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Chapter 2


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Chapter 2

  2. 2. I found I could say things with color and shapes that I couldn’t say in any other way – things I had no words for. –Georgia O’Keeffe Professor: Course/Section:
  3. 3. The Visual Elements of Art: <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Line </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Motion </li></ul>0
  4. 4. The Language of Art <ul><li>With the “Language of Art,” we are able to communicate thoughts and feelings about our visual and tactile experiences in our world </li></ul>0
  5. 5. Visual Elements of Art <ul><li>Also called the Plastic Elements of art. </li></ul><ul><li>Art selects a medium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing, painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, textiles, ceramics, etc.. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Then they use the visual elements to express themselves in the chosen medium. </li></ul>0
  6. 6. Principles of Design: <ul><li>Unify </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion </li></ul><ul><li>Etc.. </li></ul>
  7. 7. LINE… <ul><li>…is the simplest and also the most complex of the elements of art. </li></ul><ul><li>…serves as the basic building block for all art </li></ul><ul><li>…has the capacity to evoke thoughts and emotions </li></ul>0
  8. 8. Definition of Line <ul><li>In Geometry - “A line is made up of an infinite number of points and the the shortest distance between two points is a straight line.” </li></ul><ul><li>In art - A line is a moving dot. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Characteristics of a Line <ul><li>Measure - its length and width. </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive qualities </li></ul>0
  10. 10. Expressive Qualities of Line <ul><li>“Line may be perceived as delicate, tentative, elegant, assertive, forceful, or even brutal.” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fig 2-2 JACKSON POLLOCK. Number 14: Gray (1948). Enamel and gesso on paper. 223/4” x 31”.
  12. 12. Lines can be… <ul><li>Straight </li></ul><ul><li>Curved </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>Diagonal </li></ul><ul><li>Zigzagged… </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Line <ul><li>Contour Lines - Created by the edge of things. </li></ul><ul><li>Actual lines - Are connected and continuous. </li></ul><ul><li>Implied lines - completed by the viewer. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological lines - A line created by a mental or perceptual connection. (Ex: When a character of figure points or looks at another.) </li></ul>0
  14. 14. Fig 2-4 A, B, and C Actual line (A) versus two kinds of implied lines, one formed by dots (B) and the other formed by psychologically connecting the edges of a series of straight lines (C).
  15. 15. More about line… <ul><li>“Edges are perceived because the objects differ from the background in value, texture or color.” </li></ul><ul><li>Shading creates or models roundness. </li></ul><ul><li>“One of the hallmarks of Renaissance painting is the use of implied lines to create or echo the structures of the composition.” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 2.5, p.30: LEONARDO DA VINCI. Madonna of the Rocks (c. 1483). Oil on panel, transferred to canvas. 78 1⁄2 ” x 48 ” . Figure 2.6, p30: The pyramidal structure of the Madonna of the Rocks .
  17. 17. Figure 2.7 p. 31. EMILY MARY OSBORNE. Nameless and Friendless (1834 - ?) Oil on Canvas. 34” x 44”.
  18. 18. Functions of Line <ul><li>To Outline and Shape </li></ul><ul><li>As Form </li></ul><ul><li>To Create Depth and Texture </li></ul><ul><li>To Suggest Direction and Movement </li></ul>0
  19. 19. Figure 2.8, p.31: RIMMA GERLOVINA AND VALERIY GERLOVIN. Madonna and Child (1992). Chromogenic print. To Give Outline and Shape
  20. 20. Figure 2.9, p.31: ELIZABETH CATLETT. Sharecropper (1968). Color linocut. 26 ” x 22 ”. To Create Depth and Texture
  21. 21. Ways to create Texture <ul><li>Modeling - the creation of the illusion of roundness or 3d through the use of light and shadow. </li></ul><ul><li>Stippling - the use of a pattern of dots that thickens and thins. </li></ul><ul><li>Hatching - using a series of closely spaces parallel lines to achieve shading. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Hatching - a series of lines that run in a different direction and cross each other. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Fig. 2-12 Illusion of three-dimensionality.
