneal –hindfoot algus 2.TAMBA-forefoot abduction lateral: 1.talocalcaneal 2.tibiocalcaneal 3.TAMBA
  43. 43.  As by Adellar et al-  Comprises 10 point scale :6 clinical appearance 4 radiological parameter  Maximum 10 points –Excellent 7-9 -good 4-6 -fair <3 -poor Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:274–8
  44. 44.  Excellent results, in terms of the clinical appearance of the foot, foot function, and deformity correction as measured radiographically , in patients with idiopathic and those associated with other genetic or neuromuscular disorder ;congenital vertical talus.  Early detection and methodical treatment in a more comprehensive manner is the key to success.