  23. 23. Figure 2.11, p.32: SANDRO BOTTICELLI. The Birth of Venus (c. 1482). Oil on canvas. 5 ’ 8 7⁄8 ” x 9 ’ 1 7⁄8 ” . To Suggest Direction and Movement
  24. 24. What lines imply <ul><li>Horizontal lines - suggest stability </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical lines - defy gravity and suggest assertiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagonal lines - imply movement and directionality. </li></ul>
  26. 26. SHAPE <ul><li>Has many definitions </li></ul><ul><li>In art - “shapes are defined as the areas within a composition that have boundaries separating them from what surrounds them; shapes make those areas distinct.” </li></ul><ul><li>Shape can also be communicated through patches of color and texture. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Fig. 12 JACOB LAWRENCE. Harriet Tubman Series, No. 4 (1939 - 1940) Casein tempera on gessoed hardboard. 12” x 17 7/8”.
  28. 28. The word FORM - is often used to speak about shapes in sculpture and architecture - 3D works of art. Figure 2.14, p.34: HELENE BRANDT. Mondrian Variations, Construction No. 3B with Four Red Squares and Two Planes (1996). Welded steel, wood, paint. 22 ” x 19 ” x 17 ” .
  29. 29. Volume refers to the mass or bulk of a 3D work. It is the amount of space it contains. Fig. 2-15. GERRIT RIETVELDT. Schroeder House, Utrecht. (1924).
  30. 30. Mass - In 3D art, the mass of an object refers to its bulk. Fig. 2-16 RACHEL WHITEREAD. Holocaust Memorial, Vienna (2000).
  31. 31. Actual Mass versus Implied Mass <ul><li>Actual mass occupies three-dimensional space and has measurable volume and weight </li></ul><ul><li>Implied mass creates the illusion of possessing volume, having weight and occupying three-dimensional space </li></ul>
  32. 32. Fig. 2-17 MARK TANSEY. Landscape (1994). Oil on Canvas. 181.6cm x 365.8 cm.
  33. 33. Types of Shapes <ul><li>1. Geometric shapes - Are regular and precise. Ex: rectangles and circles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straight (rectilinear) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curved (curvilinear) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Organic shapes -have a natural appearance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomorphic shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amorphous shapes </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Geometric Shapes Fig. 18 DAVID SMITH. Cubi XVIII (1964). Polished stainless steel. 9’7 3/4” x 5” x 1’ 9 3/4”.
  35. 35. Organic Shapes Figure 2.21, p.39: FRANK GEHRY. Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain (1997). Figure 2.19, p.37: FRANK GEHRY. Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain (1997).
  36. 36. Compare and Contrast Picasso and Colescott Rectilinear forms versus curvilinear forms presented by two artists
  37. 37. Figure 2.20, p.38: PABLO PICASSO. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907). Oil on canvas. 8 ’ x 7 ’ 8 ” .
  38. 38. Figure 2.21: ROBERT COLESCOTT. Les Demoiselles d’Alabama: Vestidas (1985). Acrylic on canvas. 96 ” x 92 ” .
  39. 39. Biomorphic Shapes <ul><li>Are said to have a form like a biological entity. </li></ul><ul><li>(From the Greek word morphe.) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Figure 2.22, p.39: ELIZABETH MURRAY. Tangled (1985–1990). Oil on shaped canvas with wood. 83 1/2 x 66 x 19 in.
  41. 41. Positive and Negative Shapes <ul><li>Positive shapes - the objects or figure that the viewer focuses on. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative shapes - the empty space (or the space filled with other imagery) left over in the piece. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Figure-Ground Terminology <ul><li>Figure - ground relationship - the relationship between the positive and negative shapes in a piece. </li></ul><ul><li>Figure - ground reversals - when the positive and negative shapes in a piece can be reversed or are ambiguous. </li></ul><ul><li>“We tend to perceive things in context.” </li></ul>
  43. 43. Fig. 26 A Rubin Vase.
  44. 44. Shape as Icon <ul><li>Some shapes carry with them immediate associations. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Cross </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish Star of David </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese yin yang. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shape s a powerful visual element, and the representation of shape is a powerful design tool.” </li></ul>
  45. 45. Figure 2.28, p.42: EDWARD STEICHEN. Rodin with His Sculptures “Victor Hugo” and “The Thinker” (1902). Carbon print, toned.
  46. 46. LIGHT AND VALUE <ul><li>Visible light is the part of the spectrum of electromagnetic energy that we can see. </li></ul><ul><li>“Without light there is no art.” </li></ul>
  47. 47. Value <ul><li>The value of a color of a surface is its lightness or darkness. </li></ul><ul><li>Value contrast - the degrees f difference between shades of gray. </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing objects or figures with a high value contrast makes them easy to see. </li></ul><ul><li>Value pattern describes the variation in light and dark within a composition. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Fig. 2-33 Value contrast.
  49. 49. Chiaroscuro <ul><li>The gradual shifting from light to dark through a successive gradation of tones across a curved surface. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Figure 2.35, PIERRE-PAUL PRUD’HON. La Source (c. 1801). Black and white chalk on gray paper. 21 3/16 x 15 5/18 in.
  51. 51. Descriptive and Expressive Properties of Value <ul><li>Values - blacks, grays and whites </li></ul><ul><li>May be used to describe objects </li></ul><ul><li>Or may be used to evoke emotional response in the viewer. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Fig. 2-37 p.46 LORRAINE O’GRADY Mlle Bourgeoise Noire Goes to the New Museum (1981).
  53. 53. COLOR <ul><li>Language connects emotion with color. </li></ul><ul><li>Color can trigger emotional response in the observer. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Psychological Dimensions of Color: Hue, Value, and Saturation <ul><li>Hue - a term for the family of color. </li></ul><ul><li>Cool - colors on the green-blue side of the color wheel. </li></ul><ul><li>Warm - colors on the yellow-orange-red side of the color wheel. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturation - the pureness of the color </li></ul><ul><li>Shades - adding black to a hue. </li></ul><ul><li>Tints - adding white to a hue. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Additive and Subtractive Colors <ul><li>Additive color - mixing light. </li></ul><ul><li>Subtractive color - mixing pigments. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary colors - Color that can not be derived from the mixing of other colors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary colors - created from the overlap or mixing of 2 primary colors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violet. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Complementary versus Analogous Colors <ul><li>In pigments, the primary colors are red, yellow and blue. </li></ul><ul><li>They can not be produced from mixing other colors. </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary colors - created by mixing pigments or primary and secondary colors. </li></ul><ul><li>Analogous colors- Hues that lie next to each other on the color wheel. </li></ul><ul><li>Complementary colors - colors that lie across from one another on the color wheel. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Local versus Optical Color <ul><li>Local Color - the hue of an object as created by the colors its surface reflects under normal lighting condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Optical color - our perceptions of color, which can vary with lighting conditions. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Figure 2.46, p.51: CLAUDE MONET. Haystack at Sunset near Giverny (1891). Oil on canvas. 28 7⁄8 ” x 36 1⁄2 ” .
  59. 59. Figure 2.49, p.51: VINCENT VAN GOGH. The Night Café (1888). Oil on canvas. 27 1⁄2 ” x 35 ” .
  60. 60. Color as Symbol <ul><li>We link mood with color. </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings and behavior can be symbolized with colors </li></ul><ul><li>The symbols and meanings of colors are culture specific. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Texture <ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from the Latin word for “weaving” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to describe the surface character of things through the sense of touch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An artist can emphasize of distort texture of an object to evoke emotional response in the viewer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impasto - a think buildup of paint on the surface of the canvas. </li></ul>
  62. 62. &quot; Figure 2. 49 , p.53: LEON KOSSOFF. Portrait of Father, No. 2 (1972). Oil on board. 60 ” x 36 ” .
  63. 63. Types of Texture <ul><li>Actual Texture - is tactile, texture you can touch. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: impasto (The most common type of texture used in painting.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual Texture - simulated texture. It looks like a texture but can’t really be felt. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Trompe l’oeil a French word (and style of painting) that means to trick the eye. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subversive Texture - Texture chosen or created by the artist to subvert or undermine our ideas about the objects they depict. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Fig. 2-52 P. 54 RACHEL RUYSCH. Flower Still Life (after 1700) Oil on Canvas. 29 3/4” x 23 7/8”.
  65. 65. Figure 2.53, p.55: DAVID GILHOOLY. Bowl of Chocolate Moose (1989). Ceramic. 10 ” x 6 ” x 7 ” (25.4 cm x 15.2 cm x 17.8 cm).
  66. 66. Figure 2.55 p.56 MERET OPPENHEIM. Object (1936). Fur covered cup, sauser, and spoon. Overall height: 2 7/8 in.
  67. 67. SPACE <ul><li>Objects exist in Three-dimensional space. </li></ul><ul><li>Some art is truly 3D like sculpture and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>And some art just tries to depict space on a 2D surface. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Overlapping <ul><li>You can create the illusion of depth by overlapping objects. </li></ul>Fig. 2-56 Overlapping circles and arcs.
  69. 69. Relative Size and Linear Perspective <ul><li>The furthers objects are from us the smaller the look. </li></ul><ul><li>Things that are closer to us look larger and things that are further away look smaller. </li></ul><ul><li>Artist use different techniques like relative size and linear perspective to create the illusion of depth in a piece of art. </li></ul>Figure 2 .58 , p.58: NI ZAN. Rongxi Studio (Late Yuan/Early Ming dynasty, 1372 CE). Hanging scroll; ink on paper. H: 29 1⁄4 ”
  70. 70. The Illusion of Depth <ul><li>Vanishing point - The point at which parallel lines cone together, or converge. </li></ul><ul><li>Horizon - the line where the line of sight stops and on which the artist often places the vanishing point. </li></ul><ul><li>Vantage point - where (or the height) the viewer is looking from. </li></ul><ul><li>One-point perspective - when parallel lines in a picture come together at one point, the vanishing point, on the horizon line. </li></ul><ul><li>Two-point perspective - when parallel lines in a picture come together at 2 different points on the horizon line. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Fig. 2-64 RAFFAELLO SANZIO (CALLED RAPHAEL). PHILOSOPHY, OR SCHOOL OF ATHENS (1509-1511). Fig. 2-65 Perspective in School of Athens.
  72. 72. Fig. 2-66 GUSTAVE CAILLEBOTTE. Paris Street: Rainy Day *1877). Oil on Canvas. 83 1/2” 108 1/4”. Fig. 2-67. Perspective in Caillebottoes’s Paris Street: Rainy Day.
  73. 73. Atmospheric Perspective <ul><li>(Also called aerial perspective.) </li></ul><ul><li>Texture gradient - closer objects are perceived as having rougher or more detailed surfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Brightness gradient - distant objects are less intense. </li></ul>
  74. 74. Figure 2. 69 , p.61: SYLVIA PLIMACK MANGOLD. Schunnemunk Mountain (1979). Oil on canvas. 60 ” x 80 1⁄8 ” .
  75. 75. Time and Motion <ul><li>Actual Motion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic Art - art that moves. Example: Mobiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Fig. 2-70 p. 62 ALEXANDER CALDER. Untitled (1972). East Building mobile.
  77. 77. Implied Motion <ul><li>Stopped Time - a style of art that “stops time” in order to imply motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Time implied & Motion Implied - Some works try to imply that motion or time has occurred. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Figure 2. 71 , p.63: GIANLORENZO BERNINI. Apollo and Daphne (1622–1624). Marble. 7 ’ 6 ” .
  79. 79. The Illusion of Motion <ul><li>There is a difference between implied motion and the illusion of motion. </li></ul><ul><li>One implies that the motion has already occurred and the other implies that the motion is happening right now. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Early photographic experiments of multiple exposures of motion. </li></ul><ul><li>The blurring of shapes and the repetition of linear patterns blurring the contours of a figure. </li></ul><ul><li>Blurring outlines to create the illusion of motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Op Art ! </li></ul>
  80. 80. Figure 2.7 4 , p.64: THOMAS EAKINS. Man Pole Vaulting (c. 1884). Photograph.
  81. 81. UMBERTO BOCCIONI. Dynamism of a Soccer Player (1913). Oil on canvas. 6 ’ 4 1⁄8 ” x 6 ’ 7 1⁄8 ” .
  82. 82. BERNHARD JOHANNES AND ANNA BLUME. Kitchen Tantrums (1986–1987). Photo-piece. 51 1⁄8 ” x 35 7 / 8 ” .
  83. 83. Op Art <ul><li>Op Art - Optical Art, is based on creating optical sensations of movement through the repetition and manipulation of color, shape, and line. </li></ul><ul><li>Afterimage - when we look at a color for a long period of time and then look away you may briefly see the opposite color due to fatigue of the cornea in the eyes. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Other Ways of Creating the Illusion of Motion <ul><li>Cinematography and video </li></ul><ul><li>Stroboscopic motion </li></ul><ul><li>(Real movement involves illusion) </li></ul>
  85. 85. Fig. 2-76. P.65 BRIDGET RILEY. Gala. (1974). Acrylic on canvas. 5’ 2 3/4” square.